Chapter 30 -- Part 9: The Great Depression and World War II
The United States and the Soviet Union relaxed Cold War tensions in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan to save a Marxist regime.
The United States was alarmed by the spread of Soviet influence.
Ronald Reagan was president of the U.S.
The spread of Soviet influence was halted by predecessors John F. Kennedy and Harry Truman.
The release of control over eastern Europe and the dismantling of the Soviet Union came about as a result of reforms begun by the Soviet Union.
The Soviets worked to restore order and stability after their 1968 intervention.
There was no free expression or open protest in their satellite nations.
A rising standard of living helped ensure stability.
The Soviet Union underwent a social revolution.
The urban population grew quickly.
Between 1960 and 1985 there was a fourfold increase in the number of highly trained professionals.
The growth of Soviet public opinion was helped by the education that created expertise.
He was premier in 1985 when he set out to reform the Soviet system.
The first set of reforms was intended to transform and restructure the economy.
A more far-reaching campaign of openness was introduced in 1985 and allowed for a more open media.
Gorbachev implemented economic restructuring and reform that allowed for the easing of government price controls on some goods, more independence for state enterprises, and the establishment of profit-seeking private cooperative.
The first free elections in the Soviet Union since 1917 took place under Gorbachev.
An independent minority was elected to the Congress of People's Deputies in 1989 after Gorbachev and the party remained in control.
In the Baltic region and in the Caucasus, Democratization encouraged demands for greater autonomy from non-Russian minorities.
Gorbachev brought new political thinking to foreign affairs.
In 1989 he withdrew Soviet troops from Afghanistan.
Gorbachev said he would respect the political choices of eastern Europe's peoples.
A wave of peaceful revolutions swept across eastern Europe.
Poland led the way.
In August 1980, strikes grew into a working-class revolt.
Lech Walesa is the leader.
The workers formed the independent trade union.
Martial law was imposed in December 1981 and Solidarity's leaders were arrested.
Poland's Communist Party leaders were pressured into allowing free elections in 1989 for some seats in the Polish parliament after labor unrest and inflation brought the country to the brink of economic collapse.
Every seat was won by Solidarity.
The first noncommunist prime minister in eastern Europe in a generation was sworn in a month later.
Lech Walesa was the leader of an independent Polish trade union that worked for the rights of workers and political reform.
The Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia led to the peaceful ousting of Communist leaders, while the reform path in Romania was different.
The revolution in Romania was violent.
Ceausescu unleashed his security forces on protesters, sparking an armed uprising.
After Ceausescu's forces were defeated, he and his wife were captured and executed by a military court.
Germany reunified after the transformation of eastern Europe.
Reunification began when millions of East Germans flooded across their country's borders to reach West Germany.
After neighboring countries liberalized, East Germany's leaders gave in to public pressure and opened the Berlin Wall.
TheAlliance for Germany won general elections and negotiated an economic union with West Germany.
The reunified Germany would have peaceful intentions, according to the West German chancellor.
West Germany's constitution and laws led to the merger of East and West Germany.
Many people in eastern Europe faced unexpected hardship as economies underwent difficult transformations and the state infrastructure of social welfare crumbled.
Yugoslavia had a federation of republics and regions that were held together by the Communists.
Territorial and ethnic tensions increased after the death of Tito.
Communism collapsed and the Cold War ended after a year.
The break up of Yugoslavia was accelerated by the revolutions of 1989.
Between 1991 and the United States, civil wars were fought against the Serbian capital of Belgrade as well as against Serbian military forces until Milosevic relented.
In 2000 Milosevic was voted out of office.
In eastern Europe, Yugoslavia had the most diverse population.
Bosnia-Herzegovina had large Muslim, Serbian, and Croatian populations, none of which had a majority.
The civil war in the region was caused by Serbia's attempt to seize territory and unite all Serbs in a single state.
The first postcommunist president of the Czech Republic was Vaclav Havel.
On the night of November 24, 1989, the revolution in Czechoslovakia came to an end.
Three hundred thousand people poured into the historic Wenceslas Square to continue the protests that erupted a week earlier after the police savagely beat student demonstrators.
All eyes were on the balcony.
An elderly man with a gentle smile and a middle-aged intellectual wearing jeans and a sports jacket stood arm in arm and acknowledged the cheers of the crowd.
The people roared.
Vaclav Havel, who embodied the uncompromising opposition to communism that was sweeping the country, was symbolically passed the torch by Alexander Dubcek, who represented the failed promise of reform communism in the 1960s.
Havel was the unanimous choice to head a new democratic Czechoslovakia after the Communist government resigned.
The young Havel was denied admission to the university because of his class origins.
He became a stagehand and a leading playwright after loving literature and philosophy.
His plays poked fun at the absurdities of life and the pretensions of communism and were set in vague settings.
Havel enjoyed good talk, a lively bar scene, and officially forbidden rock 'n' roll in his private life.
Havel watched in horror as a tank commander opened fire on a crowd of peaceful protesters in a small town.
"That week was an experience I will never forget," he said.
The leading figure in the intellectual opposition to communism was the free-spirited artist.
The costs of defiance were huge.
Havel lifted barrels in a brewery and wrote bitter satires that could not be staged.
In 1977 he and a few other dissidents publicly protested Czechoslovakian violations of human rights, and in 1989 this Charter '77 group became the inspiration for Civic Forum, the democratic coalition that toppled communism.
Havel spent five years in prison and was harassed by the police.
Havel focused on truth, decency, and moral regeneration.
In 1975, Havel wrote to the Communist boss of Czechoslovakia that the people were quiet because they were afraid.
Order has been established at the price of a paralysis of the spirit, a deadening of the heart, and a spiritual and moral crisis in society.
Havel saw a way out of the Communist quagmire.
He said a revolution in human values was possible.
Values like trust, openness, responsibility, solidarity and love might again flourish and nurture the human spirit if a revolution were to take place in Czech and Slovak society.
Havel was a voice of hope and humanity who inspired his countrymen with a lofty vision of a moral postcommunist society.
Havel was president of his country from 1989 to 2003 and spoke about the great questions of our time.
Quoted in p. 112.
Boris Yeltsin, the former mayor of Moscow, was strengthened by the defeat of the Soviet Communist Party in local elections in 1990.
Yeltsin, leader of the Russian parliament, announced in May 1990 that Russia would leave the Soviet Union.
Gorbachev faced an attempted coup by Communist hardliners who wanted to preserve the Soviet Union.
The end of the Soviet Union was hastened by their coup attempt.
Yeltsin emerged as a popular hero for his dramatic resistance, and at one point he climbed atop a tank deployed by the conspirators to deliver a rousing speech calling for a general strike in resistance to the coup.
An anticommunist revolution swept the Russian Federation after the attempted takeover.
The Communist Party's property was taken away.
Yeltsin and his allies decided to leave the Soviet Union.
The other Soviet republics followed suit.
The Soviet Union ceased to exist on December 25, 1991 after Gorbachev agreed to their independence.
The need to quickly build new political systems and the need to open socialist economies to free-market principles were some of the challenges faced by the newly independent post-Soviet republics.
Russia's economy depended on oil and natural gas exports, which were doomed by liberal reforms.
Russia retained the world's second-largest nuclear arsenal, as well as a powerful vote in the UN Security Council, despite its weakened economy.
The anticommunist revolution swept the Soviet Union after the failed attempt to depose Gorbachev.
The republics that formed the Soviet Union were led by Russia and Boris Yeltsin.
The Commonwealth of Independent States was formed by eleven of the fifteen republics, but the integrated economy of the Soviet Union dissolved into separate national economies.
Yeltsin chose for rapid change as he presided over Russia.
This shock therapy, which followed methods similar to radical free-market policies in Chile and other parts of Latin America, freed prices on most goods and launched a rapid privatization of industry.
Prices went up and production went down.
Private monopolies cut production and raised prices in order to maximize profits.
The average male life expectancy dropped from sixty-nine years in 1991 to fifty-nine years in 2007, as the quality of public services and health care declined.
Russia's per capita income fell in 2003 for the first time since 1978.
Regional elections were abolished, and the distinction between judicial and executive authority collapsed.
Putin consolidated the power and authority of the state around himself and his closest advisers, closing off the development of democratic pluralism and an independent legal system in Russia.
Chechnya, a tiny republic of 1 million Muslims in southern Russia, became independent in 1991 after a brutal military campaign by Putin.
Between 1994 and 2011, an estimated two hundred thousand Chechen civilians were killed.
More became refugees.
The Chechen resistance to Russian domination continued even after the suicide bombing at Moscow's airport in 2011.
Post-Soviet republics were threatened by political and ethnic divisions after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Pro-Western protesters ousted a president who refused to sign agreements with the EU.
In the aftermath of the uprising, Russian forces occupied the Ukrainian province of Crimea along the Black Sea.
The terms under which the Soviet Union had dissolved into separate republics were undermined by Russia's seizure of Crimea.
Germany and France continued to lead the push for European unity, building on integration efforts in the 1940s and 1950s.
The economic integration of European Community members, free movement of people and goods among twelve member countries, and creation of a common currency, the euro, were pursued in 1930.
Challenges for different parts of Europe were resolved by the creation of the European Union.
A logic was created for a unified Germany.
For eastern Europe, it provided a framework for reform of economies and institutions.
After the loss of colonies in Africa and Asia, western Europe created an alternative path.
For the past five centuries overseas empires have provided the engine for economic development at home and also shaped international relations as well as intellectual currents ranging from abolitionism to scientific racism and even Marxism.
Empires provided raw materials and markets.
For the first time since the French Revolution, almost all of Europe followed the same general political model.
European leaders believed in a free-market vision of capitalism.
Margaret Thatcher drew inspiration from Pinochet's Chile when she implemented the most radical economic changes in Britain in the 1980s.
austerity measures were introduced by other governments to slow the growth of public spending.
Many people were affected by the reductions in public spending and social welfare.
After they married, more women entered or remained in the workforce.
The EU was encouraged by the success of the euro to speed up plans for an expansion to the east.
The EU started admitting eastern European countries on May 1, 2004, and adopted a common constitution in 2009.
Most of eastern Europe is a member of the European Union, with a population of nearly 500 million.
The EU faced questions about its limits as it grew.
Turkey has been a member of NATO since 1952.
Much of Europe banded together in a European Union that has become strained by economic and migration pressures after being divided by ideological competition and the Cold War.
The economic crisis that began in 2008 tested the European Union.
The countries that adopted the euro had to make deep budget cuts.
Ordinary citizens were hit hard by the reductions in health care and social benefits.
Governments were forced to cut budgets because they couldn't expand their own monetary supplies to promote recovery.
The EU struggled to find a unified response to the growing number of refugees crossing the Mediterranean from North Africa and the Middle East as they fled conflict zones and poverty.
In western Europe, there were disagreements over the movement of people from poorer eastern European member nations to wealthier countries like France and the United Kingdom.
The economies of Portugal, Spain, and Italy struggled as a result of austerity that crippled Greece.
Economic growth in Europe was greater than elsewhere, but economic hardship and dislocation were deeper.
Voters in the United Kingdom chose to leave the European Union in 2016 after a campaign fueled by fears about immigration.
The British voters' decision to leave the European Union was the first vote of its kind and cast doubts on the future of the EU.
Most of the world was ruled by undemocratic regimes in 1976.
Some regimes were controlled by Communist parties and others by right-wing military officers who were loyal to the United States.
There were dictatorships ruled by nationalist leaders, strongmen who replaced independence leaders, and members of families that owned much of a nation's resources.
dictators created an illusion of governing in a democratic way, but they restricted opposition or required one-party rule
The space was created for utopian projects to remake nations.
Debt and inflation, famine and malnutrition, the tattering of public institutions, and the reliance on oppression to maintain order were some of the costs of dictatorships.
The fall of dictatorships around the world began in the mid-1980s.
In 1989 the fall of the Berlin Wall ended a wave of political and economic change in the Soviet Union and eastern Europe.
The end of the Cold War division of Europe accelerated a process of integration and unification that had its roots in reconstruction after the Second World War and the process of decolonization that dismantled European empires.
A wave of economic deregulation, often promoted by the United States, swept the world.
Growing gaps between rich and poor were created by liberalism.
East Asia played a growing role in the world economy.
The rapid economic growth of Japan and the industrialization of South Korea were accompanied by an economic liberalization without political liberalization in China.
Japan became the second-largest economy in the world after the United States in the 70s.
China was projected to become the world's largest national economy by the year 2010.
People living under authoritarian regimes had different experiences.
Others stayed out of trouble.
They were affected by authoritarianism because of the fact that official announcements lacked credibility, so rumors, some true and others wild, became their basic currency of exchange.
Many resisted the regimes.
For some, a closed political system meant only armed resistance was available.
The majority of guerrilla movements against authoritarian regimes were met with violence by security forces.
Resistance that was non political was more effective than resistance that was political.
Mothers asking for the whereabouts of missing children, or workers organizing an independent union in Poland, found ways to challenge their regimes.
The establishment of the rule of law that would restrict a regime's arbitrary power was often the most successful resistance.
The pressures were liberalizing when applied to right-wing or socialist dictatorships.
As dictatorships in Latin America, East Asia, and eastern Europe moved toward multiparty democracy, those countries shared a historical moment in which liberal economic and political reforms swept the world.
Explain the significance of each item.
The account was written by a journalist who covered eastern Europe.
The effects of Japan's economic problems in the 1990s are considered by a leading scholar.
The history and violent collapse of Yugoslavia is ponderous and insightful.
Japan's re-emergence in the decades following the Second World War, occupation, and reconstruction is reflected in the documentary about the 1964 Toyko Olympics.
The dynamics of dictator Mobutu Sese Seko's rule and expressions of Pan-African connections are covered in this film.
The tensions of the Cold War are captured in this TV series.
The film tells the story of children taken as infants by the Argentine military dictatorship.
The economic and social transitions that occur as a state aircraft factory is converted into luxury apartments is the subject of a Chinese docudrama.
Interviews of generations of migrants are shown in the film.