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3.1 Organic Molecules -- Part 1
Dehydration synthesis and hydrolytic reactions are part of organic chemistry.
The chemistry of cells was thought to be non-living by chemists in the 19th century.
Even though many types of organic molecule can be synthesised in the laboratory, we still use this terminology.
There are only four classes of organic molecule in a living creature.
Despite the limited number of types, their functions in a cell are quite diverse.
A plant or animal cell has twice the number of organic molecules as abacterial cell.
The diversity of life is possible because of the diversity of organic molecules.
The carbon atom's unique chemical properties make it the basis of the variety of organic molecules.
The basis of life is carbon.
There are two electrons in the first shell and four in the outer shell of carbon.
To complete its outer shell, a carbon atom forms bonds.
Carbon can form bonds with other elements.
The same elements that make up most of the weight of living organisms are bonds between carbon and other atoms.
The function of the biomolecules is dependent on the ability of carbon to share electrons with other carbon atoms.
The C--C bond allows the formation of long carbon chains.
The chains of carbon atoms that make up the octane molecule have additional bonds with hydrogen atoms.
Carbon can form double bonds with itself and other atoms.
Double bonds are not as flexible as single bonds.
Double bonds affect a molecule's shape.
Saturated and unsaturated fats are important to heart health, and the presence of double bonds is a way to distinguish them.
The formation of long, complex carbon chains can be done at any carbon atom.
The flexibility of carbon makes it the ideal building block for biomolecules, and it plays an important role in establishing the diversity of organic molecules that we observe in nature.
The skeleton of an organic molecule is the carbon chain.
The shape of your body is similar to the shape of the carbon skeleton of an organic molecule.
The overall shapes of the organisms and the types of appendages they have developed result in the diversity of vertebrates.
The attachment of different functional groups to the carbon skeleton leads to the diversity of organic molecule.
A is a combination of bonds that react in the same way regardless of the carbon skeleton that it is attached to.
The majority of the chemical reactivity of a biomolecule can be attributed to its functional groups.
The carbon skeleton is a framework for the positioning of functional groups.
Some of the funtional groups are listed in Table 3.1.
The functional group is attached to the carbon skeleton.
The properties of the biomolecule are determined by the configuration of the functional groups.
Adding an --OH to a carbon skeleton can turn a molecule into an alcohol.
Humans can consume alcohol because it is familiar, when an --OH replaces one of the hydrogens in ethane, a 2-carbon hydrocarbon.
The OH functional group makes the otherwise nonpolar carbon polar skeleton because ethane and other hydrocarbons are notsoluble in water.
The organic molecule that contains carboxyl groups is another example.
Highly polar carboxyl groups.
The types of reactions that an organic molecule will undergo are determined by the functional groups attached to it.
When a fat forms, alcohols and carboxyl groups react with each other.
"Equal" are organic molecules that have the same formula but different arrangements of atoms.
The isomers of the two are the same, but they have different functional groups.
They are expected to have different properties and react differently in chemical reactions.
Isomers are variations in the structure of a molecule.
The chemistry of carbon leads to variations in the structure of organic molecule.
The same formula can be used for different atomic configurations.
The formula for these compounds is C3H6O3.
Oxygen is double-bonded to an end carbon in glyceraldehyde.
Oxygen is doublebonded to the middle carbon in dihydroxyacetone.
Many of the biomolecules you are familiar with are macromolecules, meaning that they contain smaller subunits joined together.
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