The answer to this question lies in the effect that the host crystal has on the atomic orbitals.
The color of the gemstones is caused by electron transitions.
The transition metals and their ion properties are examined more closely in this chapter.
The properties of coordination compounds are examined.
The common type of transition metal compound was discussed in Chapter 18.
There is a theory that explains the color of emerald and Ruby.
The red and yellow-green of peridot are caused by Fe2+.
Cu2+ causes the blue of turquoise.
The properties of the main-group elements seem to be the same as theirs.
Most transition metals have moderate to high densities, good electrical Conductivity, high melting points, and moderate to extreme Hardness.
Each element is unique and the transition metals have a wide variety of chemical behavior.
Let's review the electron configurations of the elements, first discussed in Chapter 9.
To find out how many Zr has more electrons than Kr, look across the row.
Co has more electrons than Ar.
The orbitals should be filled accordingly.
The third row of atoms increases and decreases.
The size of elements in the third row is the same as it is for elements in the first and second rows.
The second row has a small.
This pattern is different from that of the expected increase in radius from the first to the second transition main-group elements, especially when we consider that in any row but virtually no difference in radius from the second to the third.
The third row has more energy than the first two rows.
The atomic size between the first and second rows and the kJ/mol between the second and third rows are the same.
Following the main-group trend, first ionized energy increases across a row.
The third transition row has a higher energy than the first and second rows.
The increase is smaller than the increase in the main-group elements, but we expect that given the similarity in the sizes of the atoms.
Another example of the transition metals behaving differently from the main-group elements is the trend in electronegativity values down a group.
The electronegativity values increase from the first row to the second, but there is no further increase for the third row.
The difference is caused by a small change in atomic size and a large increase in nuclear charge as we move down a column for the transition elements.
One of the heaviest metals is gold.
Its electronegativity value is higher than that of some nonmetals and compounds of an Au- ion have been observed.
Following the main-group trend, 0.5 increases across a row.
The transition metals have a variety of oxidation states.
The highest oxidation state for a transition metal is +7 for manganese.
The same configuration is used for all of the highest oxidation states.