New eradication programs have been brought about by the resurgence of opium in the Golden Triangle.
Law enforcement efforts alone won't be enough as the value of opium is too high.
An opium crop worth US$585 could be produced in a small field.
UNODC officials argue that economic and social development is needed in the region's rugged uplands.
They emphasize the building of an effective transportation system to allow lower value crops to be brought to market.
Compare the possible advantages and disadvantages of an approach to drug production based on economic and social development rather than law enforcement.
The Philippines, the second most populous country in Southeast Asia, has a relatively high rate of immigration and a low population fertility rate.
When a popular democratic government birth rate was announced in Singapore in the 1980s, the Philippine Roman campaign in 1987 pressured the new government to cut ment of its population.
Thousands of dollars can be given to family-planning programs in Singapore.
Many dollars of government subsidies are given for having a second or clinics that provide family-planning information.
Singapore encourages immigration to be closed.
Highly skilled workers are not associated with high birth rates.
As with Thailand, the drop in fertility seems to be a result of a strong government family-planning program in East Asia.
The population birth rate dropped because of migration from Java and Madura.
The total fertility rate in the outer islands of Indonesia has fallen from 5.7 in 1970 to 1.6 currently, a figure that will bring population to the 1970s.
If it continues, the province of East Kalimantan will decline.
During the last two decades of the 20th century, Thailand experienced a growth rate of 30 per for both population and health reasons.
As a result of this population shift, many parts of Indonesia government are now concerned about future labor shortages outside Java now have moderately high population densities, and as a result has contemplated eliminating its mandatory retirement age.
The demo state of Singapore has high social and environmental costs and a low fertility rate.
The peasants are used to the lowest in the world.
In some areas, farmers have little choice but to adopt a semi-swidden form of cultivation, which is why they went to the migration program in 2000.
Once the old ones have been exhausted, it reversed new sites.
Over half a million people could be transferred to the south-central New Guinea area as a result of a huge new agricultural project being created by Indonesia.
One of the most densely settled places in the world, the Philippines has used inter of Madura to reduce population pressure in the core areas of the country's other islands.
In the late 19th century, people government encouraged relocation to the outer islands, often paying to leave central and northwestern Luzon for the costs.
There is a settlement on the Indonesian side of the island.
The settlement frontier in the early 20th century was still in Luzon, but by the postwar years it had moved to the island of Mindanao.
Population disparity between the islands has been reduced, and the south is economically weak and politically unstable, making internal migration less appealing.
Many young women from Indonesia and the Philippines find low-paying work as maids and nannies in wealthier countries.
Exploitation is common in the oil-rich countries of Southwest Asia.
Indonesia decided in 2015 to stop sending domestic workers to the Middle East.
The Philippines stopped allowing female workers to go to the United Arab Emirates after it refused to guarantee a minimum salary of $400 a month.
Population issues and policies in Southeast Asia vary greatly.
The region has seen a rapid expansion of its urban population in recent decades.
Many Filipinos seek employment abroad due to uncertain economic conditions at home, rapid population growth, and good English-language skills.
There are job seekers at an employment fair.
Southeast Asia isn't a heavily urbanized region.
Even impoverished settlements.
Thailand has a 50 percent urbanization rate, which is unusual for a country that has experienced so much in the financial district.
The region's urban population is growing more quickly than the world average, and a number of extremely large cities are emerging.
A more balanced urban system may include a large urban settlement that overshadows all others.
Thailand's urban system is dominated by several former colonial "hill stations".
Baguio City, which is over 5,000 feet in the Philippines, is one of the best examples of why Manila is the best city in the world.
Both have recently grown into megacities and have a spring-like climate.
More than 15 million people live in the metropolitan areas of Baguio.
More now a major university center and is home to more than half of all city dwellers in Thailand.
Rapid growth has led to Asian countries, but urban primacy is less pronounced in other Southeast large Southeast Asian cities.
Vietnam, for example, has two main cities: housing shortages, congestion, and Ho Chi Minh City in the south, with a Manila and Bangkok also suffer from a lack of parks and metropolitan population of roughly 9 million.