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23 -- Part 7: The Revolution in Energy and
The future revo lutionary and colleague of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, reinforced this pessimistic view.
The old poverty of cottage workers and agricultural laborers was worse than the new poverty of industrial workers.
The culprit was industrial capital ism.
Marx and later socialists were influenced by the charge of middle-class exploitation and increasing worker poverty by Engels.
Other observers believed that the working people were getting better conditions.
In his study of the cotton industry, Andrew Ure wrote that the conditions in most factories were quite good.
An increase in worker's purchasing power was detected by a government official.
The majority of people thought conditions were getting worse for working people.
The view that the early years of the Industrial Revolution were hard for British workers has been confirmed by the most recent scholarship.
The average British worker's pur chasing power did not increase from 1780 to 1820.
After 1840, real wages rose so much that the average worker earned and consumed 50 percent more in real terms than they did in 1770.
The conclusion must be qualified.
The number of hours worked increased.
Workers earned more because they worked more.
In England, nonagricultural workers worked about 250 days per year in 1760 as compared to 300 days per year in 1830.
The decline in the average worker's real wages and standard of living during the war had a negative impact on workers.
The early experience of modern industrial life was colored in somber tones by the difficult war years of the 20th century.
The workers' standard of living can be considered by looking at the goods they purchased.
The evidence is conflicting again.
Workers ate higher quality food as the Industrial Revolution progressed.
Housing for working people probably deteriorated as clothing improved.
The per capita use of specific goods supports the idea that the standard of living of the working classes rose after the long wars with France.
Cotton mills were the first factories and were located along fast running rivers and streams.
The workers were reluctant to work in the new factories even though they received good wages.
Workers in a factory had to keep up with the machine.
They had to show up every day, on time, and work long hours under constant supervision, and they were punished if they broke the work rules.
Cottage workers were not used to that kind of life.
The family worked hard but in spurts, setting their own pace.
The head of the family got paid on Saturday after delivering the week's work to the manufacturer.
The men were relaxing and drinking on Saturday night.
Female workers at a U.S. cotton mill pose for a picture with their supervisor.
Farm girls were employed by the first textile mills in Massachusetts.
As competition intensified, the mills relied on immigrant women who had few alternatives to the long hours, noise, and dangers of factory work.
More than one million women worked in the United States in the 19th century.
The early factories were similar to English poorhouses, where the poor lived at public expense.
The cottage workers' fear of factories increased because of the similarity between brick factories and stone poor houses.
Cottage workers' reluctance to work in factories prompted the early cot ton mil owners to turn to abandoned and penniless children for their labor.
The owners contracted with local officials to employ large numbers of such children, who had no say in the matter.
The pattern was rapidly changing by the 1790s.
Parliament banned the use of pauper apprentices in 1802.
Many more textile factories were being built in urban areas, where they could use steam power instead of water power, and attract a better workforce than in the countryside.
People from all over came to work in the cities as both factory workers and laborers.
Working people didn't accept the new system of labor as they took the new jobs.
They helped modify the system by car rying.
Workers came to the mills and mines as a family.
This was how they worked on farms.
The head of the family was paid for the work of the whole family by the mill or mine owner.
The preservation of the family as an economic unit in the factories from the 1790s made the new surroundings more pleasant.
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