Revenues and officials for the royal government were provided by close links between the church and state depicted in art.
Church courts were supported by the government in their efforts to enforce moral and doctrinal purity.
The church-run courts of the Inquisition in Spain are designed to enforce religious orthodoxy.
In who attempted to find a western other words, Spain and Portugal were developing effective new governments with a special sense of route to the "indies".
The West's expansion into the Atlantic was promoted by these changes.
The First Phases of Western expansion established early Portuguese dominance in the indian Ocean.
The prince responsible for direction southeast Asia is looking for a western route to the "Indies".
The Canary Islands were rediscovered in the Atlantic in the 14th century by other explorers from Genoa.
The islands had been vaguely known.
The Madeiras and Azores were visited by Genoese sailors.
Soon after this, ships from northeastern Spain, based in the port of Barcelona, sailed along the African coast.
Further exploration for alternative routes was pre-vented by technological barriers.
Europeans could not risk wider ven tures into the Atlantic without adequate navigation.
They needed better ships than the Mediterranean galleys.
Efforts were underway to develop a sailing vessel.
The astrolabe was used to determine latitude at sea by using the stars.
Contacts with Arab merchants and with the Chinese gave knowledge of these devices.
European mapmaking was one of the key innovations.
The decades after 1400 were ready for Europeans to undertake voyages that were impossible a century before.
Columbus is said to have had a copy of the world map in Spain.
The first European to reach India by sea was shown on the map as Europeans became more aware of the Old World.
The westerners, led by the Spanish and Portuguese, had begun to take advantage of the new lands they had already discovered.
Henry sailed about a third of the Portuguese voyages of exploration before he died.
His mixture of motives--scientific and intellectual curiosity, desire to spread the name of Christ to unfamiliar lands, and financial interest--reflected some of the key forces in late postclassical Europe.
Portugal took control of the Azores in 1439 and gave the land to the settlers.
The Madeiras and Canaries were conquered and colonized by the Spaniards and Portuguese.
The result was a laboratory for the larger European colonialism that would take shape in the Americas.
Cash crops can be sold on the European market if large agricultural estates are set up to produce them.
Duced sugar was once imported from Asia but is now available in growing quantities from western controlled sources.
Cotton and tobacco were also introduced to the Atlantic islands.
The first examples of a new, commercial version of slavery and the first sign that western expansion could have serious impact on other societies were brought in from northwestern Africa by the new colonists.
Even in their consequences for Africa, these developments remained modest.
They show how quickly Western conquerors decided what to do with lands.
The 18th-century engraving depicts the permitted.
As the island colonies were painted well after the fact, this picture began to occur across the Atlantic.
It suggests being fully settled.
The new international exchange did not affect development in the Americas and Polynesia.
The world balance sheet in 1400 must emphasize the separateness of the regions that were pulled into a new level of international contact.
Several of the societies outside the international network were experiencing new problems during the 15th century that would leave them vulnerable to outside interference.
There were new political strains in the leading American civilization and a breakdown of the main island groups in Polynesian culture.
In Chapter 16 we discussed political issues in the Americas, and the Aztec and Inka empires ran into difficulties after 1400.
Aztec exploitation of subject peoples for gold, slaves, and religious sacrifice roused great resentment.
It's not clear what would have happened to the Aztec empire if the Spaniards hadn't intervention after 1500.
Ten sion between central leadership and local initiative was provided by the Inca system, which was less brutal than the Aztecs.
The control of the vast expanse of the Inka domain was complicated.
The empire was already retreating by the 1500s even without European intervention.
If American history had proceeded in isolation or if European intervention had been less sweeping, other cultures in the Americas could have been candidates for new political leadership.
The second culture that was brought into the world network was Polynesia.
In the Americas, important changes took place during the postclassical era but with no relationship to developments in societies elsewhere in the world.
The key Polynesian theme from the 7th century to 1400 was expansion, spurts of migration, and conquest that implanted Polynesian culture well beyond the initial base in islands such as Polynesia.