Edited Invalid date
ChAPTER 39 -- Part 3: Rebirth and Revolution:
After the mid-1950s, rapid economic growth made Japan's clearest mark internationally and commanded the most intense energies at home.
The combined totals of China, Koreas, Taiwan, India, Pakistan, Australia, and Brazil were equal to the total national product by 1983.
The per capita income of many countries, including Britain, had passed that of the leading Western nations.
During the 1960s and 1970s, Japan became one of the top two or three economic powers in the world, as annual economic growth reached at least 10 percent regularly from the mid-1950s onward.
The great automobile manufacturers and electronic equipment producers of Japan became known for their high quality goods, not just for the volume of their international exports.
There were a number of factors that contributed to the economic performance.
Government encouragement was a major ingredient.
Tokyo at night at the beginning of the 21st century epitomizes the resurgence of Asian economies.
Foreign policy was involved.
Japan was able to devote most of its capital to investment in productive technology because of its dependence on the U.S.
Japan's labor policies worked well.
The company unions that organized the workers were careful not to impair their companies' productivity.
This cooperation spurred work from most employees.
Group exercise sessions before the start of the working day, promoted and expressed group loyalty, and managers taking active interest in suggestions by employees are some of the social activities.
The Japanese system ensured lifetime employment to an important part of the labor force, a policy aided by economic growth, low average unemployment rates, and an early retirement age.
The network of policies and attitudes made Japanese labor seem less class-conscious and more individualism than in the West.
It was reminiscent of old traditions of group solidarity in Japan.
As a result of adapting older traditions of leadership, Japanese management displayed a distinctive spirit.
There was more group consciousness, including a willingness to abide by collective decisions and less concern for quick personal profits than in the West.
The efforts of corporate bureaucrats were focused on their company's success.
Many Japanese were reluctant to take vacations because of the lack of leisure life.
Despite some similarities to the West's indus trial experience, Japan's distinctiveness extended to family life.
Japanese women, despite being well educated and experiencing a decline in birth rates, did not follow Western patterns.
A small group of intellectuals were the focus of the feminist movement.
By the 1970s, women in the West were more focused on domestic duties and childrearing than they were within the family.
Complying to group standards was emphasized more in childrearing in the West than in China.
A study of nursery schools in Japan showed that the teachers wanted to develop strong bonds between the children.
In the early 19th century, the West abandoned a disciplined approach to behavior.
Japanese television game shows imposed punishments on losing contestants that were very similar to those in the West.
It was assumed that people could make and abide by firm arrangements through mutual agreement, for the nation had few lawyers.
Psychiatrists said there were less problems of loneliness in the West.
The situations that promoted competition between individuals, such as university entrance tests, produced far higher stress levels than Western experiences.
The Japanese used different ways to relieve tension.
The time in the West when normal codes of conduct could be suspended under the eyes of friends was when heavy drinking was more readily accepted.
geisha houses were used by businessmen and politicians for female-supplied cosseting, a normal and publicly accepted activity.
Japanese popular culture was not static because of continued attraction to Westernstan dards and rapid growth of the economy.
Baseball flourished after the U.S. presence after World War II.
Japanese athletes excelled in golf and tennis.
In the 1980's, the government was appalled to discover that a majority of Japanese children did not use chopsticks but preferred knives and forks in order to eat more quickly.
Japan relied heavily on family support for elders because of the cost of supporting the rapidly growing percentage of older people.
Other issues were associated with change.
As cities and industry expanded, pollution became a serious problem.
Traffic police wore masks to protect their lungs.
The government paid more attention to environmental issues after 1970.
There were new questions in Japan in the 1990s.
The Liberal Democrats were replaced by shaky coalition governments due to political corruption.
Unemployment was caused by the economic recession.
Even as Japanese methods were being promoted in the West as a basis for economic and social revival, some of the critical patterns of postwar development were disrupted.
Japan's 20th-century history allowed the Korean government to rest.
Review flashcards and saved quizzes
Getting your flashcards
Privacy & Terms