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24 -- Part 5: Ideologies of Change in Europe
The most triumphant welcome ever given to a foreigner was given to GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI when he visited England in 1864.
He was honored and feted by politicians and high society.
A crowd of half a million people cheered his carriage through the streets of London.
These ovations were not a coincidence.
Garibaldi was the most famous and beloved figure in the world in his time.
He had a rare combination of wild adventure and extraordinary achieve ment.
Garibaldi went to sea at fifteen and sailed the Mediterranean for twelve years.
Garibaldi escaped to South America after being sentenced to death for his part in a revolutionary uprising.
He was the leader of a band that fought for independence from Argentina.
He found a tough young woman, Anna da Silva, a mate and companion in arms.
Their first children were almost starving in the jungle while Garibaldi was a fearless freedom fighter.
Giuseppe Garibaldi, the charismatic leader, was shown in an cratic nationalists after the campaigns of his patriotic volunteers against the Austrians.
His army was going to be based on a photograph.
Garibaldi's achievement was similar to his legend.
The handsome and inspiring leader was a brilliant fighter.
Welcoming runaway slaves as equals is an uncompromising idealist of absolute integrity.
He never drew per Latin America, advocated the emancipation of women, sonal profit from his exploits, and never introduced social reforms in the south.
The left-leaning volunteers were dismantled and humiliated, even as Italy's national hero fought for freedom, when Victor Emmanuel was offered lands and titles after his great victory in 1861.
The common people said he couldn't be bought off.
He loved coming back to his farm.
In history, ideas and ideals count.
Millions of ordinary men and women are identified with 1.
They believed that he was fighting for them.
He remained true to the 19th century despite being recognized as one of their own.
The map shows how Prussia expanded and a new German Empire was created after the FrancoPrussian War of 1870-1871.
The Protestant states north of the Main River were grouped in the new North German Confederation.
The army and foreign affairs were under the control of the fed eral government.
The parliament of Prussia was asked to approve after it was learned that the govern ment's "il egal" spending took place between 1862 and 1866.
The liberals jumped at the chance to work together.
The government's spending was legalized with German unity in sight.
The German middle class accepted the authority of the monarch and the superiority of the nobility when the constitutional struggle in Prussia ended.
The patriotic war with France followed the final act of German unification.
The issue of Prussia's William I becoming king of Spain was just a diplomatic one.
The German forces won at Sedan on September 1, 1870.
The French in Paris proclaimed another French republic three days later.
After five months, a starving Paris sur was rendered, and France accepted the harsh peace terms.
The south Ger man states agreed to join the new German Empire.
The lower house of the legislature in the new German Empire was elected by universal male suffrage, as was the power of the king and his ministers.
The Franco-Prussian War made Germans feel patriotic.
The German Empire had become Europe's most powerful state and most Germans imagined themselves to be the best in Europe.
In Germany, a new conservatism based on an alliance of the propertied classes and the active support of the working classes had triumphed.
Russia was a poor society with a rapidly growing population in the 1850s.
The conflict between France and the Ottoman Empire over who should protect Christian shrines in the Empire brought about the crisis.
Russia was humiliated by France and Great Britain.
Russia has fallen behind western Europe in many areas.
The war caused hardship and raised the specter of massive peas ant rebellion.
The new tsar, Alexander II, and his ministers were forced along the path of rapid social change due to military disaster.
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