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41.2 The Relationship Between Structure and Function
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged with the environment at gas-exchange sites.
The appearance or structure of an ani is important for spatial patterning of organs and also for mal's tissues and organs.
The respiratory systems of animals exchange carbon dioxide from the environment to the lungs.
There are important differences between the respiratory system for breathing air after birth.
These tubes become smaller and smaller as they branch, eventually ending in narrow structures that are only one cell thick.
The surface of the body.
Oxygen is carried away by a blood vessel.
Similar features of highly branching, internalized hollow tubules that connect to the outside air suggest that these systems perform the same functions.
The ends of the branching tubes high SA/V ratio are ideal for exchange of heat, solutes, gases, and water in the insect.
As we explore this concept, it will apply throughout the unit.
In the mammal, the ends of the tubes form sacs like the ways in which animals get energy, regulate their metabolism, and get oxygen.
If the shape of the alveoli are composed of very thin cells, we see that at the expense of increasing volume.
The shape of the cells gives a clue.
Their flat, enlarges, its volume grows more than its surface area because of a thin structure.
The surface area increases by a power of 2, whereas the volume of resistance to oxygen is increased by a power of 3.
For example, if the cells of the body surface of many animals are the radius of a sphere.
Increased by a factor of 10, its surface area increases 100 times, but its volume increases 1,000 times.
There is an additional structural similarity found in respira animal's organs.
The gills are an extensive surface area.
The ability to get enough oxygen from water requires a great amount of similarity between cells, tissues, and organs.
If such structures were spherical, the gills would need to be very large and extensive cell-to-cell contacts would be required.
Consider the need for a gas exchange.
The skin face area into a confined space is overcome by variations in shape because of the challenge of packaging an extensive sur the finger-like projections of the small intestine of a human.
There are many flattened disc- or platelike structures in the folds of some high altitude frog.
Figure 48.17a shows what water flows over each disc.
The flattened discs greatly increase surface area and facilitate the area, which maximizes their ability to absorb nutrients.
The flattened discs reduce the amount of oxygen in the air because of the volume of the gill.
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