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39.2 The Human Skeletal System -- Part 3
There are ribs.
The upper seven pairs attach directly to the sternum.
There are three pairs of false ribs that attach by means of a common cartilage, and two pairs that don't attach to the sternum at all.
The rib cage shows how flexible the skeleton is.
The rib cage protects the heart and lungs, yet it swings downward and inward on its own.
The lower limbs and hip bones are specialized for strength while the upper limbs are for flexibility.
There are 126 bones in the appendicular skeleton.
The components are linked by ligaments.
The collarbone connects with the sternum, but the shoulder blade is held in place by muscles.
This allows it to move.
The funny bone of the elbow is the humerus.
The nerve that passes across its end is what causes the sensation of bumping it.
The long bone in the arm, the humerus, has a smooth rounded head that fits into a sockets of the scapula.
The head is larger than the sockets.
The two bones of the lower arm, the ulna and the radius, are located at the elbow.
The ulna has a prominent bone in it.
The ulna and radius are close to one another when the upper limb is held.
The easy twisting motion of the forearm is due to the fact that the radius crosses in front of the ulna when the upper limb is turned so that the palm is next to the body.
The hand has many bones.
There are eight carpal bones on the wrist.
The framework for the palm is formed by five metacarpal bones.
The bones of the fingers and thumb are beyond the metacarpals.
The phalanges of the hand are light and long.
The coxal bones are anchored to the sacrum and form a hollow cavity.
The larger uterus in females allows for pregnancies and childbirth.
The weight of the body is transmitted through the lower limbs to the ground.
The thighbone is the largest bone in the body.
The strongest bone in our body is the femur.
The shin is the larger of the two bones in the leg.
The fibula on the outside of the ankle and the tibia on the inside of the leg contribute to the ankle.
Although there are seven tarsal bones in the ankle, only one receives the weight and passes it on to the foot.
The weight is thrown toward the front of your foot if you wear high-heeled shoes.
The arches of the foot are formed by the metatarsal bones.
There is a longitudinal arch from the bottom of the foot to the top of the foot.
The base for the body is provided by these.
Flat feet are caused by the weakened tissues that bind the metatarsals.
The bones are connected at the joints.
There are sutures between the cranial bones.
The cartilaginous joints are not completely immobile.
The flexibility of the vertebrae is increased by being separated by disks.
The pubic symphysis is where the two hip bones are joined.
During late pregnancy, the joint becomes more flexible, allowing it to expand during childbirth.
The ligaments are loose in a double-jointed individual.
synovial fluid is produced by the lining of the joint capsule.
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