After Muhammad's death, Muslims had to figure out how to rule their new territories.
The caliphate is the government they established.
The Muslim umma that Muhammad left was in danger of becoming a separate tribe.
The Sunna did not offer guidance for the succession.
According to tradition, a group of Muhammad's ablest followers elected Abu Bakr, a close supporter of the Prophet and his father-in-law, and hailed him as caliph, a term combining the ideas of leader, successor, and deputy.
The victory of the universal community of Muslim believers was marked by this election.
The two years of Abu Bakr's rule were based on his personal prestige within the Muslim umma.
He sent out military expeditions, col ected taxes, dealt with tribes, and led the community in prayer.
The caliphate emerged as an institution under the first three successors, Umar, Uthman, and Ali.
Umar was able to exert his authority over the Bedouin tribes.
The economic interests of the entire umma were protected by Uthman.
Uthman's concern for the unity of the umma was shown by the publication of the Qur'an's definitive text.
Uthman was from a Mecca family that had resisted the Prophet until the capitulation of Mecca in 630, and he aroused resentment when he gave favors to members of his family.
Ali was chosen to succeed Uthman after he was assassinated.
The question of whether Ali's accession was legitimate was raised after the murder of Uthman.
Uthman's cousin refused to recognize Ali as the Caliph.
The caliph ate after Ali was killed in the civil war.
The capital of the Islamic state was shifted from Medina in Arabia to Damascus in Syria.
The office of caliph became hereditary as electing caliphs remained the Is lamic ideal.
The Umayyad and the Abbasid held the caliphate.
Muslim politi cal and religious unity were the basis of the caliphate.
Mu'awiya wanted to make tribal leaders dependent on him for concessions and special benefits in order to increase the power of the caliphate.
He was able to take the caliphate in an authoritarian direction because of his control of a loyal and well-disciplined army.
The dy nastic principle of succession was established when he forced the tribal leaders to accept his son as his heir.
The foundation for an elaborate ca liphal court was laid by Mu'awiya, who distanced himself from a simple life within the umma and withdrew into the palace that he built at Damascus.
The assassination of Ali and the assumption of the caliphate was a con sequence.
It gave rise to a fundamental division in the umma and Muslim theology.
Ali claimed the caliphate because he was Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law.
The Spanish Umayyads used to make ivory chests that were used to store precious perfumes.
The side panel shows an eleventh-century caliph flanked by two attendants.
There is an inscription on the front.
The central issue was adhering to the practices and beliefs of the umma based on the precedents of the Prophet.
Sunni scholars division between Sunnis and Shi'a searched for a precedent in the Sunna, which gained an authority comparable to the Qur'an, when a situation arose for which the Qur'an offered no solution.
Sunnis and Shi'a believe that authority in Islam lies in the Qur'an and the Sunna.
According to Shi'a, the imam is invested with divine grace and insight.
The Umayyads were condemned as worldly rulers.
The clan based its claim to the caliphate on the descent of Abbas, Muhammad's uncle.
Abbasid piety was contrasted with the pleasure-loving style of the Umayyads.
Abu' al-Abbas won general recognition as caliph in 750 after leading a rebellion against the Umayyads.
Damascus was the headquarters of Umayyad.
Baghdad was founded in 762 by al-Mansur, the successor to Abu' al-Abbas.
The geographical center of the caliphate shifted eastward.
The first three Abbasid caliphs destroyed their opponents, turned against their supporters, and created a new ruling elite from newly converted Per sian families.
The Abbasid revolution established a basis for rule and citizenship that was more cosmopolitan and Islamic than the Umayyad government.
The rule of the Abbasid was identified with Islam.
They supported the development of Islamic scholarship and built mosques.
Abbasid rule provided the religious-political milieu in which Islam gained, over time, the population from Spain to Afghanistan.