Chapter 19 -- Part 1: New Worldviews and Ways of Life
Plantationowners with slaves of their own were the wealthiest of the free people of color.
From the mid-sixteenth century on 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 As European explorers and conquerors overturned ancient models of the globe, scholars challenged and eventually discarded ancient frameworks for understanding the heavens.
The conception of the universe and its laws remained in force until Albert Einstein's discoveries in the first half of the twentieth century.
Philosophers used reason from nature to society.
They wanted to bring the same progress to human affairs that their predecessors had brought to the understanding of the natural world.
Human rights, equality, progress, and tolerance are concepts created by the Enlightenment.
Europeans used their new understanding of reason to explain their own superiority, which is now seen as racist and sexist.
European intellectual change drew on contact and exchange with non-European peoples, ideas, and natural organisms.
The emergence of new ideas was encouraged by changes in the material world.
Europeans began to consume at a higher level due to the growth of population, industry, and world trade.
Lower prices for colonial goods, often produced by slaves, were one of the reasons for the growth of consumerism.
During the 18th century ships traveled across the Atlantic and brought ideas, commodities, and people to all four continents.
The Atlantic world of mixed identities and debates grew as trade became more integrated.
Between 1500 and 1700, tremendous advances in Europeans' knowledge of the natural world and techniques for establishing such knowledge took place.
Many more people studied the natural world, using new methods to answer fundamental questions about the universe.
The authority of ancient Greek texts was replaced by a conviction that knowledge should be acquired by observation and experimentation and that mathematics could be used to understand and represent the workings of the physical world.
By 1700 precise laws governing physics and astronomy were known.
The major figures of the Scientific Revolution were mostly Christians who saw their work as heralding the glory of creation and who combined older traditions of magic, astrology, and alchemy with their pathbreaking experimentation.
Their discoveries took place in a larger context.
The growth of natural history in this period is seen by historians as a major achievement of the Scientific Revolution.
Many parts of the world experienced scientific activity in the 1500s.
The expansion of Islam into the lands of the Byzantine Empire in the seventh and eighth centuries led to the creation of ancient Greek learning.
The common scholarly language of Arabic and the interaction of peoples and cultures across the Muslim world was very favorable to advances in learning.
From 1000 to 1500, Muslim scholars flourished in cultural centers such as Baghdad and Cordoba.
The world's first universities were established by them.
Arab and Persian mathematicians, for example, invented algebra, the concept of the algorithm, and decimal point notation.
The peak of scientific activity in China was in the mid-fourteenth century.
Papermaking, gunpowder, and the use of the compass in navigation are some of its achievements.
The Maya and the Aztecs developed mathematics and writing based on astronomy.
Europe would not have taken the lead in scientific thought if it weren't for the multiple world sites of learning and scholarship.
During times of conflict and loss of authority, periods of advancement produced by intense cultural interaction, such as those that occurred after the spread of Islam, are often followed by stagnation and decline.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century and the collapse of the Maya civilization around 900, this happened in western Europe.
The growth of trade in the High Middle Ages contributed to a renewal of learning in western Europe.
Europeans became aware of the rich heritage of Greek learning in the eastern Mediterranean as they began encroaching on Islamic lands.
Many ancient Greek texts were translated into Latin in the 12th century.
Many European cities created universities in which the curriculum was dominated by Aristotle's works.
The intellectual and cultural movement known as the Renaissance provided a crucial foundation for the Scientific Revolution as Europe recovered from the ravages of the Black Death.
The value of acquiring knowledge was emphasized by scholars.
The rediscovery of important classical texts was the result of the quest to restore the glories of the ancient past.
The fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 resulted in a great influx of little-known Greek works, as Christian scholars fled to Italy with their precious texts.
New professorships of mathematics, astronomy, and natural philosophy were established in western European universities.
The new fields of mathematics were not used as a tool to understand the functioning of the physical world because of their low prestige.
European overseas expansion in the 15th and 16th century gave rise to new thought about the natural world.
Scientific research and invention was stimulated by the problems of long voyages in the age of expansion.
Inventions developed many new scientific instruments to help solve these problems.
Important new knowledge was often led by better instruments.
The printing technology provided a less expensive way to circulate knowledge.
There were many political and social conflicts in the 16th and early 17th century.
The failure to adopt the printing press can be seen as part of a larger reaction against innovation.
In China, after the Manchu invasion of 1644, the new Qing Dynasty was legitimized through stricter adherence to Confucian tradition.
By contrast, western Europe remained politically fragmented into smaller competitive nations, divisions that were augmented by the religious fracturing of the Protestant Reformation.
It was impossible for authorities to impose one set of ideas because of these conditions.
For medieval scholars, philosophy was the path to true knowledge about the world, and its proof consisted of the authority of ancients and their techniques of logical argumentation.
Natural philosophy deals with questions about the nature of the universe and how it works.
The ideas of the great Greek philosopher of the fourth century B.C.E.
were the basis of natural philosophy.
According to the Christianized version of the Greek philosopher, a motionless earth stood at the center of the universe and was encompassed by ten separate crystal spheres in which the moon, sun, planets, and stars were embedded.
Heaven had the throne of God and the souls of the saved.
The center of the earth is surrounded by spheres of water, air, and fire.
The moon, the sun, and the five planets were embedded in their own rotating crystal spheres, with the stars sharing the surface of one enormous sphere.
The heavens were made of ether.
There was a lot of thinking about physics and motion on earth.
The sublunar world was different from the world of the heavenly spheres.
Air, fire, water, and earth make up the sublunar realm.
The object would stop as soon as the force that moved it was removed, according to the beliefs of Aristotle and his followers.
Ptolemy, the ancient Greek scholar, amended the physics by saying that the planets moved in small circles, called epicycles, each of which moved in turn along a larger circle.
This theory accounted for the apparent backward motion of the planets and provided a surprisingly accurate model for predicting planetary motion.
The basic foundation of knowledge about the earth was provided by Ptolemy's work.
Ptolemy's map only showed the continents of Europe, Africa, and Asia, with land covering three-quarters of the world.
The work of the Polish cleric was the first great departure from the medieval understanding of the universe.
Ptolemy's rules detracted from the greatness of a perfect creator according to Copernicus.
He preferred the idea that the sun was at the center of the universe.
The stars and planets, including the earth, revolved around a fixed sun without questioning the belief in crystal spheres.
Tycho Brahe was an astronomer who agreed with the others.
Brahe established himself as Europe's leading astronomer with his detailed observations of a new star that appeared suddenly in 1572 and shone for almost two years.
The idea that the heavenly spheres were unchanging and perfect was challenged by the new star.
Brahe was aided by grants from the king of Danes.
After falling out with the king, Brahe got a new patron in the Holy Roman emperor, who built him a new observatory.
The idea was that the sun was the center of the universe.
Johannes Kepler, Brahe's assistant, re-examined his predecessor's notations and came to believe that they could not be explained by Ptolemy's astronomy.
Abandoning the idea of deferents and epicycles, Kepler used Brahe's data to develop three revolutionary laws of planetary motion.
He showed that the planets around the sun are elliptical.
When a planet is close to the sun it slows down as it moves farther away.
The third law states that the time a planet takes to make its complete circle is related to its distance from the sun.
The contribution was monumental.
The precise relations of a sun-centered (solar) system were proved by mathematics.
He united for the first time the theory of natural philosophy and mathematics.
He came close to formulating the idea of universal gravitation with his third law, which demolished the old system of Ptolemy.
Galileo Galilei was a young Florentine who was challenging the ideas about motion on earth.
He measured the movement of a rolling ball across a surface, repeating the action again and again to verify his results.
He showed that a uniform force produced a uniform acceleration.
He found that rest was not the natural state of objects.
Unless stopped by some external force, an object continues in motion.
His discoveries proved that physics is not correct.
Galileo said that motion, not rest, is the natural state of an object and that an object continues in motion unless stopped.
Galileo's telescope was one of the many mechanical devices he invented.
He obtained the empirical evidence that proved the system.
There are two illustrations of the phases of the moon that are shown here.
After hearing about the invention of the telescope in Holland, Galileo made one for himself.
Evidence for the theory was provided by this discovery.
Despite opposition from religious leaders, the work of Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo was accepted by the scientific community.
The new findings didn't explain what happened to the planets and objects.
That challenge was taken up by an English scientist.
At the age of twenty-four,Newton arrived at some of his most basic ideas about physics but was unable to prove them.
After years of studying physics,Newton returned to it in 1684.
The result was a single explanatory system that integrated the astronomy of Copernicus, as well as the physics of Galileo and his predecessors.
Motion and mechanics are explained by a set of mathematical laws.
The universe was unified by a system.
Matter moved on earth and throughout the heavens according to the same laws, which could be understood and expressed in mathematical terms.
The force of attraction is proportional to the quantity of matter and the square of the distance between them, according to the law ofNewton.
Europeans embarked on the pursuit of knowledge about unknown geographical regions at the same time that they made advances in astronomy and physics.
The Spanish were the first to acquire a large empire.
Plants offered tremendous profits in the form of spices, medicines, dyes, and cash crops.
In the 1560s, King Philip II of Spain sent his personal physician to New Spain.
There are illustrations of three thousand plants in Europe.
He interviewed local healers about the plants' healing powers.
Other countries followed the Spanish example as their global empires expanded, relying on both official expeditions and private initiatives.
New information about plant and animal species overwhelmed existing intellectual frameworks.
The system of naming and classification of living organisms was devised by Carl Linnaeus after he sent his students on exploratory voyages around the world.
Maria Sibylla Merian, the stepdaughter of a Dutch painter, became a celebrated scientific illustrator.
Many new species of insects were introduced by her pictures.
Merian's science was tied to art because she bred and performed experiments on caterpillar.
Her two-year stay in Suriname, where she was accompanied by a teenage daughter, was a daring feat for a seventeenth-century woman.
Recent research on the Scientific Revolution has focused on the contributions of ideas and practices that no longer fit into the realm of science, such as astrology and alchemy.
The most celebrated astronomer was also an astrologer.
astrology was a part of the curriculum of medical schools.
Ancient practices of magic and alchemy are still important traditions for natural philosophers.
Early modern practitioners of magic sought to understand and control hidden connections between elements of the natural world, such as that between a magnet and iron.
The idea that objects possessed hidden or "occult" qualities that allowed them to affect other objects was an important legacy of the magical tradition.
There are different strands of interest in the natural world.
He worked as a court mathematician and cast horoscopes for the royal family.
He explained elliptical motion through ideas about the beautiful music created by the combined motion of the planets.
One example of the interplay of ideas and beliefs is Sir IsaacNewton, who was both religious and fascinated by the idea that base metals could be turned into gold.
The Scientific Revolution was not accomplished by a small group of people.
As scholars developed new methods to seek answers to long-standing problems with the help of skilled craftsmen who invented new instruments and helped conduct experiments, advancement occurred in many fields.
Women were usually excluded from the international intellectual community.
Francis Bacon was the greatest early propagandist for the experimental method.
The method of speculative reasoning used to build general theories was rejected by bacon.
The researcher who wants to learn more about leaves or rocks should collect a lot of samples and compare them to derive general principles, rather than speculating about the subject.
The empirical method, which had already been used by Brahe and Galileo, was formalized into the theory of empiricism by bacon.
A theory of reasoning that uses observation and experimentation rather than reason and speculation.
There were more speculative methods on the continent.
Rene Descartes experienced a life-changing intellectual vision in 1619.
Descartes believed that there was a perfect correspondence between geometry and algebra and that spatial figures could be expressed as equations.
Descartes's discovery of analytic geometry provided scientists with an important new tool.
Descartes came up with the idea that matter was made up of identical "corpuscules" that collided together in an endless series of motions.
According to Descartes, the total "quantity of motion" in the universe was constant, and that all occurrences in nature could be analyzed as matter in motion.
Descartes's mechanistic philosophy of the universe depended on the idea that a vacuum was impossible, which meant that every action had an equal reaction.
Descartes developed his initial vision into a whole philosophy of knowledge and science.
When experiments proved that sensory impressions could be wrong, Descartes decided it was necessary to doubt them and everything that could reasonably be doubted, and then, as in geometry, to use first principles to determine scientific laws.
All substances were reduced to "matter" and "mind" as a result of Descartes's reasoning.
He sees the world as consisting of two fundamental entities.
Descartes's mathematical reasoning had flaws.
The limitations of antitheoretical empiricism were illustrated by the inability of bacon to appreciate the importance of mathematics.
Some of Descartes's positions showed the weakness of rationalism.
He believed that it was possible to deduce the whole science of medicine from the first principles.
The modern scientific method combines the extreme approaches of Descartes and bacon.
The understanding of the human body was changed by the Scientific Revolution.
The authority of the ancient Greek physician's explanation of the body was the same as that of the author of the universe.
The body had four humors: blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile.
Illness was thought to be caused by an unbalanced humors.
Paracelsus was an early proponent of the experimental method in medicine and pioneered the use of chemicals and drugs to address what he saw as chemical, rather than humoral, imbalances.
The Flemish physician, Andreas Vesalius, studied the human body through dissection.
The drawings changed the understanding of the human body.
The discovery of the circulation of blood through the veins and arteries was made by English royal physician William Harvey in 1628.
Vesalius dissection of a corpse before a crowd of students is depicted in the frontispiece of his work.
This was a revolutionary new hands-on approach for physicians, who usually worked from a theoretical, rather than a practical, understanding of the body.
Vesalius replaced ancient ideas from Greek philosophy with a more accurate account of the structure and function of the body.
The development of modern chemistry can be traced back to the work of Irishman Robert Boyle.
He undertook experiments to discover the basic elements of nature, which he believed were composed of infinitely small atoms.
It is thought that the relationship between science and religion is hostile and that the pursuit of knowledge based on reason and proof is not compatible with faith.
During the Scientific Revolution, most practitioners were religious and saw their work as contributing to the celebration of God's glory.
The idea of heliocentrism, which displaced the earth from the center of the universe, threatened the understanding of the place of mankind in creation.
The religions derived from the Old Testament faced difficulties in accepting the system.
The leaders of the Catholic Church were initially less hostile than their Protestant and Jewish counterparts, but attitudes changed in the first decades of the 16th century.
In 1616 the Holy Office placed the works of Copernicus and his supporters on a list of books Catholics were forbidden to read.
Pope Urban VIII was sympathetic to the new science and silenced Galileo's views on heliocentrism.
It was published in Italian and poked fun at the Aristotelian view.
The pope tried Galileo for heresy.
The aging Galileo was imprisoned and threatened with torture.
There were many consequences of the rise of modern science.
It led to the rise of the international scientific community.
The interests and values of members of this community were linked by journals and scientific societies.
Science became competitive because scientists and scholars depended on making new discoveries.
As governments supported and sometimes direct research, the new scientific community became closely tied to the state.
National academies of science were created in London in 1662, Paris in 1666, and Berlin in 1700.
The Scientific Revolution was thought to be the work of exceptional geniuses.
The practice of science in the 17th century relied heavily on artisans' expertise in making instruments and conducting precise experiments, as they developed a strong interest in emerging scientific ideas.
The planets are revolving around the sun.
There were things that did not change in the Scientific Revolution.
Traditional inequalities between the sexes were not questioned by scholars willing to challenge received ideas about the natural universe.
The emergence of professional science may have made the inequality worse.
The rise of a scientific community made it harder for women to get into universities.
There were a number of exceptions.
Women were accepted in Italy's universities and academies.
Women in Europe made wax anatomical models and botanical illustrations.
They were very involved in informal writings.
The political, intellectual, and religious developments of the early modern period that gave rise to the Scientific Revolution further contributed to a series of debates about key issues in late-seventeenth- and eighteenthcentury Europe and the wider world that came to be known as the Enlightenment.
By shattering the unity of Western Christendom, the conflicts of the Reformation brought old religious certainties into question; the strong states that emerged to quell the disorder soon inspired questions about political sovereignty and its limits.
Increased movement of peoples, goods, and ideas within and among the states of Asia, Africa, Europe, and its colonies offered examples of different ways of life and values.
Intellectuals believed that answers to all the questions being asked could be found through the use of rational and critical thinking.
Human society and science were able to make progress.
An intellectual and cultural movement in late-seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe and the wider world used rational and critical thinking to debate issues such as political sovereignty, religious tolerance, gender roles, and racial difference.
The European Enlightenment is loosely united by certain key questions and ideas.
The intellectual and cultural movement gained strength slowly and did not reach its full potential until about 1750.
There were a number of developments in the late 17th century, including political opposition to the rule of theocracy, religious conflicts between Protestants and Catholics, and the attempt to apply principles and practices from the Scientific Revolution to human society.
The Dutch Republic had a proud commitment to religious tolerance and republican rule.
Huguenots fled the country when Louis XIV demanded that they convert to Catholicism.
Their challenge to authority combined religious and political issues.
Pierre Bayle, a Huguenot who took refuge from government persecution in the Dutch Republic, was an important early Enlightenment writer.
Demonstrating that human beliefs were often mistaken, he concluded that nothing can ever be known beyond doubt, a view known as skepticism.
The transition from the Scientific Revolution to the Enlightenment was led by the Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza.
Spinoza was inspired by the Scientific Revolution and wanted to apply natural philosophy to thinking about society.
He rejected the French thinker's mindbody dualism but borrowed Descartes's emphasis on rationalism.
Spinoza came to promote the idea that mind and body are one thing, and that God and nature are two different things.
He imagined a universe in which good and evil were relative values and not free will.
Spinoza was excommunicated by the large Jewish community of Amsterdam for his controversial religious ideas, but he was heralded by his Enlightenment successors as a model of personal virtue.
Both Spinoza's monism and Cartesian dualism were rejected by German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried von Leibniz.
He came up with the idea of an infinite number of substances, or "monads," from which all matter is composed.
Locke created a new theory about how human beings learn and form their ideas.
Locke insisted that all ideas are derived from experience, despite the fact that Descartes believed that certain first principles were created by God.
External forces, like education and social institutions, determine human development.
Locke's essay contributed to the idea that all human ideas and thoughts are the result of sensory impressions.
John Locke believed that all human ideas and thoughts are created by sensory impressions.
Divergences show that the answers to many of the same questions differed from one another.
The spread of this spirit of inquiry and debate could be traced back to the work of a group of influential French intellectuals.
A group of French intellectuals said they were bringing the light of knowledge to their fellow humans.
To appeal to the public and get around the censors, the philosophers wrote novels and plays, histories and philosophies, and dictionaries and encyclopedias, all filled with satire and double meanings.
Two Persian travelers, Usbek and Rica, are said to have written letters to Montesquieu in order to allow him to criticize existing practices and beliefs.
Montesquieu said that forms of government were shaped by history, geography, and customs.
His theory of separation of powers had an impact on the constitutions of the United States and France.
Francois-Marie Arouet was known as the pen name Voltaire.
Voltaire wrote more than seventy witty volumes and died a millionaire through shrewd speculations.
He was arrested twice for insulting noblemen.
Montesquieu's enthusiasm for English liberties and institutions inspired Voltaire to move to England for three years to avoid a prison term.
Returning to France, Voltaire met a gifted noblewoman.
Madame du Chatelet invited Voltaire to live in her country house.
Madame du Chatelet was not allowed to join the Royal Academy of Sciences because she was a woman.
The author of works praising England and popularizing English scientific progress lived at Cirey.
Voltaire was a reformer, not a revolutionary.
Voltaire didn't believe in social and economic equality.
By which the citizen only depends on the laws which protect the freedom of the feeble against the ambitions of the strong, was what Voltaire thought.
Voltaire's religious and philosophical positions were more radical.
Like many Enlightenment thinkers, he rejected the established church in favor of belief in a distant, noninterventionist deity.
Most of the philosophes hated religious intolerance, which they believed led to fanaticism and cruelty.
Many Enlightenment thinkers share a belief in a distant deity.
Number, dedication, and organization are some of the things that make up the strength of the philosophes.
Religion and immortality were questioned, as were science and the industrial arts.