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13.5 The Structures of Ionic Solids -- Part 2
Ceramics are used to make bricks, tiles, pottery, dishware, and insulation in electrical devices.
Hard, strong, nonconductive, and brittle are some of the properties they display.
The Greeks were among the first accomplished potters, and the area of Keramikos was the potters' quarter of Athens.
Potterypredates recorded history.
The Venus of Dolni is the oldest example of a figurine.
There are three types of ceramics: silicate, oxide and nonoxide.
Many ceramics are composed of aluminosilicates, a class of minerals in which some of the Silicon atoms in the silicate structure are replaced by aluminum.
The clay becomes the ceramic substance when it is heated.
The clay kaolinite, Al2Si2O5(OH)4 undergoes irreversible chemical and structural changes when heated.
The oldest known ceramic object is a white ceramic solid containing an extended network of Si-O and Al-O.
The most important component of porcelain was discovered in the Czech Republic in 1925.
Modern Materials and Solids were originated in China during the Han dynasty.
When formed into cups for drinking tea, Chinese porcelain became highly valued and prized for its beauty.
The Chinese exported their wares to the Middle East and the West and kept their recipe a secret for hundreds of years.
In electrical applications, slicate ceramics are used as insulators.
Al2O3 and MgO are oxide ceramics.
The materials show the advantages and disadvantages of ceramic materials.
Both are stable at high temperatures.
There are materials that can be used in high-temperature applications.
Industrial furnaces, high-speed cutting tools, crucibles, heating elements, and fire proof are some of the uses of aluminum oxide and magnesium oxide.
Engineers want to use the high-temperature stability of ceramics to make ceramic electrical engines.
A ceramic engine that runs at a higher temperature will be more efficient and require less cooling.
The pursuit of ceramics has been difficult due to their less desirable characteristics.
Thermal shock can cause brittle ceramic materials to crack.
ceramics break when metals bend under stress.
A completely ceramic mass-produced engine remains elusive even though ceramics have found limited use as components of engines.
Nonoxide ceramics include substances such as Si3N4 and SiC.
Silicon nitride is a network covalent solid with a structure similar to silica; the Silicon atoms sit in the center of nitrogen tetrahedra that are linked.
Silicon nitride is used in ball bearings.
Boron isoelectronic with C2 and forms structures similar to carbon.
The sheets can be formed with only dispersion forces between the sheets.
A good high-temperature lubricant can be made from this form of BN.
A hard, strong substance similar to diamond can be found in another form of boron nitride.
Boron nitride is used to make cutting tools.
The aluminum oxide crucible is a container in which substances can be lar to those formed by carbon.
Silicon is subjected to high temperatures and has a diamond structure.
It finds applications as an abrasive and is also used as a refractory material.
The Romans used lime, volcanic ash, and clay to make cement, which hardened into a rocklike substance.
The dome of the Pantheon was built using cement.
The largest unreinforced concrete dome is still here.
Portland cement is the majority of the cement used today.
A final rocklike substance is produced when the powdered mixture reacts with water in a number of complex reactions.
The formation of Si-O-Si bridges is part of the hardening process.
The original Portland cement was patented in 1824 by The Roman Pantheon.
It has a 2000-year-old cement that resembles a prestigious building stone from the Isle of Portland in a concrete dome.
Southwest England is named after this resemblance.
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