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19.4 Entropy Changes Associated with State
The answer has the correct units.
You would expect a negative answer for the condensation of a gas to a liquid.
The criterion for spontaneity is an increase in the universe's entropy.
You can think of several processes in which the entropy seems to decrease.
When the water is cold, the process of creation of the water is not random.
The water's entropy decreases when it condenses into fog on a cold night.
The surroundings have an exothermic process.
The surroundings are affected by an endothermic process.
The freezing of water increases the heat energy in the surroundings.
We know that the freezing of water is not random.
The larger the temperature, the smaller the increase in entropy for a given amount of energy.
The units of entropy are joules per kelvin.
The higher the temperature, the lower the amount of energy dispersed.
With a simple analogy, we can understand the dependence of temperature on heat flow.
You have a lot of money to give away.
The impact on the millionaire's net worth would be insignificant if you gave him $1000.
A poor man's net worth would change a lot if you gave him the same amount of money.
The impact of 1000 J of energy on surroundings that already have a lot of energy is small.
The impact of the 1000 J is great on surroundings that have little energy.
The impact of the heat released to the surroundings by the freezing of water depends on the temperature of the surroundings.
Water spontaneously freezes at low temperature, but not at high temperature.
The free energy and thermodynamics can be used to quantify the change in the system.
The same equation can be used to quantify the changes in the surroundings.
The amount of heat transferred into or out of the surroundings and the temperature of the surroundings affect the change in entropy of the surroundings.
The equation 19.1 gives us insight into why exothermic processes tend to be random at low temperatures.
Determine the sign of the change in the system.
Determine the sign of the change in the universe.
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