Politics will be more open to scrutiny as a result of globalization.
Political globalization is not a pathway to peace and participation, but a source of danger and weakened democracy according to others.
They think violence will not lose its utility in the international system as they think it will change form, much as it did when states themselves first appeared.
According to this argument, globalization can empower violent international actors and movements that are very different from the modern state.
These groups hold no territory, exercise no sovereignty, and are able to draw financial and other support from across the globe.
They are similar to other nonstate actors.
These groups seek to achieve their objectives by applying force in ways that may be difficult for states or other international actors to counter.
Criminal organizations and terrorist groups are examples of this new threat.
Cell phones, e- mail, websites, social media, and satellite television allow these groups to communicate, distribute propaganda, access money, and recruit new members.
Indeed, many argue that such groups look more like a social network than any formal nonstate actor.6 Although states may be able to use conventional force against such groups where they have a physical presence, there is often no easy way to keep individuals and information.
Small groups and dark networks can take advantage of globalization to attack and undermine existing institutions if states with military capacity geared toward fighting other states are not prepared.
Many people wonder how a more globalized political system can be more democratic.
Although international connections may increase transparency, they don't necessarily mean a way for individuals to act on available information.
Modern liberal democracy is based on republicanism and the ability of people to choose their representatives through a competitive process.
The bodies may be indirectly elected or appointed from the member states, or they may not be directly accountable to anyone.
While a person may laud the work of the World Wildlife Fund, it is important to note that these organizations are not subject to popular democratic control or more transparent than states themselves.
The idea of a "democratic deficit" was first raised with regard to the European Union.
Representation and democratic control may be weakened if power moves to global institutions because citizens don't have the ability to control them.
Both visions of politics in a globalized world reflect our discussion of China.
As power shifts to the global level, states and state functions become more diffuse.
These developments undermine the logic of war and increase transparency for optimists.
Pessimists think that international connections facilitate new violent organizations and weaken democratic ties between the people and their representatives.
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Politics isn't the only realm in which globalization is taking place.
The area that tends to generate the most controversy and debate is globalization economics.
We should consider the interrelated elements of economic globalization.
The development of political globalization may be thought of as piecemeal orIncremental, but scholars tend to point to a set of specific institutions and regimes as vital components of economic globalization.
The International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) all emerged from the Bretton Woods system.
The International Monetary Fund helps manage exchange rates between countries and provides loans to states in financial difficulty.
The World Bank provides loans and technical assistance to advance development in developing countries.
WTO regulates trade agreements between member states to lower tariffs.
These organizations have been at the center of a global liberal- economic regime for 70 years.
The policies of the Washington Consensus were helped by theBretton Woods system.
The Washington Consensus wanted to roll back the state's control over the market.
The policies of the Washington Consensus are believed to have aided the growth of economic globalization over the past two decades.
Observers point to several important aspects of economic globalization that are related to the emergence of the Washington Consensus.
The globalization of international trade is obvious.
As the production and marketing of goods has become more mobile, national economies have grown more integrated.
The creation of a global liberal- economic regime that has encouraged trade between countries is the reason for some of this.
Capital and financial markets are integrated around the world.
Money can be made from and to many more places around the world.
The connections between workers, goods, and wealth are deepened by globalization.
The growth of economic globalization can be seen in some examples.
In 1992, world exports of merchandise came to $3 trillion, and by 2015, the total was $19 trillion.
Large firms can make profits that rival the GDPs of many countries, thanks to more open markets and reduced transportation costs.
Apple's total profits in 2016 were close to the GDP of both New Zealand and Finland.
The graph shows an increase in foreign direct investment within the developed world.
More modest investment has been seen in developing and postcommunist countries.