ChAPTER 33 -- Part 9: Descent into the Abyss: World War I
As part of the effort to establish a viable Turkish nation, Ataturk launched a sweeping program of reforms.
A new Latin alphabet, women's suffrage, and the criticism of the veil were some of the radical changes his government introduced in the 1920s and 1930s.
His efforts to secularize and develop Turkey were the culmination of the changes made by the Ottomans over the preceding century.
The humiliation and anger of Arabs throughout the Middle to support Britain against the Turks East was caused by independence.
The Nationalist failed to keep promise and died in 1931.
The disposition of Palestine, where British occupation was to European nations in the Middle and promises of a Jewish homeland, made governments angry.
After 1922, Hussein and other Arab leaders were reassured.
The secretary of the movement promised prominent Zionist leaders in 1917 that his government would promote eastern Europe during the 1860s and lishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine after the war.
The formation of a number of organizations was the result of these dreams.
The persecution of the Jews of eastern Europe began in the last decades of the 19th century.
They called for a return to the Holy Land.
Jewish migration to Palestine in the last decades of the 19th century was impossible because the Society for the Colonization of Israel was founded to promote European nations.
In the tens of thousands, the return of Middle Eastern Jews to Palestine was argued for until World War I.
Jews in Germany, France, and other parts of western Europe were against the Zionism effort until the late 1890s.
Many in these communities have grown prosperous and powerful in their adopted lands.
Palestine became a flashpoint for years of bitter debate between the left and right in France because of his promotion of Jewish migration and exile to the notorious penal colony on Devil's Island.
French Jew was accused of passing the central aim of this organization to promote Jewish migration to and military secrets to the Germans and his settlement in Palestine until a point was reached when a state could be established in the area.
They would be guaranteed independence after the war.
The Arabs felt betrayed by the Jewish emigration to Palestine and their purchase of land in the state of Israel and this was a key factor in the promotion of Jewish migration to and settlement in Palestine.
The rising Arab opposition convinced many British officials to severely curtail the open-ended pledges made to the Zionists during the war.
The shift led to Zionism's distrust of British policies.
The Arab resistance to the Jewish presence in Palestine fed the Zionisms' determination to build up their own defense.
The emergence of strong leadership among the Arab population of Palestine was not matched by British attempts to limit Jewish emi gration and settlement.
1900-Present are rarely able to speak for themselves.
Arab leaders from other lands did not always understand the needs of the Palestinians.
The Christian and Muslim Arab communities in Palestine were more affected by the actions of the non-Palestinian spokesman.
When the war broke out, Egypt was already occupied by the British and they did not include it in their promises to the sherif Hussein.
The war in Egypt had taken a heavy toll on the Egyptian people, particularly the peasantry.
The defense of the canal was a priority for the British during the war.
After hostilities began, martial law was declared to guard against possible Muslim uprisings.
The armies of the empire were garrisoned in Egypt during the war.
The drain on the food supplies of the area was created by these.
The military of the precious draft animals of the peasantry forced labor and confiscations that led to widespread discontent.
Food shortages and even starvation occurred in some areas as the war dragged on.
Egypt was ripe for revolt by the end of the war.
The student-led riots eventually led to a limited Egyptian right insurrection.
Cairo was cut off from the outside world at one point.
If Western struggles to find wives for ized men were to be successful, a degree of Western education was needed for women in Asian and African Nationalist Movements.
Rabindranath's involvement in Africa and Asia to the daughters of low-class people was one of the reasons why missionary girls' schools were con.
The first generation of marginal social groups felt the problem acutely.
By the end of the 19th century, these Indian nationalist leaders that took up the task of teach schools had become quite respectable for women from the grow ing of their wives English and Western philosophy and literature.
This trend was often offset bring down deeply entrenched colonial regimes, women took by the male-centered nature of colonial education and the domestic on the dangerous tasks of messengers, bomb carriers, and guer focus of much of the curriculum in women's schools.
The transformation was particularly painful for women who had become more and more prominent as early as the time of the revolution.
Women in India who have been exposed to Western education are more likely to cut their hair and wear Western clothes.
The newspa was founded by upper-class Egyptian women.
Women became involved in mass demonstrations when nationalist leaders moved their anticolonial campaigns into marriage, educational opportunities for women, and an end to the streets.
The place of women in nationalist campaigns to mobilize female support was one of the things these early of imprisonment did.
The participation of both veiled women and more Western women were key features of the constitutions of many newly independ ized upper-class women had on mass demonstrations in 1919.
Most of the new states of Africa and Asia have yet to enjoy most of the popular support that has come their way.
In India and Egypt, female nationalists addressed laws provide crucial backing for the struggles for women's libera.