The houses of the Islamic empires were great examples of art and architecture.
Powerful new Islamic states emerged after the decline of the Mongol Empire.
By the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire was centered in Anatolia, while the Safavid Empire in Persia and the Mughal Empire in India held vast territories from the Balkans to the Bay of Bengal.
The Ottoman Empire was one of the largest, best-organized, and most enduring political entities in the world.
The Shi'a state was created in Persia by the Safavid Dynasty.
The leader of the Mughals, Babur, and his successors gained control of a large part of India.
The flowering of intellectual and architectural creativity was started by the Mughal rule.
These three states were often at war with each other, but they shared important characteristics.
They all had to adapt their armies to the introduction of firearms, because their ruling houses all emerged from Turkish tribal organizations.
Merchants, poets, philosophers, artists, and military advisers moved relatively easily across their political boundaries as they became strongly linked culturally.
Europeans were active in trade in India before the end of the period.
The decline of the Abbasid caliphate in the 13th century was caused by the Turks moving west and gaining control over key territories.
The Turks resumed their expansion after the strength of the Mongols waned in the late 13 to mid-fourteenth century.
Timur, also known as Tamerlane, built a Central Asian empire from his base in Samarkand that reached into India and the Black Sea.
His empire was in decline by 1450 after his sons and grandson fought each other for succession.
Islam became the most important force integrating the region as Sufi orders flourished.
The three main empires were formed from the small Turkish chiefs.
The Ottomans took their name from Osman, the leader of a group of seminomadic Turks who migrated into western Anatolia.
After Timur's death in 1405 the Ottomans reasserted themselves.
Like the Habsburgs, the Ottomans rose to rule a vast empire that encompassed many different peoples and ethnic groups.
The army and the bureaucracy worked together to unify the territories.
The Turkish empire lasted from 1299 to 1922.
Osman's campaigns were intended to subdue.
The Muslims of Anatolia were absorbed by the Ottomans and they became the protectors of the Orthodox Church and millions of Greek Christians in the Balkans.
The Ottomans were masters of the Balkans between 1326 and 1352.
The Ottomans made slaves of many captives and trained them as soldiers.
Mehmet was called "the Conqueror" because he captured Constantinople at the age of twenty-one and ended the Byzantine Empire, but he is also known for his patronage of the arts and appreciation of beauty.
Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, was conquered by the Ottomans in 1403.
The Ottomans considered themselves successors to both the Byzantine and Seljuk Turk emperors and quickly absorbed the rest of the Byzantine Empire.
They expanded through the Middle East and into North Africa in the 16th century.
The Ottomans used an Arabic word to describe their ruler.
Mehmet ordered wealthy residents to build mosques, markets, fountains, baths, and other public facilities to begin the transformation of Constantinople into an imperial Ottoman capital.
Mehmet gave tax breaks and possession of empty houses to inhabitants of other territories to make up for the loss of population.
He wanted them to start businesses and make Istanbul prosperous.
The expansion of the Ottoman state was aided by gunpowder, which was invented by the Chinese and used by the Europeans.
The Ottomans used this technology to gain control of shipping in the eastern Mediterranean and eliminate the Portuguese from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf.
The Ottomans turned the Safavids back from Anatolia in 1514 under the military leadership of Selim.
The Ottomans gained control of the holy cities of Islam in the 16th century.
The Ottomans extended their rule across North Africa to Tunisia and Algeria.
Most of the Arabs lived under Ottoman rule for the next four centuries.
The tent was made of leather, linen, cotton, silk, and wool.
In 1729, it was acquired by the ruler of Saxony and used for official events, including royal weddings and military parades.
The king and thousands of his nobles were killed at Mohacs in 1526 by Suleiman's army.
The Turks tried to take over the Habsburg capital of Vienna.
The Ottoman Empire was a key player in European politics.
Francis I of France and Suleiman formed an alliance in 1525 in order to prevent Habsburg domination of Europe.
The Habsburg emperor sought an alliance with the Persians.
Suleiman renewed the French agreement with Francis's son, Henry II, which became the cornerstone of Ottoman policy in western Europe.
The consolidation of the national monarchy in France was made possible by Ottoman pressure.
The Ottomans did not have complete control over the seas.
The Ottomans conquered Cyprus in 1570 because of competition with the Habsburgs and pirates for control of the Mediterranean.
Pope Pius V organized a Holy League against the Turks, which resulted in a victory off the west coast of Greece with a squadron of more than two hundred Spanish, Venetian, and papal galleys.
The Turks rebuilt their entire fleet quickly.
The sultans' attention was focused on the war with Persia throughout the 16th and 17th century.
Competition to expand at each other's expense in Mesopotamia, desire to control trade routes, and European alliances are some of the issues at the root of the long and exhausting conflict.
The treaty of Kasr-I-Shirim established a permanent border between the two powers after Baghdad was captured by the Ottomans.
The classic form of the Ottoman political system was reached by Suleiman I.
The sultan gave all authority to his public servants.
The new general code of laws was drawn up by a poet and juridical scholar of slave origin, who was ordered by Suleiman.
Foreign merchants' payment of bribes to avoid customs duties was one of the ways it sought to reform bureaucratic and financial corruption.
Balanced government budgets were introduced by the legal code.
The head of the religious establishment was asked to reconcile sultanic law with Islamic law.
The chief assistants are the caliphs.
Those in North Africa were ruled by the Ottomans relatively lightly.
Governors of distant provinces collected taxes and maintained trade routes, but they did not control the countryside.
The power of the central government of the Ottoman empire was maintained through the training of slaves.
Slaves were captured in battle, purchased from Spain, North Africa, and Venice, or drafted through the system known as by which the sultan's agents forced Christian families in the Balkans to sell their boys.
The slave boys were trained for the army and civil service after being converted to Islam.
The palace school was where the top 10 percent of students learned to read and write in order to get into administrative jobs.
The boys were sent to Turkish farms to get ready for military service.
They formed the elite army corps.
The janissary corps was loyal to the sultan and adapted easily to use firearms.
The devshirme system enabled the Ottomans to apply merit-based recruitment to military and administrative offices at little cost and provided a means of assimilating Christians living in Ottoman lands.
The sultan's agents swept the provinces for Christian youths to be trained as soldiers or civil servants.
They formed the elite army corps.
Many of the people in the Ottoman ruling class were slaves of the sultan.
They held landed estates for the duration of their lives in return for their services to the sultan.
Turkish nobles did not have a local base independent of the ruler because all property belonged to the sultan.
The Ottoman system is different from European feudalism in that it does not have a hereditary nobility or private ownership of agricultural land.
The sultan's failure to marry was a characteristic of the Ottomans.
The sultans did not contract legal marriages but perpetuated the ruling house.
The child was given a province under his mother's supervision.
The sultan's sons were allowed to inherit the throne and fratricide often resulted in their deaths.
A woman who is a recognized spouse but not a wife.
Slave soldiers and slave viziers were developed parallel to the Ottoman development.
All positions were held at the sultan's pleasure and were more reliable than a hereditary nobility.
Being a slave of the imperial household was associated with great social prestige and the opportunity to gain power and wealth.
A contemporary European artist has depicted Hurrem.
The daughter of a Ruthenian priest, Hurricane was born in the western Ukraine and was given a Polish name.
Tartars captured and enslaved her.
She was given a gift by Suleiman on the occasion of his accession to the throne.
Hurrem is said to have brought joy to Suleiman.
They had four sons and a daughter by the year 1525.
He waited eight or nine years before making Hurrem his legal wife, the first slave concubine so honored.
Hurrem was an important player in the political, diplomatic, and philanthropic life of the Ottoman state for the rest of her life.
Her position as mother of the prince gave her great power.
She was the most trusted adviser to the sultan.
Hurrem wrote him long letters filled with her love and longing for him and her prayers for his safety during his frequent trips to the far-flung corners of his multiethnic empire.
She shared information about affairs in Istanbul, the activities of the grand vizier, and the attitudes of the janissaries.
At a time when some people thought the sultan's absence from the capital would endanger his hold on the throne, Hurrem acted as his eyes and ears.
The sultan's contact with her native Poland sent more embassies to Istanbul than any other power.
Peace between Poland and the Ottomans was maintained through her correspondence.
Hurrem sent greetings to Sigismund II when he succeeded his father, along with two pairs of pajamas and six handkerchiefs.
She sent the shah of Persia gold-embroidered sheets and shirts that she sewed herself in order to keep peace between the Ottomans and the Safavids.
Hurrem was able to participate in his building program because of the enormous stipend Suleiman gave her.
In Jerusalem, she founded aHospice for fifty-five pilgrims that included a soup kitchen that fed four hundred pilgrims a day.
In Istanbul Suleiman built and Hurrem endowed a mosque and a bath for women near the Women's Market.
The sultan's favorite and mother of the prince were two functions that were not in Ottoman political theory.
The roles of slave concubine and imperial wife were performed by her.
Turks disliked Hurrem's interference at the court.
They thought she was behind the execution of the popular son of Suleiman to make way for her own son to succeed as sultan.
After the fall of Timur's empire in 1450, Persia was controlled by Turkish lords until 1501, when fourteen-year-old Isma'il led a Turkish army to capture Tabriz.
The earlystate had three important features.
The skills of urban bureaucrats were used by the state to make them an essential part of the civil machinery of government.
It secured the loyalty and military support of nomadic Turkish Sufis who were known as(KIH-zihl-bahsh) because of the red hats they wore.
The shah was supplied with troops by the Qizilbash in return for the vast grazing lands.
The state religion of the dynasty that ruled Persia and other regions from 1501 to 1722 was Shi'ism.
Turkish Sufis gave military troops in exchange for grazing rights.
The compulsory religion of the empire was the Shi'a faith.
The Shi'a believed that the Prophet Muhammad's descendants were the rightful leaders of Muslims.
Isma'il claimed to be descended from a line of 12 leaders, beginning with Ali, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law.
Isma'il recruited Shi'a scholars to teach and guide his people, and he persecution and exiled Sunni religious scholars who interpret the Qur'an and the Sunna.
Iran is the only Muslim state in which Shi'ism is the official religion.
Shah Abbas moved the capital from Qazvin to Isfahan.
In the military realm, he used the Ottoman practice of building an army of slaves, mostly captives from the Caucasus, as a counterbalance to the Qizilbash, who had come to be considered a threat.
He alliances with European powers against the Ottomans and Portuguese and increased the use of gunpowder weapons.
In his campaigns against the Ottomans, Shah Abbas captured Baghdad.
The power of the kingdom of Persia in the late 16th century was dependent on its strong military force, Shi'a Muslim faith, and rich trade in rugs and pottery.
Tabriz, Qum, and Shiraz are some of the great rug-weaving centers on the map.
The conflict between the Ottomans and the Safavids wasn't even.
The Ottomans had more people and wealth than the Safavids, but they had to defend against encroachments on their western border.
Some of the Turks in Ottoman lands were attracted by the fact that their government had moved too far from their nomadic roots.
After Shah Abbas, the power of the samaritans was lost due to civil war.
India was the largest, wealthiest, and most populous country.
At the end of the 17th century, with a population between 100 and 150 million, the Mughal Empire was larger than the other two.
The only Dynasty that could compare was the Ming Dynasty in China.
The Muslim empire of India was the largest, wealthiest, and most populous of the Islamic empires of the early modern world.
After being forced out of a small territory in Central Asia, a Turkish ruler established a kingdom in Afghanistan.
An adventurer who claimed descent from Timur and Chinggis Khan moved southward in search of resources to restore his fortunes.
The sultan of Delhi was defeated at Panipat in 1526 by a force of only twelve thousand men.
The capture of Agra and Delhi, key fortresses of the north, paved the way for further conquests in northern India.
Many of his soldiers wanted to return north with their spoils, but he decided to stay in India.
A gifted writer, Babur wrote an autobiography in Turkish that recounts his military campaigns, describes places and people he encountered, reports his difficulties giving up wine, and shows his wide-ranging interests in everything from fruit and swimming to a Turkish general who excelled at leapfrog.
There are few pleasures to recommend Hindustan.
The people are not handsome.
They have no idea of the charms of friendly society.
The Mughals lost most of their territories in Afghanistan.
The reign of Akbar may be the greatest in the history of India.
Akbar pursued expansionist policies when he was a boy.
Most of the north of the Godavari River was encompassed by the Mughal state under his leadership.
Akbar's armies could not be resisted.
The states of northern India were forced into a centralized political system by the Mughal emperor.
Persian was the official language of the Mughal Empire until the British replaced it with English in 1835.
Akbar created an administrative bureaucracy centered on four co-equal ministers: finance, the army and intelligence, the judiciary and religious patronage, and the imperial household, whose jurisdiction included roads, bridges, and infrastructure throughout the empire.
A uniform system of taxes was put in place by Raja Todar Mal.
The emperor appointed the governors in the provinces.
Akbar used the services of royal princes, nobles, and warrior-aristocrats, unlike the Ottoman sultans and shahs who used slaves from non- Muslim lands for military and administrative positions.
Akbar recruited Persians and Hindus to reduce the influence of Muslims from Central Asia.
The emperor could not be challenged by any ethnic or religious group.
The Mughal Empire was extended by Akbar's descendants.
Shah Jahan launched fresh territorial expansion.
Shah Jahan was faced with revolts by Muslims in Ahmadnagar and the resistance of the newly arrived Portuguese in Bengal and he strengthened his northwestern frontier.
Aurangzeb deposed his father and kept him in a small cell for years.
Aurangzeb ruled more of India than any previous Mughal emperor, as well as being a skillful general and a clever diplomat, because he extended the realm deeper into south India.
The beginning of the empire's decline was marked by his reign.
His non- Muslim subjects were not happy with his religious beliefs.
Major uprisings took place in the south during the resistance to Mughal rule.
Jahangir, the fourth Mughal emperor, was as much a patron of the arts as a military commander.
He wrote a memoir like his great-grandfather.
The representation of Jahangir's actions in the memoir can be compared to that of the French king Louis XIV, whose advice to his heir has been preserved.
The landholders on that route should plant at every town and village, and every stage and halt place, all the way from Lahore to Agra.
At the passage of every river, large or small, convenient bridges were erected so that the traveler could pursue his objects without obstruction or delay.
Private individuals take advice from other clever people.
Our lofty position makes us different from our people to whom our ministers are closer, and so we must make up our minds and take measures.
Add to this their age, experience, deliberations, and their greater liberty to obtain information and suggestions from their inferiors, who in their turn gather them from others, step by step down to the lowest.
It is incumbent upon us, my son, to choose what must be done, because when they have reported to us all the aspects and all the opposing reasons, all that is done elsewhere in similar cases, all that has been done previously, and all that might be done today, it is If we don't have good sense or courage, there is no one else who can make a better one than us.
Jahangir describes the improvements to the roads in his empire.
The artistic and intellectual flowering of the three Islamic empires was extraordinary.
New religious practices and conflicts emerged at the same time as people found new outlets for socializing and exchanging ideas.
The Turks have had a common Persian influence on their culture since the tenth century.
The exchange was aided by shared languages.
The Mughals used Persian as the administrative language in India, and Arabic was the lingua franca of the entire region.
Both Persian and Arabic were literary languages in Ottoman lands, but Turkish became thelingua of the realm.
A courtly romance illustration depicts several women in a garden listening to a musician with cups of beverage in their hands.
carpetmaking was one of the arts shared by the three empires.
As they moved,Turkic migrants carried their weaving traditions with them but also adopted new ones.
Shah Abbas built a small business of carpet weaving into a national industry in order to improve his country's export trade.
More than twenty-five thousand weavers were employed in the capital city of Isfahan to make woolen carpets, brocades, and silks of brilliant color, design, and quality.
Women and children were often employed as weavers because of their smaller hands.
Miniature painting was an art that spread from Persia to both Ottoman and Mughal lands.
There was a relationship between carpets and painting.
There are depictions of flowers and animals in both book illustrations and carpets.
The carpet was made in Turkey in the 17th century.
Like most other rugs of the region, it is made of hand-knotted wool and has symmetrical geometric designs.
Throughout the Muslim world, books were considered to be precious objects.
Time, talent, and expensive materials went into their production, and they were highly coveted because they reflected wealth, learning, and power.
Akbar had twenty-four thousand books when he died.
His Majesty's library is divided into several parts, according to the historian Abu'l-Fazl.
Hindi, Persian, Greek, Kashmirian, Arabic are all works of fiction.
They are also inspected in this order.
Every day, experienced people bring them and read them to His Majesty, who hears them from beginning to end.
Capital cities and imperial palaces were built by strong rulers.
Istanbul was adorned with palaces, mosques, schools, and libraries by Suleiman "the Magnificent".
The reconstruction of the water systems of the great pilgrimage sites at Mecca and Jerusalem benefited his subjects.
Both Persia and Mughal India had rulers with similar ambitions.
Mimar Sinan was the greatest builder under the Ottomans.
Sinan designed 312 public buildings, including mosques, schools, hospitals, public baths, palaces, and burial chapels.
The Shehzade and Suleimaniye Mosques in Istanbul were designed to maximize the space under the dome.
The jewel of the Safavid Empire was made by Shah Abbas.
He put a polo ground in the center and surrounded it with palaces, mosques, and bazaars.
In the bazaar, one could find fine china, pottery, silks and velvets, and other high quality items.
Mosques were decorated with blue tile.
Private houses had their own garden courts, while public gardens, pools, and parks adorned the wide streets.
Shah Jahan had the most sophisticated interest in architecture.
In 1639, he found a new capital city because his capital at Agra was too small.
Persian ideas dominated the design and layout of the buildings.
The walled palace-fortress extended over 125 acres.
It was built partly of red sandstone and partly of marble and had chambers for the emperor's wives and concubines, mansions for the emperor's wives and concubines, huge audience rooms for the conduct of public business, and vast gardens filled with flowers, trees, and thirty The palace-fortress housed fifty-seven thousand people in 1650, with living quarters for guards, military officials, merchants, dancing girls, scholars, and hordes of cooks and servants.
It had a public bazaar.
Istanbul's Suleimaniye Mosque was finished in 1557.
The interior is large.
The Taj Mahal is one of the best examples of Mughal architecture.
The marble exterior is decorated with Arabic inscriptions and floral designs.
Shah Jahan ordered the construction of the Peacock Throne.
The piece took seven years to fashion and cost $5 million.
It was seized as plunder by the Persian warrior Nadir Shah in 1739 and was then taken to Persia.
The Taj Mahal is the most enduring monument.
Shah Jahan's favorite wife, who died giving birth to their fifteenth child, was the subject of a memorial built by twenty thousand workers.
One of the most beautiful structures in the world is the Taj Mahal, which is both an expression of love and a superb architectural blend of Islamic and Indian culture.
Many of the architectural masterpieces of this age had gardens attached to them.
Persian culture has a highly developed feature of gardens.
They were usually walled, with a pool in the center, and flowers.
In Arab tradition, gardens were places of leisure and revelry as well as centers of prayer and meditation.
The gardens of Muslim Spain, southern Italy, and southeastern Europe are examples of the gardens that spread west and east after the introduction of Persia into the caliphate in the seventh century.
The Persian garden was adapted to the warmer southern climate when the Mughal Dynasty was established.
The Taj Mahal, which had four water channels symbolizing the four rivers of paradise, was one of the gardens near palaces, mosques, shrines, and mausoleums.
Two teams of four on horseback ride back and forth on a field measuring 200 by 400 yards, trying to hit a wooden ball with a mallet through the opponent's goal.
Each player has to maintain a string of expensive ponies in order to change mounts several times in a typical match.
Students of the history of sports believe the game started in Persia and spread to India, China, and Japan.
Polo was popular among the aristocracy in England in the 19th century and is an example of cross-cultural influences.
Gardens are seasonal.
The rulers, city people, and nomads ordered Persian carpets to remind them of paradise during the cold winter months.
The culture of the Islamic empire developed in many directions between 1400 and 1800.
New movements within Islam as well as advances in mathematics, geography, astronomy, and medicine were notable.
Takiyuddin Mehmet built an observatory in Istanbul.