Sigmund Freud believed that one's personality was set in childhood.
A psychosexual stage theory of personality was proposed by him.
Stage theories are ones that don't involve continuous development.
The stages are qualitatively different from one another and people move between them in a stepwise fashion.
Stage theories suggest that everyone goes through all the stages in the same order.
The four stages of Freud's theory are the oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage and adult genital stage.
Some people refer to the period between the phallic stage and the adult genital stage as a stage.
Sexual urges were thought to be an important determinant of personality development by Freud.
The parts of the body that people derive sexual pleasure from are named for each of the stages.
Freud proposed that children enjoy sucking and biting because it gives them a form of sexual pleasure.
Children enjoy the act of elimination during the anal stage.
Boys view their fathers as rivals for their mothers' love in the Oedipus crisis, which occurs in this stage.
According to theorists, girls have a similar experience, the Electra crisis, in which they desire their fathers and see their mothers as competition for his love.
Greek mythology has named the crises after people who lived out the conflicts.
Freud suggests that boys and girls notice their physical differences.
Girls come to evidence penis envy, the desire for a penis, and boys suffer from castration anxiety, the fear that if they misbehave, they will be castrated.
Boys fear that their fathers will castrate them to eliminate them as rivals for their mothers.
Freud believed that the boys used the defense mechanism of identification to protect themselves.
The purpose of defense mechanisms is to protect the conscious mind from pain.
Identification is when people attach themselves to someone they think threatens them.
Freud says that identification serves a dual purpose.
Boys can't fear their fathers.
It encourages boys to break away from their mothers and learn to act like men.
During the six year period between the phallic stage and puberty, children push all their sexual feelings out of conscious awareness.
Children focus on other issues during latency.
They start school where they learn how to interact with others.
The adult genital stage is the last of Freud's stages.
People who are in this stage for the rest of their lives seek sexual pleasure through sexual relationships with other people.
Freud said that children could get fixated on any stage.
A fixation could be caused by either undergratified or overgratified.
A child who was not fed regularly or who was too busy might have an oral fixation.
A tendency to chew gum, an addiction to smoking, or a similar mouth-related behavior could be indicative of such people as adults.
A traumatic toilet training caused Freud to describe two kinds of personality.
A person with an anal expulsive personality is messy and disorganized.
The term anal retentive is used to describe people who are neat and organized.
Fixation in the phallic stage can lead to people who are sexually assured and aggressive or people who are consumed with their sexual inadequacies.
The psychic energy causes the libido to get stuck in one of the psychosexual stages.
Students confuse the terms unconscious and subconscious.
Freud wrote about the unconscious.
Freud believed that people's behavior is controlled by the unconscious region of their mind.
We don't have access to our unconscious thoughts.
Freud claimed that we spend a lot of psychic energy to keep threatening thoughts in the unconscious.
The unconscious mind was compared to the preconscious and the conscious by Freud.
The conscious mind has everything we are thinking about at any one time, while the preconscious has everything we could possibly summon to conscious awareness.
As you read these words, I hope you don't think about your plans for the upcoming weekend; these thoughts were in your mind.
Since I mentioned these plans, you have become aware of them.
According to Freud, the personality consists of three parts: the id, the ego, and the superego.
The id is unconscious and contains psychic energy.
Freud believed in two types of instincts, the life instincts and the death instincts.
The life instincts are directed by libido.
The desire for sex is what ero is most often seen as.
The id is driven by the pleasure principle.
The id is in the unconscious mind.
Babies are propelled by their ids.
They cry when they want something without thinking about the world around them.
The ego is the next part of the personality.
The reality principle states that the ego's job is to negotiate between the desires of the id and the limitations of the environment.
The ego is in both the conscious and unconscious mind.
The superego is the last part of the personality.
The ego operates on both the conscious and unconscious levels.
Children begin to think about what is right and wrong around the age of five.
Freud says that the sense of conscience is their superego.
The ego acts as a bridge between the id and the superego.
The id tells you to go to the party because it will be fun or to sleep because you are tired.
The superego wants you to study because it is the right thing to do.
A compromise is made by the ego.
You will study for two hours, then go to sleep.
Students can confuse the terms conscious and conscience.
Freudian theory emphasizes the contents of the unconscious as opposed to the conscious.
We are aware of what is happening in our conscious mind but not in our unconscious.
The conscience is our sense of right and wrong and is associated with the superego in Freudian theory.
The conscious mind is protected from threatening thoughts buried in the unconscious by the ego.
The conscious mind is protected by the defense mechanisms of the ego.
Muffy, captain of the high school cheerleading squad, decides to leave her boyfriend of two years, Biff, the star wide receiver of the football team, for the star of the school's chess team.
Biff is devastated, but his ego can choose from a variety of defense mechanisms to protect him.
Not accepting the truth.
Biff continues to act like he and Muffy are still together.
He waits by her locker, calls her, and plans their future dates.
Directing one's feelings to another person or object is called redirecting.
People who are less threatening than the source of the emotion are more likely to be displaced.
A child who is angry at his or her teacher is more likely to move his or her anger onto a friend than onto the teacher.
Biff's feelings of anger and resentment could be moved onto his little brother, pet hamster, or football.
It is believed that the feelings one has toward someone else are held by the other person and directed at themselves.
Biff insists that Muffy still cares for him.
The opposite of how one feels.
Biff claims he hates Muffy.
It was comforting to return to an earlier form of behavior.
Biff's favorite stuffed animal is Fuzzy Kitten.
The result of an undesirable occurrence.
Biff thinks he can find a better girlfriend.
Muffy isn't all that pretty, smart, or fun to be with.
An emotional study of a topic.
Biff is embarking on a research project about failed teen romances.
Channeling one's frustration towards a different goal.
Sublimation is seen as a good defense mechanism.
Biff publishes a small volume of poetry before graduating high school.
Students are often confused with displacement and projection.
In displacement, person A has feelings for person B but also has feelings for a third person or object.
In projection, person A believes that person B has feelings for him or her, but not for him or her.
There is little empirical evidence that supports Freudian theory.
If not impossible, it is difficult to verify the existence of Freud's constructs such as the unconscious, the Oedipus complex, and Thanatos.
Positive and negative reactions to the theory can be interpreted as support by the theory.
The man who vociferously protests the idea that his difficulties stem from an unresolved attraction to his mother can be accommodated by the theory.
The former is compelled by the logic of the argument, while the latter's resistance to the idea is evidence of a repressed desire.
Freudian theory doesn't have much predictive power.
While analysts can use the theory to create logical and often compelling explanations of why an individual acted in a certain way or developed a certain problem after the fact, psychoanalytic theory does not allow us to predict what problems an individual will develop ahead of time.
Psychoanalytic theory has been criticized for overestimating the importance of early childhood.
Freud's focus on sexual motivation led some psychologists to try to broaden the theory.
Feminism finds a lot of Freudian theory to be objectionable.
The concept of penis envy is an example.
Nancy Chodorow and Karen Horney believe that this idea came from Freud's assumption that men were superior to women.
They said that if women were envious of men, it was probably due to their advantages in society.
Men may suffer from womb envy, jealousy of women's reproductive capabilities.
Freud's claim that men have stronger superegos than women is disputed by feminists.
Freudian theory has had a profound effect on the world.
The idea that children are sexual creatures and that our behavior is shaped by unconscious thoughts is accepted by many people.
Freud's impact on culture is more important than contemporary psychology.
Many of the terms originally invented by Freud have crept into people's language.
Freud's ideas are used in the arts.
Woody Allen's films often feature a character undergoing a Freudian Freudian drama, as well as depictions of the unconscious, which are said to be created by Salvador Dali.
Some of Freud's early followers developed their own theories.
These approaches are referred to as psychodynamic or neo-Freudian approaches.
Psychodynamic theories were created by Carl Jung and Alfred Adler.
The personal unconscious and the collective unconscious are part of the unconscious.
Freud's view of the unconscious is similar to the personal unconscious.
Jung believed that an individual's unconscious contains memories and thoughts that the person doesn't want to confront.
The collective unconscious was compared by Jung to the personal unconscious.
According to Jung, the collective unconscious is passed down through the species.
Jung defined universal concepts we all share as part of the human species.
The persona is people's creation of a public image and the shadow is the evil side of personality.
The widespread existence of certain fears, such as fear of the dark, and the importance of the circle in many cultures, provides evidence for Archetypes.
Adler is called an ego psychologist because he downplayed the unconscious and focused on the conscious role of the ego.
Adler believed that people are motivated by fear of failure and the desire to achieve, which he called superiority.
Adler works on the importance of birth order in shaping personality.
According to trait theorists, we can describe people's personality by specifying their main characteristics.
These characteristics are thought to be stable and to motivate behavior in keeping with the trait.
When we talk about someone as friendly, we mean that they act in a friendly manner across different times and situations.
The same basic set of traits can be used to describe all people.
A nomothetic approach is characterized by a belief.
Hans Eysenck believed that we could describe a person's personality by distinguishing them on a scale of introversion-extraversion and stable-unstable.
Raymond Cattell developed a test to measure what he believed to be the 16 basic qualities of a person.
The big five personality traits are extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and emotional stability.
Extraversion is how outgoing someone is.
Agreeableness is dependent on how easy it is to get along with someone.
People who are conscientious tend to be responsible and organized.
One's creativity, curiosity, and willingness to try new things are related to openness to new experiences.
It has to do with how consistent one's mood is.
How can psychologists reduce the number of different terms they use to describe people?
Factor analysis is used to do this.
Factor analysis can be used to see which traits cluster together as factors.
If a correlation is found between punctuality, diligence, and neatness, one could argue that they are related to conscientiousness.
The big five personality traits are extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness and emotional stability.
idiographic theorists say that using the same set of terms to classify all people is impossible.
They argue that each person needs to be seen in terms of his or her unique self.
Honesty may be important in describing one person, but it may not be as important in describing someone else.
Gordon Allport believed that a full understanding of a person's personality was impossible without looking at his or her personal characteristics.
There are three different types of personal traits.
He said that a small number of people are so influenced by one trait that it plays a major role in virtually everything they do.
He referred to them as cardinal dispositions.
There are two different types of dispositions that can be used to describe personality.
According to their names, central dispositions have a larger influence on personality than secondary dispositions.
Central dispositions describe more significant aspects of personality.
trait theories underestimate the importance of the situation Nobody is always friendly.
Critics say that to describe someone's personality, we need to consider the context.
Biological theories of personality view genes, chemicals, and body types as the main factors in determining who a person is.
The idea that human personality is shaped by genetics is supported by a growing body of evidence.
People think that trait are not necessarily inherited.
Heritability is a measure of the amount of variation in a trait.
Over 90 percent of the variation in Americans' height is thought to be due to genetic factors.
Intelligence is thought to be 50 to 70 percent heritability, which is less strongly linked to genetic factors.
People's temperaments are typically defined as their emotional style and characteristic way of dealing with the world, and genes play a role in that.
Babies seem to differ immediately at birth.
Some like new stimuli while others are afraid.
Some seem very active and emotional while others are calm.
Babies are born with different temperaments according to psychologists.
A child's personality is thought to be influenced by his or her temperament.
The earliest theories of personality were biological.
Hippocrates believed that personality was determined by the levels of fluids in the body.
Blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm were the four humors.
A cheerful person was said to have a lot of blood.
Hippocrates is thought to be one of the first people to recognize that biological factors impact personality.
The somatotype theory was one of the earliest biological theories of personality.
There are three body types: endomorphs, mesomorphs, and ectomorphs.
The body types were associated with certain personality traits.
For instance, mesomorphs were friendly and outgoing, while endomorphs were shy and secretive.
His methodology has been questioned, and his findings have not been replicated.
Even if it were found to be valid and reliable, his research doesn't show that biology shapes personality.
B. F. Skinner is a radical behaviorist.
According to these theorists, the way most people think of personality is meaningless.
According to this view, personality is determined by the environment.
One's personality is created by the reinforcement contingencies that are exposed.
Behaviorists believe we can change people's personality by changing their environments.
Radical behaviorists are criticized for not recognizing the importance of cognitive functions.
Many psychologists call themselves cognitive-behavioral or social-cognitive theorists.
They have ideas about personality.
There are many models of personality that combine the emphasis on the environment with the focus on patterns of thought.
The models are referred to as social-cognitive or cognitive-behavioral.
Albert Bandura believes that personality is created by an interaction between the person and the environment.
His model is based on the idea of reciprocal determinism.
The three factors influence both of the other two in a constant looplike fashion.
Brad is friendly.
Brad's behavior is influenced by this personality trait.
He goes to a lot of parties because it influences the environments he puts himself in.
Brad's loquacious behavior makes the parties even more partylike.
The more Brad talks, the more friendly he thinks he is.
Brad's outgoing nature is reinforced by the environment of the party, which encourages him to talk to many people.
People's sense of self-efficacy affects their personality.
People with high self-efficacy think they can get things done while people with low self-efficacy think they can't.
Bandura believed that people's sense of self-efficacy has an effect on their actions.
Two students of equal abilities are taking a test.
The one with higher self-efficacy would act in ways to make that happen, for example, spending more time on the test questions.
The theory of personality was proposed by George Kelly.
Kelly believes that people develop their own systems of personal constructs when trying to understand their world.
Such constructs have pairs of opposites such as fair-unfair, smart-dumb, and exciting-dull.
People use these constructs to evaluate their world.
Kelly believed that people's behavior is determined by how they see the world.
His theory is based on the idea that people's behavior is influenced by their cognitive abilities and that by knowing how they have behaved in the past, we can predict how they will act in the future.
Bandura's concept of self-efficacy is one of the ideas put forth by social-cognitive theorists.
The final example is a concept by Rotter.
A person can be described as either an internal or an external control.
People with an internal control feel like they are in charge of what happens to them.
They think hard work will lead to success.
People with an external control believe that luck and other forces outside of their control determine their fate.
A person's control over how they think and act can affect their personality.
A number of positive outcomes have been found to be associated with an internal locus of control.
Internals tend to be more politically active and do better in school than externals.
The findings are based on correlational research, so we can't conclude that the control of the environment causes the differences.
Many of the models of personality are deterministic.
The belief is that what happens is dictated by what has happened in the past.
The personality of an individual is determined by what happened in his or her early childhood.
According to behaviorists, personality is determined by the environment in which one was raised.
The existence of free will is not supported by either theory.
Humanistic psychology has embraced the idea of free will.
The third force is often referred to as the perspective that came in opposition to the determinism.
Humanistic theories of personality view people as innately good and able to determine their own destinies through the exercise of free will.
People's subjective experience and feelings are important to psychologists.
They look at the importance of a person's self-esteem.
A person's self-concept is a global feeling.
Someone with high self-esteem is likely to have a positive self-concept.
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow were two of the most influential psychologists.
The men believed that people are motivated to reach their full potential or self-actualize.
You can read about the hierarchy of needs in the motivation chapter.
Rogers came up with self-theory.
Although people are innately good, they need certain things from their interactions with others in order to self-actualize.
blanket acceptance is a kind of positive regard.
No matter what, parents make their children feel loved.
Parents who make their children feel as if they will be loved only if they earn high grades or have good friends are sending the wrong message to their children.
Rogers believes that people need to feel accepted in order to make strides toward self-actualization.
Humanistic theories of personality are criticized for being overly optimistic.
It is difficult to explain the number of terrible acts that people commit if they are innately good and strive to do their best.
Reliability and validity are important in personality assessment.
Even if the results are not accurate, reliable measures still yield the same results.
A valid test measures what it purports to measure.
There is a more detailed discussion of these issues in the testing chapter.
Depending on their theoretical orientation, psychologists' methods of assessing people's personality differ.
The types of psychologists most likely to use some of the most common ways of measuring personality are described below.
Projective tests are used by psychiatrists.
People are asked to interpret stimuli.
The Rorschach test involves showing people a series of inkblots and asking them to describe what they see.
TheTA T consists of a number of cards, each of which has a picture of a person in an ambiguous situation.
People are asked to describe what is happening.
Psychoanalysts say that people's interpretations reflect their unconscious thoughts since the inkblots and TAT cards are ambiguous.
People project their unconscious thoughts onto ambiguous stimuli.
Someone who is struggling with aggressive impulses may be more likely to describe violent themes.
It is a complicated process to score projective tests.
The Rorschach test looks at more than just the content people describe but also the way they hold and turn the card.
Many people think that projective tests are unreliable because they rely so much on the therapists' interpretations.
Self-report inventories are a simpler and more widespread method of personality assessment.
People are asked to provide information about themselves in self-report inventories.
Many different kinds of psychologists, such as humanistic psychologists, trait theorists, and cognitive-behavioral psychologists, might use self-report inventories as one means to gather data about someone.
These kinds of tests are often referred to as objective personality tests since they are unlikely to be affected by evaluator bias since people's scores are determined by their answers.
An interview is a subjective assessment.
Some believe that subjective measures yield richer and more valid data, despite the fact that subjectivity decreases reliability and opens the door to bias.
One of the most widely used self-report instruments is the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory.
People may not be completely honest in answering the questions.
There are "lie scales" built into some tests to try to detect when people are lying.
Radical behaviorists argue that the only way to measure people's personality is to observe their behavior.
Observations of a person's behavior is one way that cognitive-behavioral psychologists can gather data.
People are curious about what personality assessments say about them.
People are susceptible to being deceived because of their curiosity.
People tend to see themselves in stock descriptions of their personality.
The Barnum effect is used by fortune-tellers and psychics.
When confronted with people who offer quick descriptions of your life or future, be skeptical because personality has proved difficult to define.
Five suggested answers or completions are followed by each of the questions or incomplete statements.
Pick the one that is the best.
Over the course of a year, Cettina fills out a personality inventory.
Each administration of the test has very different results.
Juan never admits he has a crush on Sally.
Dr. Li's clients are asked to interpret ambiguous pictures of people.
People are motivated to self-actualize according to humanistic psychologists.
At age eight, he sucked his thumb.
He smokes, chews gum, and thinks constantly as an adult.