ChAPTER 11 -- Part 8: The First Global Civilization: The Rise
The bedouin tribes of pre-Islamic Arabia had veiled roles for upper-class women when they went into the city.
They were free from the scrutiny of the townsmen in terms of sexual and marriage partners, occupational choices and travelers when they were carried in covered sedan chairs towns such as Mecca.
In their homes, upper-class women were spared the drudgery of domestic chores by large numbers of female slaves.
There are opportunities to influence clan decisions.
Women from poorer families had to work hard to achieve status in societies like vive.
They had to leave "veiled but often unchaperoned" to those in early Arabia or the south market to work as domestic servants.
Lower-class women in east Asia suggest that factors that may help explain the greater bal also worked hard at home, not just at housekeeping but at weav ance in gender roles and power in less centralized societies.
The ing, rug-making, and other crafts gave the family an immediate connection to agriculture income.
In rural areas and in distant towns from the main urban and stock-raising, veiling and confinement were not strictly observed.
For ant women planted their often prominent roles in fertility rituals and religious cults due to the greater respect accorded them by the Peas.
Because of Islamic religion and law, the position of women in the Middle East has always been lower than in civilized societies.
Islamic law preserved for women property, inher Chinese, Greek, and Roman societies with regard to their ability to itance, divorce, and remarriage rights that were often denied in hold property, opportunity to pursue careers outside the home, other civilized societies.
The strong position women had allowed them to have rights in marriage and divorce.
The Umayyads and the Damascus elite were contemptuous of each other.
An attempt by Umayyad palace officials to get new troops into the Merv area touched off a revolt that spread over the eastern portion of the empire.
The leader of the Umayyads, Abu al-Abbas, the great-great-grandson of the prophet's uncle, led his forces from victory after forging alliances with dissident groups.
The Shi'a had rejected Umayyad authority from the time of Ali.
Non-Arab converts to Islam were critical.
Under Umayyad rule, the mawali felt that they had never been recognized as fully Muslim.
The mawali hoped to get full acceptance in the community of believers by supporting the Abbasids.
The Muslim rebels made short work of the Umayyad imperium.
Iraq fell to the rebels.
The victory opened the way for the conquest of Syria and the capture of the Umayyad capital.
Wanting to eliminate the Umayyad family altogether to prevent recurring challenges to his rule, in conquest of Syria and capture of Abu al-Abbas invited many members of the clan to what was styled as a reconciliation banquet.
An effort was made to kill all of the remaining members of the family.
The grandson of a former Caliph fled to Spain and founded the Umayyad caliphate of Cordoba, which lived on for centuries after the rest of the Umayyads' empire had disappeared.
The military force that overthrew the Umayyads was built by Frontier warriors from Khorasan.
Their Shi'a and mawali allies have been warned.
The support of Islamic groups allowed the Abbasids to level all other centers of political rivalry.
Abbasid's empire began to fragment into regional defense of Sunni Islam and less tolerant of what they called the heretical views of the power centers.
With the Umayyads all but eliminated, the way was clear for the Abbasids to build a centralized imperial order.
The capital of Abbasid was a sign of things to come.
The Abbasid caliphs looked down on the Persian capital of Ctesiphon as they were perched on a dynasty located in Iraq near ancient jewel-encrusted thrones.
The caliphs' palaces and harems expanded to keep pace with their claims to absolute power over the Islamic faithful as well as the non- Muslim subjects of their vast empire.
The bureaucrats, servants, and slaves who worked to translate Abbasid political claims into reality lived and worked within the walls of the new capital at Baghdad.
The Postclassical Period, 600-1450: New Faith and New Commerce the Abbasids to project their demands for tribute to the most distant provinces of the empire.
The bigger the town or village was from the capital, the less effective the royal commands would be.
For more than a century, the Abbasid regime was able to collect revenue and maintain law and order in the empire.
In the last decades of the Umayyad period, there was a growing acceptance of non-Arab Muslims as equals.
Efforts were made to convert new converts to the faith among Arab peoples outside the Arabian peninsula.
Mass conversions to Islam were encouraged for all of the empire's peoples, from the Berbers of north Africa to the Persians andTurkic peoples of central Asia.
The first generations of believers were admitted on an equal footing with the earlier converts, and over time the distinction between mawali and the earlier converts all but disappeared.
The great appeal of Islamic beliefs and the triangular or lateen sails gave converts an advantage over non-Muslims in the empire.
The converts were exempt from European influenced ship design.
Wonders dominated the upper levels of imperial administration.
Powerful Persian families close to the throne became the real power in the imperial system as the Abbasid rulers became less interested in affairs of state.
The rise of the mawali was paralleled by the growth in wealth and social status of the merchant and landlord classes of the empire.
The fall of the Han dynasty in China in the early 3rd century C.E.
led to a decline in the Afro-Eurasian trading network, which led to a great urban expansion in the Abbasid age.
The revived commercial system pivoted on the great Tang and Song empire in the east.