In return for the land, every family had to provide crops for the nobles, bureau cracy, and religious personnel, and also send a person to provide a certain number of days per year of labor.
The government made an ayllu responsible for maintaining state-owned granaries, which distributed grain in times of shortage and famine.
The pattern of social and labor organization was imposed on the newly conquered indigenous peoples.
After the conquest, the Spaniards adopted the Incas' ways of organizing their economy and administration, just as the Aztecs had built on earlier cultures.
Everyone was required to marry and the state decided who should marry whom.
Men and women married in their late teens.
The bride and groom were presented with two sets of clothing, one for everyday wear and the other for festive occasions, at the wedding ceremony, which was held at a large wedding feast.
The daughters of elite families were married to the rulers of the peoples they conquered.
The marriage of common people and high ranking Inca men was usually monogamous.
The luxurious lifestyle of the great Inca nobility was made possible by the backbreaking labor of ordinary people in the fields and mines.
The curacas, royal household ser vants, public officials, and religious leaders were lesser nobles.
In the 15th century, the rulers of Cuzco ordered that al egiance be paid to them instead of the curacas, and they relocated the entire population of certain regions and disrupted clan groups, which led to resentment.
Every year, connections research on all the cultures discussed in this chapter provides new information, provoking vigorous debates among scholars.
Historians are learning to read indigenous writing systems, biologists are using more complex procedures to study genetic linkages, anthropologists are integrating information from oral histories and preserved traditions, and scholars in other disciplines are using both traditional and traditional.
The basic outlines of what most people agree happened changing as fast as they are for the Americas are not included in any other chapter.
The history of the Western Hemisphere in the centuries before 1500 is more similar to the history of the Eastern Hemisphere than it was twenty years ago.
We now know that there were large, settled agricultural communities in many parts of North and South America that traded ideas and goods with one another, and that the empire of the Andes was as rich and powerful as any in Asia, Africa, or Europe.
Columbus's arrival changed the paths of the two hemispheres.
The military technology of the Europeans who came to the Western Hemisphere was more deadly than anything indigenous peoples had developed because of the greater availability of metals in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The people of the Western Hemisphere died in large numbers from the germs Europeans brought with them.
Europeans spread diseases to the native population.
The Europeans found deserted villages when they arrived in the home areas of these people.
They can't imagine how few people built huge earth mounds or massive stone works.
They speculated that the structures were built by wandering Egyptians, a tribe of giants, or space aliens, giving rise to myths that have been slow to die.
You can do these exercises online.
There are some basic terms about this period.
A more advanced understanding of the chapter material is required for the exercise below.
To compare and contrast the three major civilizations of the Americas, fill in the chart below with descriptions of the role trade, warfare, and religion played in the society and culture of each civilization.
Now that you've reviewed key elements of the chapter, try to see the bigger picture.
In your answers, use specific examples from the chapter.
Compare and contrast the societies of North America and Mexico.
There are similarities between the Aztecs and the Incas.
Imagine that you have to explain Chapter 11 to someone who hasn't read it.