The majority of the USCT occupied the South by performing garrison duty; other black soldiers performed admirably on the battlefield, shattering white myths that docile, Cowardly black men would fold in the maelstrom of war.
Black troops fought in more than four hundred battles and skirmishes, including Milliken's Bend and Port Hudson, Louisiana.
The highest honor for military heroism is the Medal of Honor.
Black soldiers laid their claims for citizenship through their voluntarism, service, and death.
There is no power on earth that can deny that a black man has earned the right to citizenship.
25 slaves were with their masters in the army.
They were "camp servants," cooking their meals, raising their tents, and carrying their supplies.
Slaves were impressed by the Confederacy to perform manual labor.
The "Confederate" slaves have three important points to make.
Their labor was often coerced.
People are complicated and have differing loyalties.
A slave could hope that the Confederacy would lose but at the same time be concerned for the safety of his master and the Confederate soldiers he saw on a daily basis.
White Confederates did not see African Americans as equals.
Black laborers and camp servants were property.
It is difficult to argue that no African American ever fired a gun for the Confederacy; a camp servant whose master died in battle might well pick up his dead master's gun and continue firing, if for no other reason than to protect himself.
This was always informal.
The Confederate government passed a law in March 1865 that allowed for the enlistment of black soldiers, but only a few dozen African Americans had enlisted by the war's end.
Lee's Army of Northern Virginia continued its strategy in the East.
Chancellorsville, Virginia, was the site of one of the war's major battles between April 30 and May 6, 1863.
The Battle of Chancellorsville resulted in heavy casualties and the death of a Confederate general who was killed by friendly fire.
Lee invaded Pennsylvania in the summer of 1863 despite Jackson's death.
Heavy casualties crippled both sides during the battle at Gettysburg.
The July 3 assault on the Union center caused Lee to retreat from Pennsylvania.
The Battle of Gettysburg is the bloodiest battle of the war, with fifty-one thousand casualties.
Union forces continued their movement along the Mississippi River in the west.
In the winter of 1862, Grant launched his campaign against Vicksburg.
The "Gibraltar of the West" was Vicksburg, which was the last holdout in the west and would allow Union forces to travel along the Mississippi River.
The Vicksburg Campaign ended with the city's surrender.
The Confederacy was split in two by the fall of Vicksburg.
There was discontent over the war in the North despite the Union's success in the summer of 1863.
The first attempt at a draft among the northern populace during the Civil War was made in the wake of the Enrollment Act.
The wealthy could pay $300 for a substitute, sparing them from the carnage of war.
"A rich man's war, but a poor man's fight" was a popular refrain.
The New York City Draft Riots took place in July of 1863.
At least eleven black New Yorkers were lynched by white rioters over the course of four days.
The complete destruction of more than fifty properties, including the Colored Orphan Asylum, caused property damage in the millions.
It was the largest civil unrest to date in the United States and only was stopped by the deployment of Union soldiers, some of whom came directly from the battlefield at Gettysburg.
There were many displays of unity in the North.
In the Old Northwest, sanitary fairs raised millions of dollars for the Union.
Many women rose to take important leadership roles in the sanitary fairs, a clear contribution to the northern war effort.
There was a similar situation in the Confederacy.
The first act of the Confederate Library at Yale Congress took place in the spring of 1862.
Between the ages of eighteen and thirty-five, all able-bodied males were required to serve in the military.
The Confederacy had exemptions for those who owned more than 20 slaves.
In 1863, popular discontent reached a boiling point.
In the spring of 1863, there were "bread riots" in several Confederate cities, most notablyRichmond, Virginia, and the Georgia cities of Augusta, Macon, and Columbus.
The mobs were led by Confederate women to protest food shortages.
Women dramatically impacted the war through violent actions, as well as constant petitions to governors for aid and the release of husbands from military service, because of their own political control.
"Especially for the sake of suffering women and children, do try and stop this cruel war," one of these women wrote in a letter to the North Carolina governor.
27 Confederates fought against the Union.
For some women, the best way to support their cause was to spy on the enemy.
When the war broke out, Rose O' Neal Greenhow was living in Washington, D.C., where she traveled in high social circles, gathering information for her Confederate contact.
Allan Pinkerton placed her under house arrest after he suspected Greenhow of espionage, and then instigated a raid on her house to gather evidence, which led to her imprisonment in Old Capitol Prison.
She was sent to Baltimore, Maryland, under guard.
Greenhow went to Europe to try to get support for the Confederacy.
She drowned after her boat capsized.
Elizabeth "Crazy Bet" Van Lew sacrificed her social standing for the Union, while Greenhow gave her life for the Confederate cause.
Van Lew was held in contempt by the narrow minded men and women of her city for her loyalty after she spied on the Confederacy.
General Grant put a guard on Van Lew when he took over.
In addition to her espionage activities, Van Lew also worked as a nurse.
There were more opportunities for proConfederate southern women to show their contempt for the enemy.
An American actress and a wartime spy was identified by the CIvIl War 391.
Military plans and drawings were snuck to Union officials by Cushman in order to fraternize with Confederate officers.
She was sentenced to death but was saved days before her execution by the Union's occupation of New Orleans.