Out of a heap of pure lotus flower, a third part, a fifth, and a sixth were offered to the gods.
The venerable preceptor received six lotuses.
If eight best variegated silk scarfs, measuring three cubits in breadth and eight in length, cost a hundred nishkas, say quickly, merchant, what a scarf, three and a half cubits long and half.
His first book on astronomy used mathematics to calculate eclipses and planetary conjunctions.
Thirty-three years later, he was still writing on the subject, providing simpler ways to solve problems encountered before.
Some of his books were translated into other Indian languages, even though they were written in Sanskrit.
He must travel 22/7 yojanas farther than the day before.
The answer is 120.
Currency smaller than the nishka: 14 drammas, 9 panas, 1 kakini, and 6 1/3 cowry shells.
There was a new line of Turkish rulers in Afghanistan in the 12th century.
Muhammad extended his control throughout north India.
Qutb-ud-din, the former slave who was one of his generals, took control of the government in Delhi after he fell to an assassin.
The sultanate of Delhi lasted for three centuries.
The Delhi sultanate was able to hold off the Mongols.
In 1221, Chinggis Khan and his troops entered the valley in pursuit of the shah.
The sultan kept out of the way when Chinggis Khan left some troops in the area.
The sultan of the time was able to defeat the two hundred thousand men that the khan launched into India in 1299.
The Mongols camped at Delhi for two months, but they left without taking the sultan's fort.
The raid in 1306-1307 was repulsed.
The Delhi sultanate was in decline during the 14th century and was unable to fight off the armies of Timur.
The sultanate was weakened by Timur's invasion.
The Delhi sultanate was conquered by the Mughals in 1526 and ruled over most of northern India until the 19th century.
In medieval India, local institutions played a bigger role in the lives of people than the state did.
Local castes gave members a sense of belonging and the local council oversaw law and order at the town or village level.
Village life in India is similar to peasant societies in China, Japan, and Southeast Asia.
A small plot of land outside the village was worked by the average farmer.
All the family members pooled their resources under the direction of the head of the family.
Family solidarity was strengthened by these joint efforts.
Indian men doing a variety of everyday jobs are depicted in a stone frieze.
Although the stone was carved to convey religious ideas, we can use it as a source for details of daily life as the sort of clothing men wore while working and how they carried loads.
The agricultural year started with plowing.
The plow had an iron-tipped share and a handle with which the farmer guided it.
Rice was sown at the beginning of the rainy season.
The farmer's friends were beans, lentils, and peas, for they were grown during the cold season and harvest in the spring.
Grains such as wheat, barley, and millet provided calories.
Vegetables, spices, fruit trees, and flowers were cultivated by some families.
Another important crop was sugarcane.
Farmers raised animals.
Most cattle were raised for plowing and milk, hides and horns, but Hindus did not slaughter them for meat.
Hindus were forbidden from eating beef like the Islamic and Jewish prohibitions.
Guild heads and guild rules were used to organize local craftsmen.
The textile industries were well developed.
Large quantities of textiles were produced and traded.
The cutting and polishing of precious stones is related to foreign trade.
Shops were open to the street in the city, while families lived on the floors above.
Milk and cheese, oil, spices, and perfumes are some of the busiest trades.
The caste system became mature during the first millennium.
The population was divided into multiple castes, or jati, as a result of the broad division into the four varnas.
Each caste had a job.
The members only ate with other members and married within the caste.
The members of high-status castes had to go through purification rituals to remove the taint from their contact with lower-caste individuals.
Indian society had as many as three thousand castes.
The rules of the caste were enforced by each caste's governing body.
Those who were unable to live up to the rules were thrown out.
The unfortunates lived hard lives performing tasks that others considered lowly.
In the Middle East and north China, villages were often walled.
Cattle and sheep were free to roam.
Pets were kept by some families.
Half-wild mongooses were effective at protecting against snakes.
The main source of water outside the village was a pond that was a spawning ground for fish, birds, and mosquitoes.
The village gates were closed until the morning after the farmers returned from the fields.
All members of Indian society were focused on marriage and family.
In China, the family was under the authority of the eldest male, who might take several wives, and ideally sons stayed home with their parents after they married.
The family affirmed its solidarity by the religious ritual of honoring its dead ancestors -- a ritual that linked the living and the dead, much like ancestor worship in China.
People in extended families lived in the same house or compound.
Children in poor households were able to work.
The age-old irritations of learning reading, writing, and arithmetic were faced by children in wealthier households.
Less attention was given to daughters than to sons in prosperous families.
A wife was expected to be with her husband.
The widow was expected to sleep on the ground, eat only one meal a day without meat, wine, salt, or honey, and shave her head.
She did not attend family festivals because she was seen as suspicious.
A widow who threw herself on her husband's funeral pyre would be praised by high-caste Hindus.
Buddhist sects objected to this practice, called sati, but some Hindu religious authorities declared that by self-immolating a widow could expunge both her own and her husband's sins, so that both would enjoy eternal bliss in Heaven.
A high-caste Hindu woman would throw herself on her husband's funeral pyre.
The position of a wife within the home depended on her intelligence and character.
Even toward worthless husbands, wives were supposed to be cheerful and humble.
Occasionally a woman ruled the household.
The main way out for women who didn't want to be married was to join a Buddhist or Jain religious community.
The spread of Indian culture was aided by the growth of maritime trade, but this interchange did not occur uniformly, and by 1400 there were still isolated societies in this region, most notably in the Pacific Islands east of Indonesia.
India and China are both tropical countries, but Southeast Asia is more like India.
The north and south mountain ranges are separated by river valleys.
It was easy for people to migrate south along these rivers, but harder for them to cross the heavily forested mountains that divided the region into areas that had limited contact with each other.
The indigenous population was mostly Malay, but migrations over the centuries brought many other peoples, including speakers of Austro-Asiatic, Austronesian, and SinoTibetan-Burmese.
The coastlines of South and Southeast Asia aided seafaring.
Most east-west sea trade passed through the Strait of Malacca.
Southeast Asia was a crossroads.
Europeans and Chinese used to trade with South and Southeast Asia because of the high demand for spices.
Spices were used for more than flavor in food.
The spice trade was done through a group of people who shipped between ports.
From the second century B.C.E., the northern part of Vietnam was under Chinese political control.
The capital of Funan, the first state to appear in historical records, was in southern Vietnam.
was in the first to sixth centuries.
Funan was able to extend its control over the Malay Peninsula.
Merchants from northwest India would carry their goods across the Malay Peninsula.
The ports of Funan gave food and lodging to the merchants as they waited for the winds to shift.
Brahmin priests and Buddhist monks from India settled in the area to serve the Indian population and attract local converts.
Indian priests and monks were often invited to serve by the rulers.
The Funan king lived in a multistory palace and the common people lived in houses made of bamboo leaves, according to Chinese sources.
The king rode an elephant, but narrow boats measuring up to ninety feet long were more important for transportation.
The people liked pig fighting.
The Chinese used to draw water from wells, but instead of that, they made pools.
After the decline of Funan, maritime trade continued to grow.
Indian traders established small settlements on the coast.
Intermarriage and the creation of hybrid cultures can be traced back to contact with the local populations.
Indian customs and values, Hinduism and Buddhism, and learned Sanskrit, India's classical literary language, were adopted by local rulers.
Chinese and Latin used different modes of written expression, but Sanskrit gave different peoples a common mode of expression.
When Indian traders, migrants, and explorers entered mainland Southeast Asia, they encountered both long-settled peoples and migrants moving southward from the frontiers of China.
In other migrations, the newcomers fought one another as often as they fought the native populations.
The north Vietnamese became independent of China in 939 and extended their power along the coast of Vietnam.
The Thais lived in southwest China and north Myanmar for a long time.
The Thai tribes formed a confederacy against Tang China in the eighth century.
The Thai confederacy fell to the Mongols in 1253.
The people of the west migrated to the area of modern Myanmar in the eighth century.
They established a state, which they ruled from their capital, Pagan.
The heart of the region was controlled by the Khmer Empire of Cambodia, which was the most important mainland state.
The area was inhabited by the Khmers.
Their empire extended to the sea and the northeast Malay Peninsula.
The impressive temple complex at Angkor Wat was dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu.
The indian caste system was not the model of social organization.
Many of the slaves were descended from non-Khmer mountain tribes that were defeated by the Khmers.
The Khmers reached their peak of power in 1219 after a long series of wars with the Vietnamese.
The Bayon Relief was built by the master builders of the Khmer, who devoting great resources to constructing stone temples and palaces.
Over an area of 70 square miles, forty sites can be visited today.
The most famous is Angkor Wat.
It was dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu.
Less than a century after it was built, another magnificent city was built.
The Bayon Relief is a series of bas-reliefs depicting mythology, historical events, and scenes from everyday life.
The central mountain-shaped temple has a series of walls decorated with stone reliefs.
Scholars don't always agree on what scenes carved into the walls represent.
There are depictions of naval battles, land battles with soldiers armed with crossbows and catapults, and a marching army with musicians and officers mounted on elephants.
People are engaged in conversations in palace scenes.
Athletes, jugglers, and acrobats perform in a scene of royal entertainment.
The images include a forest and a procession of animals.
The maritime empire of Srivijaya was based on the island of Sumatra in modern Indonesia.
The Strait of Malacca is where most of the sea traffic between China and India goes.
This state, held together as much by alliances as by direct rule, was in many ways like the Gupta state of India, which was in many ways like this one.
The Strait of Malacca and the waters around Sumatra were held by a maritime empire.
Her earrings, necklace, and hair are large.
The Srivijayan rulers drew on Indian traditions to justify their rule and organize their state, like the Korean and Japanese rulers did.
The Sanskrit writing system was used for government documents, and Indians were often employed as priests, sholders, and administrators.
Indian mythology, as well as Indian architecture and sculpture, took hold.
Kings and their courts spread Indian culture to their subjects.
Srivijaya suffered a blow in 1025.
The Srivijayan king and capital were captured by the Chola state in south India.
Unable to hold their gains, the Indians retreated.
Other kingdoms flourished in Southeast Asia during the era of the Srivijayan kingdom.
The Buddhist temple complex was started under the patronage of the Javan rulers.
There are ten tiers of Buddhist cosmology depicted in this stone monument.
The journey from ignorance to enlightenment was depicted in sculpted reliefs that pilgrims passed.
After 800, Buddhism became more dominant in Southeast Asia.
Theravada Buddhism was the dominant form in the rest of mainland Southeast Asia, even though Mahayana Buddhism was important in Srivijaya and Vietnam.
Buddhist missionaries from India and Sri Lanka were involved in these developments.
Local converts made pilgrimages to India to worship and to observe Indian life for themselves.
The impact of the social, cultural, and political systems developed in India, China, and Rome was enormous.
Some of the mechanisms for cultural spread were the same in all three cases.
Strong states ruled outlying regions in the case of Rome and Han and Tang China.
India's largest empires, such as the Mauryan and Gupta, did not have the same bureaucratic reach.
The expansion of Indian culture into Southeast Asia did not come from conquest or political control, but from the extension of trading networks.
It was closer to the way Japan adopted features of Chinese culture through Korea.
The cultural exchange was mostly voluntary.
Over time, societies became less isolated.
There were still many isolated societies in the 1400s.
The process didn't stop there.
The ancient Austronesians were skilled mariners who settled numerous islands of the Pacific in subsequent centuries.
The Polynesians learned how to sail into the open ocean with only the stars, currents, wind patterns, and paths of birds to help them navigate.
They arrived in the central Pacific by about 200 C.E.
In some cases, Polynesians traveled a thousand or more miles away after reaching the central Pacific.
The Hawaiian Islands, Easter Island, and New Zealand were reached in about 300 C.E., 1000, and 1300, respectively.
The groups who sailed west settled in the island between 200 and 500.
Easter Island may be the most extreme case.
It is only 15 miles wide at its widest point, which is 1,300 miles from the nearest inhabited island and 2,240 miles from the coast of South America.
Sweet potatoes originally from South America made their way to Easter Island.
Chickens, taro, and sugarcane were cultivated by the community that developed on the island.
At Easter Island's most prosperous period, which began about 1200 C.E., the population is thought to have reached fifteen thousand.
The large stone statues that still dot the island were built by its people.
Archaeologists have excavated and restored many of Easter Island's huge statues, which show a consistent style with the heads and legs not visible.
They had to carve them with stone tools, move them to the chosen site, and then erect them.
The decline of the forests on Easter Island caused severe environmental stress.
The islanders couldn't make boats to fish in the ocean because of the lack of space, and bird colonies were also affected by the decrease in areas to nest.
Scholars disagree on how much weight to give to the many different elements that contributed to the decline in the prosperity of Easter Island.
Early settlers of an island could have a big impact on the ecology.
Large birds were found in New Zealand when Polynesians first arrived.
Within a century, the birds had all but disappeared.
Hunting seals and sea lions led to their rapid decline.
The islands of New Zealand were larger than Easter Island and the indigenous people of New Zealand found more sustainable ways to feed themselves.
The military advantage of being able to raise horses in large numbers allowed the pastoral societies to support themselves from their flocks of sheep, goats, and other animals.
clans and tribes selected chiefs for their military talent, which led to nomad pastoralists being organized on the basis of clans and tribes.
Several times in history leaders formed larger confederations capable of coordinated attacks on cities and towns, despite the fact that most of the time these tribes fought with each other.
Turks gained ascendancy in many of the societies from the Middle East to northern India from the fifth to the twelfth century.
The leader of the Mongols, Chinggis Khan, conquered much of Europe in the early 13th century.
The empire was divided into four khanates after Chinggis's death.
The East-West contact was fostered by the Mongol Empire.
Craftsmen and other specialists were often moved from one place to another as the Mongols encouraged trade.
The Mongols were tolerant of other religions.
Chinese inventions such as printing and the compass made their way west as more Europeans made their way east.
Europe was helped by the spread of technical and scientific ideas.
The Black Death is one of the diseases that spread.
India was not conquered by the Mongols.
After the fall of the Gupta Empire in about 480, India was ruled by small kingdoms which allowed regional cultures to flourish.
Muslim Turks ruled north India for a long time.
Islam gained followers throughout South Asia.
Buddhism declined while Hinduism continued to flourish.
India was the center of active seaborne trade throughout the medieval period, and this trade helped carry Indian ideas and practices to Southeast Asia.
The Khmer kingdom and the Srivijayan kingdom were established using experts from India.
Buddhism was the dominant religion in the region.
The Pacific Islands were isolated from the rest of the world for hundreds of years.
During the centuries discussed in this chapter, the societies of Eurasia became more connected to each other.
The military superiority of the nomadic warriors of the steppe was one element promoting connection.
Turks brought Islam to India.
The Indian Ocean and East Asia have maritime trade.
The spread of Indian culture to the mainland and Southeast Asia was aided by maritime trade.
Sanskrit was a language of administration and missionaries who brought Hinduism and Buddhism far beyond their homelands.
The remote islands of the Pacific, such as Hawai'i, Easter Island, and New Zealand, were the most isolated societies.
During the most prosperous periods of the empire, China, Korea, and Japan became more distinct culturally.
The scholar-official class, defined through the civil service examination system, came more and more to dominate culture as China's economy boomed during the Song Dynasty.
Military men gained ascendancy in Korea and Japan.
The elites in China, Korea, and Japan were different from the ones in the other countries because of their use of Confucian and Buddhist teachings.
Explain the significance of each item.
The basin of the Indian Ocean has an economy and civilization.
Considers the spread of religions from the perspective of a region that was home to many universal religions in a row.
Franke, Herbert, and Denis Twitchett are authors.
Food, health, dwellings, women, and folktales are some topics that are treated.
The effort to see Southeast Asia as a part of Eurasia is ambitious.
The period of Indian history discussed in this chapter is covered in the 4th and 5th episodes of this series.
The dramatization is based on Marco Polo's life.
There are additional resources on this website about the creation of the documentary.
The Silk Road Narratives are a collection of historical texts.
Part of the Silk Road Seattle Project, this informative website provides descriptions of and links to a variety of interesting historical sources related to the Silk Road.