1939: The Balance Sheet: Paradoxes and Imponderables -- Part 24
Soviet Jews were not allowed to emigrate in large numbers after the war because they were not allowed by the Soviet authorities.
Over a million Soviet Jews left the Soviet Union after Stalin's death in 1989 to emigrate to Israel, helping to push the population of Jews in Israel to around 6 million by the end of the century.
A majority of the world's Jews continued to live outside the Jewish state, despite the fact that an Arab minority of around 20 percent remained in Israel in the early twenty-first century.
The events in Palestine from 1945 to 1949 were seen by many non-European nations as an expression of neo, and it would seem natural to describe them as an aspect of the demise of European imperialism.
Most of Israel's first leaders were European.
The European background of those leaders made them superior in terms of civilization to the Palestinian Arabs.
One of the many justifications for the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine was the belief that the Jews had a greater need for the land.
The situation in Algeria, which was under French rule, had some similarities to that in Palestine, which was ruled by the British.
Tunisia and Morocco gained independence from France in 1956.
Compared to the bloody developments in Algeria, those countries remained on good terms with France.
In Algeria, settlers from Europe faced a large population of native Arab residents, but they arrived earlier than in Palestine.
Most of the settlers came from other European areas of the Mediterranean, but they still assumed the French language and identity.
Algeria's Jews with non-Jews as "European settlers" is problematic since Jews had lived in the area since the late Middle Ages.
The French government granted civil equality to European settlers in 1870, whereas the Arab majority was denied.
By the end of World War II, there were a million European settlers in Algeria, ten times the number of Arabs.
The Algerian Arab population, sparse at the beginning of the 19th century, had experienced a remarkable population increase by the 20th century.
Since "Palestine" had previously been more of a vague geographic expression than a term referring to a long-existing or distinct ethnic entity of the people living in the areas, these points were related to questions about the validity of a separate Palestinian Arab identity.
In both cases, European rule was attractive to Arab settlement.
Anti-Jewish riots in Algeria during World War II were more violent than in mainland France, but Algerian Jewish identity remained overwhelmingly pro.
The non-Jewish European population also opposed the idea of majority rule by Arabs.
In Algeria, there was more recourse to terror by both sides before and after the war of 1948-9.
The death toll in Algeria was higher than in Palestine.
Over a million Arab civilians were killed in the decades following World War II.
The death toll was caused by Arab-on-Arab terror, since the more radical groups wanted to destroy the more moderate.
In their attempt to destroy Arab nationalist forces, French military forces engaged in torture.
Algeria gained its independence in 1962 after those efforts were in vain.
Algeria and Israel adopted nationality laws after gaining independence.
The Israeli Law of Return, passed in 1950, gave citizenship to anyone with one Jewish grandparent, as well as civil equality to its non-Jewish minority.
The European settlers had left by the time the Algerian Nationality law gave citizenship only to Muslims.
Immigrants whose fathers were Muslim could not become citizens of the new state.
It was decided that they should be given citizenship in the new Jewish state.
Without formal conversion to Orthodox Judaism, they couldn't marry a real Jew in Israel because of the Orthodox rabbis' control over issues of marriage, birth, and death.
The less strictly Orthodox Jewish majority of the country became hostile to the ultra-Orthodox because they avoided military service.
The Nazi Final Solution to the Jewish Question was important in gaining support in Europe for the creation of the state of Israel, but the attitudes of Europeans to Jews and Israel thereafter evolved in surprising directions.
"Mastering the past" came to mean different things to different people in different countries.
All people make up stories about themselves that bolster their identities and disrespect their enemies, ignoring or suppressing evidence that fails to support those stories.
The majority of people preferred to start with others.
It became almost commonplace for the educated left in western Europe and the United States to assume that a nation must look at the ugly, repressed aspects of the past and recognize guilt, rather than deny or suppress them.
The mass murder of Europe's Jews did not become a central issue until after 1989 in areas of the former Soviet Union.
It was not just that Europeans were concerned with immediate problems of survival and reconstruction; reliable information about what would later be called the Holocaust was limited, at least compared to what would be known about it by the end of the century.
The Germans, who came to be held up as models of rigorous self-examination, were initially in denial.
The French were prone to exaggerating the extent of popular French resistance to Nazism and to go easy on relatively minor officials while dealing with some of the more prominent collaborators in the Vichy regime.
The Nuremberg trials wanted to give wide publicity to the crimes of the Nazi leadership.
Ordinary citizens should have known about the mass murder of Jews.
In his six-volume history of the war, Churchill wrote nothing about the Holocaust.
De Gaulle's memoirs largely ignored the topic.
Eisenhower commanded every nearby unit that was not directly engaged in combat to visit the recently uncovered horrors at Ohrdruf, one of the largest concentration camps inside the Nazi Reich.
He urged the delegations of newsmen and political officials to visit the camps.
The local populations were ordered by Eisenhower to visit the grotesque sights and smells of the camps.