The wars in Yugoslavia and Africa killed many people, but the dangers of proliferation seemed remote.
The bombing of a government building in Oklahoma City in 1995 made domestic terrorism an issue.
In 1998, the bombing of the embassy in Kenya and the U.S. air raids on Al Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan preoccupied the public for a shorter time than the president's sex life.
Bin Laden and his associates were making plans.
None of their attacks have involved suicidal "martyrs," and most of them were far away from the United States.
They had a plan to destroy the United States and unite Islam behind Al Qaeda.
In 1993, a group of Muslims affiliated with Al Qaeda tried to destroy the World Trade Center in New York with a truck bomb, but were unsuccessful.
Combining the old terrorist technique of airplane hijacking with the newer method of suicide bombing would be more effective.
By the end of the 1990s, a terrible deed was about to be carried out that would cause more upheaval in the international community than any event since the fall of communism.
Western thought and art continued to respond to and influence changes in the civilization of which they were part after the fall of communism.
Postmodernism gave rise to bitter disputes because it was one of many competing schools of thought and art within Western civilization.
As a general outlook and way of thinking, its influence has been felt in both the Western and non-Western world.
The name of the movement came from the fact that it criticized some features of the first half of the twentieth century.
Postmodernism attacked the claims of competing twentieth-century ideologies to control the lives and thoughts of individuals, the tendency to regard works of art as objects separate from and above the life of their times, and the assumption that the experience of Western civilization in thought, art, and every.
The name Postmodernism suggested that the movement came after the first half of the twentieth century, and that the art and thought of the first half of the twentieth century had come to an end.
Postmodernism took many of its basic features from secular ideologies and Modernist artistic styles that it criticized, as well as from earlier Western thinkers and artists back to the ancient Greeks.
As the West encounters the rest of the world in the era of the birth of global civilization, Postmodernism is seen as a new phase of Modernism and of Western thought and art in general.
There is an opposing Western tradition of denying the existence or the possibility of finding such a truth and questioning the motives of those who search for it.
Postmodernism, the latest version of the tradition of doubt and denial, has arisen in opposition to recent developments in the tradition of searching for a single truth.
Over the centuries, the Western search for truth has taken many different forms.
The search of philosophers from Plato onward, the religious search of Jewish prophets and Christian saints, and the scientific search ofNewton and Darwin have all taken place.
They have often debated whether they found it or not.
All societies throughout the world should reflect and uphold a single truth that is valid for the world and the human race as a whole, and that all individuals should recognize and obey it.
In ancient and medieval times, Western societies only had the power to force truth within their own territories.
Western hopes grew high of spreading knowledge of truth and making individual human behavior conform to it throughout the world when exploration and empire building gave Western civilization worldwide reach.
There were many different forms of efforts to bring this about.
Enlightenment said that mankind must free itself from tyranny and superstition so as to progress.
Conflicts among world orders inspired by these and other Western versions of truth have been a part of the history of modern global civilization.
The search for truth and the enforcement of it in the name of individual behavior has been found to be undermined by many different ways of questioning.
Doubting philosophers have argued that truth and moral standards vary for different individuals and communities, or that language cannot describe any truth beyond what we see and feel, or that there is no way to prove that the same causes will always be followed by the same effects.
The theme of desire bursting through social constraints and group boundaries has been celebrated by writers and artists.
They and their publics have been delighted in scenes of eager young couples courting at the back door while parents watch, Christian knights being carried away by passion for beautiful Muslim captives, or of the little love god amusing himself by driving gods and humans alike into helpless sexual frenzy.
In the 19th and 20th century, with their highly structured mass soci eties and their secular ideologies proclaiming many competing versions of universal truth, philosophers such as Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, and Sartre turned doubt and denial into protest against the ideas of the search for truth and the enforcement The proclaimers of rival ideologies undermined each other's searches for truth by declaring them to be motivated by one form or another of the urge to power.
Marxists claimed that the Enlightenment values of universal freedom and equality were disguises for bourgeois exploitation of the proletariat, while opponents of Marxism insisted that the idea of the dictatorship of the proletariat actually meant the tyranny of self-appointed intellectuals.
Science set limits to its own search for truth with the principles of c hapter 17: western civilization in the world of today and uncertainty, and Freudian psychoanalysts portrayed the human personality as a battleground between the conscious mind and formless urges.
Postmodernism draws on all these sources to protest against the search for truth and the celebration of liberated desire.
Postmodernism began in France in the 1960s.
France had a capitalist-democratic social order that was supported by a consumer society.
It had a powerful Communist party, but it was losing its zeal to revolution, and the heavy-handed Soviet dictatorship was tarnishing communism as an ideal.
Massive student demonstrations in Paris almost overthrew the government in 1968, and there was also a thriving and widespread student counterculture.
The Communist party joined forces with the government to suppress the movement when it was threatening to spread to workers who had been left behind.
The events of 1968 confirmed the belief of some Marxists that capitalism was a means by which to manipulate the people, and that the soviet-led international communist movement was not overthrowing capitalist conformism.
Postmodernism was born among French Marxists.
Foucault was one of the most influential pioneers of Postmodern thought.
The most radical criticism of this tradition in Western history was made by Foucault.
One of the basic assumptions behind the Western scientific outlook is that if we perceive the truth about something, we can control it or at least predict how it will behave.
Foucault assumed that how we perceive things depends on our need to control them.
The world becomes subject to our power through general systems of interpreting it.
According to Foucault, truth is something outside and apart from human beings and their needs.
Human beings are able to acquire knowledge by observing each other and the world and standing outside and apart from each other.
It is possible to claim that power is exercised in the name of known truth and that claim in turn justify power in the eyes of both those who wield it and those who are subjected to it.
He said that the sciences did not accurately describe and predict true facts.
He claimed that the "sciences of sex" were a way of controlling the most intimate aspects of human feeling and behavior, defining only one behavior as normal and all others as deviant.
He believed that these urges are capable of taking many different shapes.
Wanting to fulfill all its possibilities of expression is what true freedom is all about.
Many of Foucault's basic ideas are shared by another leading Postmodern thinker, Jacques Derrida, but he focuses on one particular means of representation in thought and art, written language.
He believes that the structure of language determines what we perceive, unlike Foucault who believes that language is an instrument with which we can perceive ourselves and the world exactly as they are.
Language has a life of its own.
Individual words have a long history and are used in many different ways, so that they evoke many different associations today.
The associations of "thought" range from the deepest wisdom to "I tawt I a puddy tat", as in "I tawt I a puddy tat".
All authors who compose written texts in any field of thought, art, or everyday life can't be sure that their words will have the same meanings and associations for their readers as for themselves.
They don't know if readers will understand what they intend to say.
Since their intentions are ultimately determined by shapeless desire, authors cannot know what they intend to say.
The existence of written texts is not the product of a single definable intention on the part of an author, and they are ambiguous with multiple meanings.
The concept of deconstruction has had a large influence on the work of writers.
Jean-Francois Lyotard was the one who dealt with political and social issues the most.
The Postmodern belief is that freedom is the release of desire to take what you want.
The human race is reconstructed on the basis of truths discovered by reason.
All grand narratives have been discredited in postmodern society, but large social structures such as governments, corporations, and the mass media can still control the production of knowledge and manipulate individuals.
There is no violence or grand narratives to justify it.
Small groups and individuals must insist on their own narratives.
They should try to influence politics through coalitions of groups that unite for specific short-term purposes and then go their separate ways, or through larger movements that unite around a single issue.
Many recent political movements, such as the antiglobalization campaign, have taken this form, though without bringing about basic changes in the economic or political order.
In postmodern society, the mass power of governments, corporations, and the media can be caught off guard by political guerrilla warfare.
The relationship between the Western heartland countries and the rest of the world is related to the themes of power and control and the normal One versus the deviant Other.
Edward W. Said, a Palestinian American cultural historian and literary critic, was the most influential thinker to explore this relationship from a Postmodern viewpoint.
What Foucault did for the study of criminality or madness is what Said did for the study of Islam.
He attacked orientalism as a controlling discourse, which defined "West" and "East" as opposites, subjected the East to the West's controlling gaze, and described the features of both in such a way as to establish Western domination and Eastern subjection as the natural order of
The Postcolonialists look for signs of both the Western and colonial gaze changing and merging as a result of their encounter.
The social and cultural attitudes of the Western heartland are criticized by postcolonial thinkers.
The Postcolonial ists do not agree with the Western narratives of nationalism, progress, and traditional Christianity, all of which have appeal in the non-Western world, as well as locally produced grand narratives such as Islamic fundamentalism.
Postcolonialism has less influence on the non-Western world than it does on the Western heartland and Latin America.
Edward Said was revered by some and despised by others in literary and cultural circles in the United States and other Western countries.
The revolutionary nationalists and Islamic fundamentalists paid little attention to him.
The main effect of Postcolonialism has been to change attitudes within Western civilization to the rest of the world.
Few can escape the influence of modern thought in Western societies.
Before the 1970s, there were no items of everyday speech.
Postmodern thought has changed the way people think and speak.
The Western doubters and deniers are not out of the woods yet.
The battle rages more fiercely than ever before, and on many fronts.
Conservatives accuse Postmodernists of suppressing individual freedom by defining knowledge and consciousness in terms of ethnic, gender, and sexual group identities.
The German philosopher, who is a strong believer in the ideals of universal freedom and progress and the breaking down of barriers to communication among human beings, sees Postmodernism as conservative because it denies these ideals and erects barriers to communication.
Postmodernism, with its rejection of grand narratives of "overthrow" and "revolution" in favor of little narratives of "subversion" and "transgression", is actually working to uphold capitalist oppression.
Postmodernism is seen as a safety valve in conformist modern society, so as to prevent an explosion.
Postmodernism's criticisms are variations on the traditional replies of search after truth to doubters and deniers.
Feminism has felt the force of the arguments for and against Postmodernism more than any other.
Postmodern ideas correspond in various ways to the hopes and experiences of many feminists.
Feminism only brought about changes in the status and power of women in society by operating as a grand narrative.
According to a leading French thinker, women should create their own "feminine symbolic order" similar to that of men.
The Postmodern logic claims that since women are divided by factors such as class, race, and sexual orientation, there can't be a grand narrative for all of them.
Feminism has sought to replace one set of social rules with another set of rules to ensure equal status and power for men and women.
In the name of equality, freedom, and justice--standards recognized as true for both men and women by which male superiority is judged to be bad and gender equality is judged to be good--it has done so.
These are the assumptions that inspire the work of women's organizations like the National Organization for Women in the United States when it campaigns for laws against sex discrimination in the workplace or for the election of women to public office.
Many feminists reject Postmodernism because they believe that neither women nor men can ever be truly free if social rules are not respected.
Post modern feminists have a dilemma between grand narratives and little narratives.
Postmodernists can't do anything without the ideas of truth and order that they don't like.
Western searchers after truth and enforcers of behavior cannot do without the humility that should come from thinking they may be mistaken.
The emergence of postmodern forms of literature and art in the 1960s was due to the fact that the current Western social and cultural changes had outpaced the potential of the prevailing modern styles to express human experience.
The changes in people's perception of the world brought by mass media or consumer culture, the horrors of totalitarianism and genocide, or the irrationality and chaos that haunt highly were not conveyed in 660-661, 664-668) as practiced in the middle of the twentieth century.
Changing human experience within a changing society and culture has been depicted by writers and artists since the middle of the nineteenth century.
The pioneers of Modernist literature and art continued to strive.
Many writers and artists of the 1960s felt that Mod ernist literature and art had turned away from life.
The status symbol of a privileged few, who looked down on the low pleasures of mass entertainment, had become "high art".
It had become self-absorbed, concentrating on empty word play and experiments with visual form and color, instead of expressing or commenting on human experience.
The mid-twentieth century seemed to have more information and less certainty than ever before, so it was time for art to depict life again.
Many of the writers and artists who shared these beliefs took Postmodernism as their inspiration and guide, both in their critique of Western literature and art and in their own.
Postmodern literature and art is a continuation of the modern Western quest to depict changing experience in a changing society and culture.
In prose literature, traditional methods of telling stories proved equal to the task of conveying trauma and confusion of the twentieth century.
In the 1950s, writers like Pasternak and Solzhenitsyn were able to depict the bitter experiences of the Russian Revolution.
The chaos of eastern Europe just after the war was experienced by a Jewish prisoner.
The rules of telling a story were stretched farther by other writers.
The U.S. Air Force did not have the "Catch 22 of the title", which states that anyone who wants to leave the air force on the grounds of insanity must be sane.
The logic of large organizations at war is conveyed by the invention.
By breaking the flow of time and the rules of probability, this technique of "magic realism" ties together the past and the present, realities and illusions, to show the total experience of Latin America since the Spanish conquest.
Rushdie's work was in line with the Postmodern belief that one way to weaken the power of fundamentalist Islam is to deconstruct grand narratives.
It is a tale of the medieval past, set in a Benedectine monastery, with its routine of work and prayer, its mountaintop serenity disturbed by loves and hatreds among the monks, and its library, a vast and mysterious war.
The novel is a detective story in which a peerless reasoner and his naive companion investigate a murder plot.
The events in the monastery are linked to a clash between rival versions of ultimate truth, those of the Catholic Church and its heretic opponents.
Readers who do not know or share the outlook and convictions that inspire these authors, as well as critics who are familiar with their ideas and literary techniques, have been able to claim the works of such writers as Eco.
Postmodern writing is a new way of doing justice to the richness and strangeness of human experience, which is fiction's traditional task.
Postmodern is a term used to describe the way in which the visual arts depict things as they appear to the eye.
The general intent was to bridge the gap between art and life that appeared to have been opened by abstract thinking.
The methods of bridging it, the views of life that artists have expressed, and the purposes of that gap have all changed under the influence of Postmodern thought.
Pop Art began in Europe in the 1950s as a way to criticize the consumer culture of the time, and then spread to the United States, where it was used to celebrate the country's culture of mass entertainment.
The painting shows a young woman weeping, but it isn't a depiction of hopelessness.
Instead, it is an outsize (4-foot-by-4-foot) picture of a comic-book picture of a young woman weeping, accurate down to the dots of the color printing process, which are faithfully reproduced by the painter's brush.
The way comic books depict teenage emotion is the subject of the painting.
Lichtenstein is announcing the merger of popular art, which appeals to people on a level of basic entertainment, and high art, which is supposed to appeal to people on a more idealistic and intellectually demanding level.
The merger of traditional painting and other media, as well as of mass entertain ment and artistic tradition, was carried farther still by a later school of painting, Superrealism.
The American is an artist at this school.
Some objects that symbolized the passage of time and the brevity of life were depicted in still lifes of that period.
The painting does its best to look like a photograph since it is 8 feet by 8 feet.
The painting commemorates a tragic event, involving an icon of mass entertainment, that has remained a media legend ever since the suicide of Marilyn Monroe.
The desire to express the experiences and identities of human groups is one of the reasons for stepping back from the idea of abstract art.
The term describes a stage of darkness before metals gain the brightness of the sun.
The belief is a myth, but it symbolizes the horrible experiences of the 20th century and the hope of a better future.
The black color in the foreground of the painting is indicative of both death and the transformation of substances by fire, in line with ancient scientific and mystical ideas.
The painting is intended to evoke the experiences of the German nation in the recent past, which still haunt the present.
reinventing artistic creation Mass entertainment and consumer culture, symbolism and different levels of meaning, and the collective experience of groups are themes of Postmodern thought.
Postmodern criticism of the idea of human beings as standing apart from and objectively observing the rest of the world has been sought to express by many recent artists.
They are trying to revise the process of artistic creation so as to create new kinds of art objects.
Artists claim that the traditional process of artistic creation is similar to the idea of humans objectively observing the world.
The process begins when an artist stands apart from human experience and imposes a pattern on it.
The artist creates an object that is different from the experience and duplicate the pattern that he has imposed.
The object is exposed to the gaze of the viewers so as to maintain the controlling discourse.
If a work of art incorporates the discourse of a marginalized Other, it is marginalized by being placed in a museum.
The purpose of the wardencurator is to separate art from the rest of society.
Next is integration.
The work doesn't accurately depict something different from itself.
It is actually a jetty that is spiral in form.
The play of earth forces that Smithson perceived in the scenery on the shoreline of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, where the jetty is located is what it is intended to express.
The jetty is part of the scenery and part of a museum.
It disappears beneath the water when the lake is full and reappears above water only in times of exceptional dry weather.
The idea of a human depiction of nature as part of the nature that it depicts was part of an environmentalist discourse of humans as one with nature, as opposed to the discourse of humans separate from and controlling nature.
Postmodern feminism sees the traditional artistic process as part of a con and looks for ways to replace it.
An object that escapes the bonds of museum confinement and the viewer's gaze in the opposite way to an earthwork creates and encloses the scene, setting up an environment that1-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-6556
The artwork and scene are a table set for dinner.
The work is made by a process of women's work that is different from the traditional process of an artist observing experience.
Needlework and china painting are some of the crafts traditionally assigned to women.
There is a lot of symbolism.
The triangular shape of the table is an ancient female symbol, the thirteen place settings on each side are the number of witches in a coven, and the plates are painted with patterns of butterflies and female sexual organs, standing for liberation and female sexuality.
In Postmodern art, there is written text and a visual presentation, both of which count as text.
The names of thirty-nine principal guests include the Egyptian pharaoh Hatshepsut, the U.S. women's rights activist Susan B. Anthony, and the British writer Virginia Woolf.
At the place settings, the names of other distinguished women are engraved on the floor.
The piece seeks to deconstruct old discourse and construct a new one in order to teach a social or moral lesson.
The lesson is ambiguous.
The themes of Smithson's earthwork and Chicago's installa tion are similar to those of western civilization in the world of today's Western art.
It would seem impossible for a large building to be Postmodern.
Postmodernism emphasizes indeterminacy and little narratives.
The work of a highly organized society is what a large building needs to be.
To build it, clients, real estate developers, local governments, architectural design bureaus, construction companies, trucking firms, and industrial manufacturers all have to work toward a single common end.
Any large building is a grand narrative in steel and concrete.
The word "postmodernism" was first used in the architectural field as a way of turning away from the style of art of the 1960's.
Both attacked the "glass box" style of architecture, Jacobs for destroying the human scale and unplanned diversity of city life, and Venturi for frustrating the human need for variety and complexity.
The hotel architecture of Las Vegas, for example, was designed by a practicing architect, but he also praised bigness so long as it was also playful and showy.
Many of the most striking Postmodern buildings have been large.
The way that Postmodern architects try to make large buildings interesting is by rejecting the idea that form should follow function and that the appearance of a building should reveal its structure.
They follow a tradition of using the structure of a building to support an exterior that proclaims its own message.
They are intended to impress worshipers with the beauty of the Roman Catholic Church.
The way in which Postmodern buildings send messages is the same as in Baroque structures.
Sometimes the message that Postmodern buildings are intended to send is simply one of subverting the grand narrative of Modernism and of freedom to choose among the decorative styles of the past.
The AT&T Building forms an ironic contrast with the glass boxes in its neighborhood, so far as any 660-foot corporate skyscraper can be playful and ironical.
Postmodern buildings celebrate chaos and confusion.
Perhaps because it is hard for organizations to do business or people to live in structures that are designed to be confusing, most buildings of this kind are intended to be visited rather than lived and worked in.
In spite of Postmodern distrust of places where art objects are subjected to the public gaze, galleries and museums tend to be.
The museum's style is called the Deconstructivist, from the French philosopher's term for the process of revealing ambiguity and indeterminacy in texts.
The ingenious design that stretched computer technology to the limit made this particular "mud pie" and fit it onto an internal load-bearing structure.
The building's sleek and fluid lines are so complex that they seem almost to stretch the limits of three dimensions, making an unforgettable statement of the ancient idea that change governs all.
The challenge of replacing a complex of buildings that had been a symbol of global capitalism in such a way as to revive that symbol is daunting and inspiring for architects influenced by Postmodernism.
It seemed wrong to replace them with replicas that would never be the same as the originals.
The twin towers were straight and straight against the sky.
It is next to a cluster of buildings surrounding the memorial to the twin towers.
The new World Trade Center will grow out of the city and disappear into the sky.
It may be less assertive of wealth and power than the twin towers, but it may be suggestive of grief and hope.
The project of an international community steered toward harmony, prosperity, and freedom by the West was a work in progress ten years after the fall of communism.
The World Trade Center's skyscrapers were like Egyptian pyramids.
The Statue of Liberty seems to be holding her torch high as if to illuminate them, but this doesn't bother them.
The principal building of the World Trade Center will be a huge structure, but it won't be complete in itself.
The architect's rendering shows the tower sloping away to the right but visually balanced by the trade center's lower buildings, while the broadcasting mast rising from its vertical left face seems to acknowledge the upraised arm of the Statue of Liberty.
The Islamic fundamentalist challenge to the Western-dominated world order was mostly held down by repressive governments in the Muslim world, but had increasing popular support in Muslim countries where it was not in power.
India and Pakistan were able to overcome the obstacles that the West had put in their way to develop nuclear weapons.
Terrorist movements within the countries of the Western heartland were mostly losing steam, but Islamic terrorism was better organized than ever before.
The World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington were badly damaged by Al Qaeda in 2001.
The attacks were not only against the buildings that suffered, but against the whole idea of a harmonious international community with the West at the helm, and at first, the result seemed to be to reinforce the community's solidarity as Iraq's attack on Kuwait had.
NATO and the United Nations helped the United States destroy the Taliban regime that harbored Al Qaeda in Afghanistan.
According to the recipe for rebuilding failed states that had been devised in Bosnia and Kosovo, peacekeeping troops from Britain, France, Germany, and other NATO countries, UN advisers, and nongovernmental volunteers moved in to help the Afghans with the task of building a nation and a civil society.
After twenty years of civil war and brutal oppression, millions of Afghan refugees returned to their homes and resumed their normal lives.
Most of Afghanistan's ethnic and religious groups lived under the control of local warlords.
Osama bin Laden lived in the wild lands on the border of Afghanistan and Pakistan despite the Taliban guerilla movement that troubled much of the country.
The United States and its Western partners were working in harmony to accomplish Afghan nation building, and they had the support of the rest of the world.
In the United States, September 11 caused a lot of national grief, pride, and anger, as well as a feeling of frustration at the way the world has operated since the fall of communism.
The United States, a giant in a world full of dwarfs, had tried to operate by consensus for ten years, and the result was the first successful attack on its mainland territory since the British burned Washington during the War of 1812.
Bush gained a stature as president that he had not enjoyed since he lost the popular vote but won the electoral college, thanks to a Supreme Court verdict that upheld his narrow victory in Florida.
He invested the newly acquired political capital in an effort to change the way the international community operates.
The Bush administration decided that in the future, the United States would use force against all the outlaw and rebel states and movements that had troubled the world since the fall of communism.
Terrorist movements and states that aided them, states that tried to acquire nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, Islamic fundamentalist states and movements are all liable to the U.S. attack.
The Bush administration decided to act on the Clinton administration's decision to overthrow the Iraqi dictatorship of Saddam Hussein, the first step in applying the policy.
The administration believed that this deed would achieve three things.
It would end Iraq's efforts to develop WMDs.
It would make a great example of Saddam.
Saddam's tyranny would be replaced by a U.S. occupation that would remake Iraq into a secular democratic model for the Islamic world.
The United States should accept no limits on its freedom of action and no resistance to its will according to the traditional U.S. conservative belief.
It was influenced by the idea that Muslim resentments were the work of dictators from whom Islam must be freed, and that Islam had no legitimate grievances against the West.
Both types of conservatives questioned the legitimacy of the international community.
The UN Human Rights Commission was taken over by countries that were tyrannies and dictatorships, and in 2002 Libya was elected as the commission's president, where torture and imprisonment without trial were routine.
In the course of heated arguments within the U.S. administration, international minded Republicans, notably Secretary of State Colin Powell, were able to make NATO collaboration and UN authorization part of the plan.
The UN Security Council would issue an ultimatum to Iraq to readmit UN inspectors, who it had earlier expelled, to search for WMDs, as well as authorize the United States to go, if Iraq refused to cooperate with the inspectors.
If the U.S. administration could not get cooperation from the international community, it was determined to act without them, and replace them with a coalition of the willing.
One way or another, the United States would save the world.
Either the institutions of the international community would follow its lead, or it would set those western civilization aside and dominate the community through a league of states directly headed by itself.
The country was up to this task for three reasons according to the administration.
It had so much military power and economic strength that it was able to fight wars and reconstruct countries without bloodshed, and without overburdening its taxpayers.
Since the United States would be using its might to overthrow brutal dictatorships, end terror, and spread democracy and freedom, sooner or later its actions would command the assent of the world.
The over throw of Saddam and the building of a secular democratic Iraq would shock the Islamic world and give it an attractive example to follow.
The War on Terror would take a long time, like the Cold War.
The Islamic fundamentalist challenge to the world order would collapse like the communist challenge before it.
The early course of this one did not follow the most optimistic expectations of those who launched it.
It was not certain what effect the undertaking would have on the organization of global civilization.