Weathering of rocks and volcanic activity releasesphosphate into the soil, water, and air, where it becomes available to food webs.
The oceans are affected by surface runoff, groundwater flow, and river flow.
The ocean water hasphosphate dissolved in it.
The ocean floor is where the marine food webs fall.
Dead zones in lakes and at the mouths of many major rivers are caused by this process.
Dead zones occur when excessive growth of organisms depletes oxygen and kills fauna.
Large dead zones are found in coastal areas.
More than 400 dead zones were present as of 2008, and the number of dead zones has been increasing for several years.
There is a dead zone of over 8500 square miles off the coast of the United States in the Gulf of Mexico.
Several lake and bay environments, including the Chesapeake Bay in the eastern United States, are negatively affected by nitrates andphosphates fromfertilizers.
The satellite image shows the environment of the bay.
A member of the Army Corps of Engineers is holding a clump of oysters.
The Chesapeake Bay is one of the most scenic areas on the planet and it is now in distress.
In the 1970s, the bay was one of the first to identify dead zones, which continue to kill many fish and bottom-dwelling species.
The decline of several species in the bay is due to excess nitrogen in the water.
The source of thefertilizer is not limited to agricultural practices.
There are more than 150 rivers and streams that are empty into the bay that are carryingfertilizer from lawns and gardens.
The decline of the bay requires the cooperation of industry, agriculture, and everyday homeowners.
More than 200,000 acres of oyster reefs existed in the bay in the 1700s, but the number has now declined to only 36,000 acres.
Between 1982 and 2007, oyster harvesting declined by 88 percent.
The decline was due to overharvesting.
Oysters need a certain minimum population density to reproduce.
The oyster population and locations have been altered by human activity.
The restoration of the oyster population in the bay has been a mixed success.
Many people find oysters good to eat and clean up the bay.
Oysters clean the water around them as they eat.
In the 1700s, it was estimated that it took only a few days for the oyster population to filter the entire bay.
It is estimated that the current population would take nearly a year to do the same job.
Restoration efforts have been going on for several years.
The goal is to increase population density so oysters can reproduce more efficiently.
The Virginia Institute of Marine Science for the College of William and Mary has developed many disease-resistant varieties that have been used in the construction of oyster reefs.
Efforts to clean and restore the bay by Virginia and Delaware have been hampered because much of the pollution entering the bay comes from other states.
The new oyster strains have spawned a new and economically viable industry which supplies oysters for food and profit, but also has the added benefit of cleaning the bay.
The macromolecules of living things have sulfur as an essential element.
It is involved in the formation of disulfide bonds within proteins, which help to determine their 3-D folding patterns, and hence their functions.
Sulfur dioxide is found in the form of sulfur dioxide and enters the atmosphere in three ways: from the decomposition of organic molecule, from volcanic activity and from the burning of fossil fuels by humans.
When sulfur dioxide is dissolved in precipitation as weak sulfurous acid or when it falls directly to the Earth, it becomes available to the marine andterrestrial environments.
Sulfates are made available to the ecosystems by weathering of rocks.
Sulfates are returned to the ocean, soil, and atmosphere.
There are four major ways sulfur is deposited on land.
As rain falls through the atmosphere, sulfur is dissolved in the form of weak sulfurous acid.
Sulfur is released into the soil by the weathering of sulfur-containing rocks.
These rocks come from the ocean and are moved to land.
Upon the death and decomposition of organisms, the sulfur can be released into the atmosphere as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas.
There are sulfur deposits near the mouth of the sulfur vent in Lassen Volcanic National Park.
Sulfur enters the ocean from a variety of sources.
Some organisms use sulfur as a biological energy source.
Sulfates are supported in the form of sulfur.
The balance of the global sulfur cycle has been altered by human activities.
Hydrogen sulfide gas is released into the atmosphere when large quantities of fossil fuels are burned.
Acid rain damages the natural environment by lowering the pH of lakes, which kills many of the resident fauna, and it also affects the man-made environment through the chemical degradation of buildings.
The Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC, has been damaged by acid rain over the years.
There is a link to learn more about global climate change.
Modeling of energy is best done underground.
Ecological pyramids of energy are one of the ways in which models of ecosystems can be used to understand how environmental changes affect the structure and dynamics of the system.
Simulation models work best with aholistic food environment.
Water, carbon, and webs are important.
Pollution, oil spills, and other human activities may cause Organisms to acquire energy in a variety of global climate change.
The health of Earth is dependent on how the energy flows from the bottom to the top of the food web and how to protect it from irreversible damage.
A re-created environment in a laboratory environment is considered to be a state.
Organisms can make their own food.
A food chain's position is known as its ________.
The mussels live at the NW Eifuku volcano.
The cycle of movement of minerals through organisms is called a _____ cycle.
Carbon is present in the atmosphere.
The average time a molecule spends in its body is called bioentropy.
How would the loss of fungi in a forest be described?