Defense and military matters were linked to many of the reforms in America.
The global struggle between England and France for world hegemony made Spain's American possessions a logical target for English attack during the century.
Spain was shocked by the loss of Florida and the English seizure of Havana in the Seven Years War.
Militia units, led by local Creoles who were given military rank, were created throughout the empire after regular Spanish troops were sent to New Spain.
California was settled by a combination of missions and small frontier outposts after the frontier was expanded.
Military means were used to fight foreign competitors in the Rio de la Plata.
Spain wanted to strengthen itself and its colonies.
The government was involved in the economy during the Bourbon reforms.
Tobacco and gunpow der were considered essential by the government.
New areas of Spanish America were opened to development.
The exclusive rights to develop certain colonial areas were granted to Monopoly companies.
Under the more liberal regulations, the trade of the Caribbean expanded greatly.
Cuba became a full-scale plantation and slave colony, exporting sugar, coffee, and tobacco, as well as large numbers of Africans to do the work.
The Rio de la Plata proved to be a great success story.
Its population grew rapidly in the 18th century, and by 1790 it had a booming economy due to the export of hides and salted beef.
The region's trade was dominated by a newly prosperous merchant community.
The changes were both positive and negative.
Bourbon reforms created new viceroyalties to improve defense, taxation, and administration.
After 1763, central control in Brazil was enhanced from the new capital of rio de Janeiro, while the northern region was brought directly under Lisbon's control.
The diversity of Latin America's economy decreased as links to international trade tightened.
Regional interests were more important than economic philosophy in the later conflicts between those who favored free trade and those who wanted to limit imports.
The major centers of the Spanish empire experienced rapid growth in the second half of the 18th century.
In order to suggest reforms and introduce new techniques, inspectors and experts were sent to New Spain.
In New Spain, where silver output reached new heights, these improvements and the discovery of new veins allowed production to expand.
In Mexico, silver production was much higher than that of Peru.
The Bourbon reforms can be seen from Spain and America.
The Spanish empire was revived by the restructuring of the government and economy.
The removal of Creoles from government, the creation of a militia with a Cre Ole officer corps, and other changes contributed to a growing sense of discontent among the elites, which only their relative well-being and the existing social tensions of the community contributed to.
Slaves, peasants, and indigenous communities were dissatisfied with colonial government.
From 1755 to 1776, Pombal acted the benefits of mercantilism firsthand when he was ambassador to England.
He hoped to break England's hold on the Portuguese economy by using the same techniques and state to strengthen royal authority.
After 1760, the production of Brazilian reforms and established monopoly gold began to decline.
Any group or institution that stood in the way of royal power and his programs was pressed by Pombal brutal y sup companies.
He developed the economy.
The Jesuits were kicked out of the Portuguese empire in 1759.
Brazil was the center of Pombal's reforms.
The administrators were sent to enforce the changes.
Fiscal reforms were meant to eliminate tax evasion.
The right to import large numbers of slaves was given to Monopoly companies that were formed to encourage agriculture in older plantation zones.
New crops were introduced.
Similar to Spanish America, new regions in Brazil began to flourish.
The hinterland was the scene of agricultural growth.
The Jesuit missionaries who worked in the area received new attention.
A monopoly company created to develop the region's economy stimulated the development of cotton plantations and the export of wild cacao.
Brazil's main products include sugar, tobacco, and hides.
As part of his project of reform, Pombal was willing to do some social tinkering.
The abolition of slavery in Portugal was done to ensure a steady supply of slaves to Brazil.
Indians were removed from missionary control in the Amazon and encouraged to marry whites because Brazil needed to be both occupied and defended.
The Amazon basin and the plains of southern Brazil were colonized by immigrants from Portugal and the Azores.