He proposed the Virginia Plan at the Constitutional Convention.
He was a leader of the Federalists and believed in a strong federal government.
He presented the Bil of Rights to Congress.
The War of 1812 started because of violations of American shipping rights by Britain.
Smal kernels from the primary grain crop are often ground into cornmeal.
After being brought to Europe, Africa, and Asia, it was easy to grow a large population.
Malcolm X, the black Muslim leader in the United States, broke away and founded his own organization to establish relations between African Americans and the nonwhite peoples of the world.
He preached a message of social change at the end of his life.
He was killed by a group of black Muslims.
There was a dispute between China and Russia over the northeast region of Manchuria.
The Japanese moved their army into Manchuria in 1931 to protect their investments.
They set up a puppet empire after conquering the region.
The United States and the League of Nations did not respond to China's request.
The widespread belief is that America was destined by God to expand eastward across the continent into lands claimed by Native Americans as wel as European nations.
The public school system was the best way to achieve social stability, according to him.
He led the drive for a statewide school system and sponsored a state board of education, the first state-supported "normal" school for training teachers, and a state association for teachers.
The Judiciary Act of 1801 was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
The National Mal was where Martin Luther King Jr. gave his famous "I Have a Dream" speech.
The Union army planned to destroy the resources of the Confederate army by marching through Georgia.
During the first half of the 19th century, large- scale manufacturing and commercial agriculture replaced the pre market economy and produced boom and bust cycles while raising the American standard of living.
The legal right for gay and lesbian couples to marry became the most divisive issue in the culture wars of the early 2010s as more and more court rulings affirmed this right in states and municipalities across the United States.
In the Second World War, he was the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
In 1947, he became President Truman's secretary of state and proposed the massive reconstruction program for western Europe called the Marshall Plan.
He established the foundations for American jurisprudence, the authority of the Supreme Court, and the supremacy of the national government over states.
The Secretary of State's post- World War II program provided massive U.S. financial and technical assistance to war- torn European countries.
The English colony was founded in 1630 as a haven for the Puritans.
Federal efforts to enforce racial integration in the South are being disrupted by white ral ying cry.
The global spread of communism was used as a means of counteracting the threat of nuclear warfare.
The most ruthless exploiter of America's anxiety of communism was this senator.
He claimed that the United States government was full of Communists, but he was never able to uncover a single communist agent.
Despite a lack of evidence, Senator Joseph McCarthy's "witch hunts" attacked the loyalty of politicians, federal employees, and public figures.
President Abraham Lincoln appointed him head of the Army of the Potomac and later general in chief of the U.S. Army.
His army was well trained and powerful.
He was removed from command after failing to win the war against the Confederacy.
The scale of agriculture was changed by the invention of a mechanical reaper.
A farmer could only harvest half an acre a day, while the reaper had two people to harvest twelve acres of wheat a day.
Cyrus Hall McCormick invented a mechanical reaper that increased the production of wheat.
The Supreme Court ruled against taxing the Bank of the United States.
He was responsible for raising the duties on manufactured products to their highest level ever as a congressman.
McKinley lost his seat in Congress because voters disliked the tariffs.
He won the presidential election in 1896 and raised the tariffs again.
He declared war on Spain in 1898.
The Treaty of Paris gave America control over Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
The Americans were fighting Filipinos who were trying to get independence.
McKinley was killed in 1901.
He supported America's involvement in Vietnam and was the secretary of defense for both Kennedy and Johnson.
As part of President Johnson's Great Society initiative, health- care programs were designed to aid the elderly and disadvantaged.
Reducing government spending and lowering taxes was one of the things he sought to do as secretary of the Treasury.
He believed the wealthy would invest their money and so the tax reductions went to the rich.
He persuaded Congress to create a Bureau of the Budget and a General Accounting Office in order to bring more efficiency and nonpartisanship to the budget process.
The policy of Great Britain is to regulate the economies of colonies to benefit the mother country.
In 1962, the governor of Mississippi refused to allow James Meredith to enroll at the University of Mississippi, despite a Supreme Court ruling.
The marshals were sent to enforce the law when they clashed with a white mob.
Two people were killed and many others were injured when federal troops swooped in.
A few days later, she was able to register at the university.
The first engagement between ironclad ships took place in Virginia.
He was killed in a war against the English who were trying to convert Indians to Christianity.
The Aztec Empire was conquered by the Spanish in 1521 after it was founded in the 14th century.
A major technological breakthrough in 1971 paved the way for the development of the personal computer.
The middle part of the "Triangular Trade" in which European ships carried manufactured goods to Africa, then transported enslaved Africans to the Americas and the Caribbean, and finally brought American agricultural products back to Europe, took place from the late 16th to the early 19th century.
During World War II, the Japanese navy's first major defeat in 350 years was the result of a 1942 battle.
People were inspired by Martin Luther King Jr.'s use of this form of protest after the success of the Montgomery bus boycott.
This method of protest was used by demonstrators during the civil rights movement.
The United States Army allowed freed slaves to serve as laborers.
The French and the United States were driven out of Vietnam by the leader of the communist resistance.
He became the leader of al of Vietnam at the end of the Vietnam War after control of North Vietnam was divided into four countries.
From the 1830s to the 1870s, it was a form of entertainment.
Performers were made up as African Americans or blackface.
They played banjo and fiddle music, "shuffle" dances and lowbrow humor that reinforced racial stereotypes.
The militia has special units that are ready to respond quickly.
The U.S. Supreme Court required police to advise people in custody of their rights.
Several state constitutional amendments sought to severely disenfranchise black voters and were quickly adopted by other southern states.
Legislative decision to admit Missouri as a slave state and abolish slavery in the area west of the Mississippi River.
The model of car developed by Henry Ford was affordable for everyone.
It led to an increase in the production of automobiles which stimulated other industries.
The real estate booms in California and Florida were caused by the mass use of automobiles.
President Eisenhower spearheaded a promise to curb federal government.
The movement that rejected traditional notions of reality and adopted radical new forms of artistic expression was an early twentieth century intel ectual and artistic movement.
The nature of U.S. currency was debated in the late 19th century, with supporters of a fixed gold standard preferring to keep the value of money high, while supporters of silver coinage wanted to keep the value of money low.
A large corporation effectively controls the market for its products and services.
He was elected president after serving as secretary of state and war.
He signed the Transcontinental Treaty with Spain which gave the United States Florida and expanded the Louisiana territory's western border to the Pacific coast.
The Monroe Doctrine was established in 1823.
America would be neutral in European affairs and the American continents were no longer open to colonization.
There would be no American interference with any existing European colonies under the U.S. foreign policy.
Civil rights activists in Alabama organized a boycott of the bus system after the arrest ofRosa Parks.
The name of Jerry Falwel's political lobbying organization became synonymous with the Religious Right because it helped ensure Ronald Reagan's victory.
He would acquire, reorganize, and consolidate companies as an investment banker.
The consolidation of the steel industry into the United States Steel Corporation was his biggest achievement.
An investment bank under the leadership of J. Pierpont Morgan bought or merged unrelated American companies, often using capital acquired from European investors.
Mormons were often accused of being secretive.
The land grant universities were founded to provide technical education in agriculture, mining and industry.
He invented the telegraph in the 18th century.
The men were inspired by the fur trade and left civilization to work as trappers in the wilderness.
The first white people to find routes through the Rockies were the ones who pioneered trails that settlers later used to reach Oregon and California.
Writers who exposed corruption and abuses in politics, business, consumer safety, and more, spurring public interest in progressive reforms.
Reformers who left the Republican party in 1884 to support Cleveland for president because of corruption charges against him.
Most of the South's free black population were mixed race people.
The founder of the Fascist party in Italy, who came to power in 1922, had a relationship with Hitler during the Second World War.
An organization founded in 1910 by black activists and white progressives focused on legal action to secure the civil rights supposedly guaranteed by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments.
The U.S. Congress created a national banking system to finance the Civil War.
It established a single national currency and enabled loans to the government.
It created public works jobs through the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and established a system of self- regulation for industry through the National Recovery Administration, which was ruled unconstitutional in 1935.
The federation of labor and reform leaders was established in the 19th century to advocate for new state and local laws to improve working conditions.
A federal agency brought together business and labor leaders to create a code of fair competition and a national minimum wage.
Legislation created the Department of Defense, the National Security Council and the Central Intel igence Agency.
The party gained control of Germany under the leadership of Hitler in 1933 and continued in power until the end of the Second World War.
It advocated a pan- German ideology.
The Holocaust was committed by the Nazi party.
Formed in 1834 to organize local trade unions into a national association, but was dissolved in the late 1830s due to the economic depression.
The conservative movement was characterized by heightened nationalism, anti- immigrant sentiment, and the enactment of laws setting stricter regulations on immigration.
A reactionary conservative movement characterized by heightened nationalism, anti- immigrant sentiment, and the enactment of laws setting stricter regulations on immigration.
The basic rights of an individual should not be violated.
The British Parliament passed restrictions to control colonial trade.
The late 19th century saw a new wave of racism due to white resentment for African American financial success and political influence.
The Neutrality Act of 1935 banned loans to warring nations in order to prevent a Second World War.
The conservative insurgency of the early 1980s had a political philosophy.
The Democrats emerged in the late 1980s and early 1990s as a moderate party led by President Clinton.
The period of sustained economic prosperity was marked by budget surpluses, the explosion of dot.com industries, low inflation, and low unemployment.
The area of North America was colonized by the French.
Unlike Spanish or English colonies, New France had a small number of settlers, which made them seek good relations with the indigenous people they encountered.
The program championed in 1912 by the Wilson campaign aimed to restore competition in the economy by eliminating al trusts rather than simply regulating them.
The incoming Kennedy administration wanted to jump start the economy and spark social progress with a domestic program.
Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe became a majority in America after 1890.
New Jersey wanted one legislative body with equal representation for each state while the other wanted two.
The Students for a Democratic Society used a term to distinguish their efforts at grassroots democracy from those of the 1930s Old Left.
The territory was established by the Spanish in the 16th century and later became a state in the American Southwest.
The slogan of the Progressive party was "Government activism, including regulation of trusts, and recal of state court decisions that had progressive programs."
In the 1920s, black political influence grew in northern cities where African Americans were free to speak and act.
The Harlem Renaissance and "new Negro" nationalism were created by this political activity.
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware were created after the English conquered the Dutch colony in 1667.
In the final battle of the War of 1812, the Americans under General Andrew Jackson defeated the British in their attempt to seize the port of New Orleans, Louisiana.
The American public was against Spain.
He was the commander of the central Pacific during the Second World War.
The Japanese military had occupied the Pacific Islands.
The amendment gave women the right to vote.
He was involved in the investigation of Alger Hiss and went on to serve as vice president during the Eisenhower administration.
After being elected president in 1968, he slowed the federal enforcement of civil rights and appointed pro- Southern justices to the Supreme Court.
He started a program to Vietnamize the war.
America, North and South Vietnam, and the Viet Cong agreed to end the war in 1973.
The cease- fire between South Vietnam and North Vietnam was broken.
Nixon traveled to China and the Soviet Union in 1970, after declaring that America was no longer the world's policeman.
He resigned the presidency after the Watergate scandal erupted, but he was reelected.
Bush's education reform plan required states to set and meet learning standards for students and make sure that all students were proficient in reading and writing by the end of the plan.
The reports of students' standardized test scores were submitted by the states.
In their subject area, teachers were required to beficient.
Schools that didn't show progress would face sanctions.
Poor school districts would find it hard to meet the new guidelines because of the lack of funding for remedial programs.
Peaceful actions championed by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. were used to defy unjust laws.
The minister of King George III's cabinet was the one who brought the colonies closer to revolution.
The Tea Act of 1773 led to the Boston Tea Party.
Parliament passed four acts that galvanized colonial resistance in an effort to discipline Boston.
The United States, Canada, and Mexico signed an agreement eliminating trade barriers, making North America the largest free trade zone in the world.
In 1949, ten western European nations, the United States, and Canada formed a defense against Soviet expansion in Europe.
The land policy for new western territories in Ohio established the terms and conditions for self- government and statehood while also banning slavery from the region.
President Truman approved a top- secret policy paper that outlined a militaristic approach to combat the spread of global communism.
Some states claim to have the right to veto a federal law.
At the site of the annual Nazi party ral ies, twenty- one major German offenders faced an international military tribunal for Nazi atrocities.
The court acquitted three and sentenced eleven to death, three to life imprisonment, and four to shorter terms after a ten- month trial.
In the 2008 presidential election, Senator Barack Obama mounted an innovative Internet based and grassroots oriented campaign.
As the nation's economy nose- dived in the fall of 2008, Obama linked the Republican economic philosophy with the country's dismal financial state and promoted a message of "Change" and "politics of hope."
He became America's first person of color to be elected president.
Obama was re-elected to serve as president for a second term.
A grassroots movement protesting a capitalist system.
The movement started in Zuccotti Park in New York City and spread quickly across the nation.
She was the first woman to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States.
Reagan's critics said her appointment was a token gesture and not a sign of real commitment to gender equality.
The "Ohio gang" was given low- level positions in the American government in order to escape the pressures of the White House.
Hundreds of thousands of settlers came to western Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas after the American Revolution because of low land prices and fertile soil.
The movement to create urban parks grew out of his creation of New York's Central Park.
He designed parks for Boston, Brooklyn, Chicago, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and many other cities.
Secretary of State John Hay announced the policy in hopes of protecting the Chinese market for U.S. exports.
The introduction of barbed wire ended the informal system of governing property on the frontier in which small ranchers could graze their cattle anywhere on unfenced lands.
Business policy of not requiring union membership as a condition of employment has the effect of weakening unions and diminishing workers' rights.
After Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990, President George H. W. Bush sent American military forces to Saudi Arabia.
A multinational coalition was soon formed.
Desert Storm was renamed when the coalition's mission changed to retaking Kuwait.
The First Gulf War ended the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait.
The Al ies' assault on Hitler's "Atlantic Wal", a seemingly impregnable series of fortifications and minefields along the French coastline, was created using captive Europeans for laborers.
He was the leader of the group of physicists who built the first atomic bomb.
The Convention of 1818 between Britain and the United States established the Oregon Country as being west of the crest of the Rocky Mountains and the two countries were to occupy it.
The southern boundary of Russia's territorial claim in North America was established by the United States and Russia in 1824.
The agreement between Britain and Russia gave the Oregon Country clearly defined borders, but it was still under British and American control.
Thousands of settlers came to the Oregon Country in the late 1830s to take advantage of the fertile land and economic opportunities.
The leader of the Seminole nation was the one who resisted the federal Indian removal policy.
He was taken under a flag of truce and imprisoned at Fort Moultrie, where he was left to die.
Trail routes followed by wagon trains carrying settlers and trade goods from Missouri to the Oregon Country, California, and New Mexico began in the 1840s.
The transcontinental railroad was funded by Congress.
He was involved in the government's response to the Red Scare.
After several bombings across America, including one at Palmer's home, he and other Americans became convinced that there was a wel - organized Communist terror campaign at work.
A campaign of raids, deportations, and files on radical individuals was launched by the federal government.
A financial panic that began three years ago was triggered by a reduced demand of American imports, declining land values, and reckless practices by local and state banks.
A financial calamity in the United States was brought on by a dramatic slowdown in the British economy, failed crops, high inflation, and reckless state banks.
A financial calamity in the United States was brought on by a dramatic slowdown in the British economy, as well as high inflation, failed crops, and reckless state banks.
After several major railroad companies declared bankruptcy, there was a severe depression and violent clashes between workers and management.
During the California gold rush of 1849, a method of mining that used a large metal pan was used.
In 1955, she refused to give up her seat to a white man on a city bus in Montgomery, Alabama because of a local law that required blacks.
She was arrested for disobeying the law.
The Montgomery bus boycott was organized by black community leaders.
The Legislature of Great Britain is composed of the House of Commons, whose members are elected, and the House of Lords, whose members are hereditary or appointed.
A powerful political leader who control a "machine" of associates and operatives to promote both individual and party interests often uses informal tactics such as intimidation.
Slave owners used this rationalization to justify slavery.
Colonists fought against British authority before and during the Revolutionary War.
The "spoils system" is an informal system used by politicians to reward their supporters.
She was a leader of the women's suffragist movement.
She told female suffragists to use more militant tactics, such as chaining themselves to public buildings, inciting police to arrest them, and undertaking hunger strikes.
He was a champion of the upbeat and feel- good theology that was popular in the 1950s religious revival.
He wanted to get rid of any negative thoughts and replace them with faith, enthusiasm and joy, which would make an individual popular.
The American entry into the war was triggered by the Japanese attack on the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor.
A phrase used by whites in the South to refer to slavery without using the word slavery.
Farmers from the South and West were unable to gain political influence from the East.
Populists advocated a number of reforms, including free coinage of silver, a progressive income tax, postal savings banks, and direct election of U.S. senators.