Augustus was depicted on coins and stone arches built to commemorate military victories.
He had temples, sta diums, marketplaces, and public buildings constructed in Rome and other cities.
In the social realm, Augustus promoted marriage and childbearing through legal changes that freed free women and freed women who had given birth to a certain number of children, from male guardianship.
Men and women who were unmarried or had no children were not allowed to inherit property.
Rome expanded in all directions, eventually controlling the entire Mediterranean.
Today's major cities were founded as Roman colonies.
Aside from addressing legal issues, Augustus encouraged poets and writers.
The golden age of Latin literature was during his rule.
Roman poets and prose writers celebrated human accomplishments in works that were highly polished, elegant and intellectual.
The greatest poet of Rome was Virgil.
The legend of Aeneas, who escaped to Italy at the fall of Troy, is based on the account of the founding of Rome and the early years of the city.
Aeneas became the lover of Dido, the widowed queen of Carthage, but left her because his destiny called him to Rome.
Aeneas left Dido because he wanted the good of the state ahead of marriage or pleasure.
The real events of Antony and Cleopatra were not lost on the audience.
It fit with Augustus's aims to make the public aware of the paral els.
Roman expansion into northern and western Europe was one of the most significant aspects of Augustus's reign.
The Roman road system linked new settlements with one another and with Italy when Augustus conquered Spain and founded twelve new towns in Gaul.
He made the Rhine River the Roman frontier.
Roman legions penetrated the areas of modern Austria, southern Ba varia, and western Hungary.
Modern Serbia, Bulgaria, and Romania all fell.
The legionaries built fortified camps in this area.
Settlements grew around the camps after roads linked them with one another.
For the first time, central and northern Europe came into direct and continuous contact with Mediterranean culture when traders began to frequent the frontier.
The Romans didn't force their culture on native people.
Security, order, harmony, flourishing ments, and trade and production flourished in the provinces as the city of Rome grew.
Rome expanded economy and culture during the first and second centuries.
Caligula and Nero were weak and frivolous.
Military rebel ion and widespread disruption were caused by Nero's incompetent rule.
He expanded the emperor's powers and turned Augustus's principate into a hereditary monarchy.
The Roman government has undergone a number of changes since Augustus's day.
The imperial bureaucracy created by Claudius was made more organized by Hadrian, who became emperor in 118 c.e.
The innovations helped the empire run more efficiently while increasing the emperor's authority.
The Roman army changed from a mobile unit to a defensive force.
The network of roads was expanded to provide for the forts and to reinforce them in times of trouble.
The Roman road system was longer than the current interstate highway system in the United States.
The personnel of the legions were changing as well.
The soldiers were mostly drawn from the provinces because Italy could no longer supply all the recruits needed for the army.
barbarians who joined the army to gain Roman citizenship were among the provincial soldiers.
The era of peace created a lot of wealth.
The city had a population of between 500,000 and 750,000 and became the largest in the world.
Most Romans were poor, living in shoddily con structed houses and taking whatever work they could find.
In Augustus's day, fire and crime were a problem.
New construction and urban planning improved the situation in the second century.
Engineers built an elaborate sewage col ection system.
They built hundreds of miles of underground aqueducts to bring fresh water into the city from the surrounding hills.