The corrupt regime of Governor William Berkeley was in alliance with an inner circle of the colony's wealthiest tobacco planters.
Land grants and lucrative offices were given to his followers.
Virginia's tobacco boom had helped planters and smaller farmers, some of them former servants who were able to acquire farms.
As tobacco farming spread inland, freed servants were left with no options but to work as tenants or move to the frontier, since Virginia's death rate was finally falling.
Heavy taxes on tobacco and falling prices reduced the prospects of small farmers.
By the 1670s, poverty among whites had reached levels similar to England.
In 1670, the right to vote was limited to the owners of the land.
Governor Berkeley had good relations with Virginia's native population.
Many land-hungry colonists were angered by his refusal to allow white settlement in areas reserved for Indians.
Berkeley's rule helped spark the Rebellion.
In 1676, long-simmering social tensions coupled with widespread resentment against the Berkeley regime erupted in the Bacon's Rebellion.
There was a small confrontation between Indians and colonists on Virginia's western frontier.
The settlers wanted the governor to authorize the removal of the Indians in order to open more land for whites.
Berkeley was afraid of all-out warfare and continued to profit from the trade with Indians in deerskins.
The uprising careened out of control.
After a series of Indian massacres, it quickly grew into a rebellion against Berkeley and his system of rule.
There was a conflict within the Virginia elite.
The men of wealth were outside the governor's circle of cronies.
The removal of all Indians from the colony, a reduction of taxes at a time of economic recession, and an end to rule by "grandees" gained support from small farmers, landless men, indentured servants, and even some Africans.
The majority of his army were servants.
Maryland enacted laws in the 1660s to clarify questions about slavery.
The law required a white woman to marry a slave to serve her husband's owner until the slave's death.
The upper and lower house of the General Assembly should give the go-ahead for it to be enacted by the Right Honorable the Lord Proprietary.
All children born to slaves will be slaves for the rest of their lives.
Diving freeborn English women, of their free condition and to the disgrace of our nation, marry Negro slaves, by which also divers suits may arise touching the issue of the children of such women, and a great damage befalls the masters of such Negroes.
After the last day of this present Assembly, freeborn woman shall marry any slave from and after the last day of this present Assembly, to serve the master of such slave during the life of her husband.
The issue of freeborn women so married will be like that of their fathers.
All the issues of English or other freeborn women that have already married Negroes will serve the masters of their parents until they are thirty years of age and no longer.
Emigrants from Europe to British North America were not free.
dentured servants surrendered their freedom in exchange for passage to America.
Many indentured servants voiced their complaints in the letter written by Elizabeth Sprigs from Maryland to her father in England.
I am going to relate the words of truth and sincerity and balance my former bad conduct to your daughter, and I am sure you will pity her.
We unfortunate English people are not likely to have children in England.
I am one of the unhappy number, am toiling almost day and night, and very often in the horse's drudgery.
Negroes are better used, almost naked no shoes nor stockings to wear, and the comfort after slaving during master's pleasure, what rest we can get is to wrap ourselves up in a blanket and lie on the ground.
If you have any compassion left, please send me some relief because your poor Betty is in a state of disrepair.
If you should condescend to, you can easily send clothing to me by any of the ships bound for Baltimore town, Patapsco River, Maryland.
Give me leave to finish my duty to you and your family.
The End of the Rebellion and its consequences promised freedom to all who joined his ranks.
His supporters invoked the tradition of "English liberties" and spoke of the poor being cheated by their social superiors.
He did not accept Berkeley's order and burned it to the ground.
The ruler of Virginia was bacon.
The estates of Berkeley's supporters were taken over by his forces.
The order was restored by the arrival of a squadron of warships from England.
The Rebellion was over.
Berkeley's departure resulted in the hanging of 23 of his supporters.
The possibility of a civil war among whites frightened Virginia's ruling elite, who took dramatic steps to consolidate their power and improve their image.
Property qualifications for voting were restored.
The planters developed a new political style in which they cultivated the support of poorer neighbors.
The authorities reduced taxes and opened western areas to small farmers, many of whom prospered from a rise in tobacco prices after 1680.
The shift to slaves on the tobacco plantations was done to prevent the growth of a population of landless former indentured servants.
As Virginia reduced the number of indentured servants, it redefined their freedom dues to include fifty acres of land.
Between 1680 and 1700, slave labor replaced indentured servitude on the plantations.
There were several factors that contributed to this development.
As the death rate began to fall, it became more economical to purchase a worker for life.
The opening of Pennsylvania made it easier for people to leave England for America.
The end of the Royal Africa Company's monopoly on the English slave trade opened the door for other traders and reduced the price of imported African slaves.
Blacks made up more than 10% of Virginia's population by 1700.
Fifty years later, they made up half of the total.
In 1705, the House of Burgesses enacted a new slave code, bringing together the scattered legislation of the previous century and adding new provisions that embedded the principle of white supremacy in the law.
Slaves were subject to the will of their masters and the white community.
They could be bought and sold, leased, fought over, and passed on to their descendants.
Blacks and whites were tried in different courts.
No black, free or slave could own arms, strike a white man or use a white servant.
Any white person could demand a certificate of freedom or a pass from the owner if they wanted to leave the plantation.
Virginia had changed from a "society with slaves" to a "slave society" where slavery was the center of the economic process.
Slaves have run away and resisted bondage in the past.
They did the same thing in the colonial Chesapeake.
Runaway slaves were advertised in colonial newspapers.
Some of the blacks brought to the region were offspring of sexual encounters between European traders and Africans on the western coast of Africa or the Caribbean.
They turned to the colonial legal system in their quest for freedom because they were familiar with European culture and English.
The first time blacks appeared in court, they claimed their liberty on the basis of conversion to Christianity or having a white father.
The pathways to freedom were closed by Virginia in the 1660s.
The desire for freedom did not go away despite legal avenues being less available.
Alexander Spotswood, the governor of Virginia, warned planters after the suppression of a slave conspiracy.
A large agricultural enterprise used unfree labor to produce a crop.
Berkeley had failed to protect settlers from Indian raids and did not allow them to occupy Indian lands, which led to the revolt led by Nathaniel Bacon.
The King Philip's War of 1675-1676 and the bacon's Rebellion of the following year were associated with unrest in other colonies.
In Maryland, where the proprietor, Lord Baltimore, in 1670 suddenly restricted the right to vote to owners of fifty acres of land or a certain amount of personal property, a Protestant uprising unsuccessfully sought to oust his government.
Increasing settlement on the frontier led to resistance by Indians.
In 1680, a rebellion by the Westo Indians was suppressed.
The crisis of colonial authority was not limited to the British empire, as indicated by the Pueblo Revolt of the same year.
The colonies were affected by the revolution in England.
Parliament had the authority to form national policy under Charles II.
It was excluded from political and religious power Catholics and Dissenters who were not members of the official Anglican Church.
James II, the duke of York, was a practicing Catholic and a believer that kings ruled by divine right after his brother Charles died in 1685.
James made religious toleration for both Protestant Dissenters and Catholics.
The birth of James's son raised the prospect of a Catholic succession, alarming those who thought "popery" was tyranny.
The Dutch nobleman William of Orange, the husband of James's Protestant daughter Mary, was invited to assume the throne by a group of English aristocracy.
In November 1688, William arrived in England with an army of over 20,000 men.
James II fled and the revolution was complete as the landed elite and leaders of the Anglican Church rallied to William's cause.
The Glorious Revolution was a coup engineered by a small group of aristocrats in alliance with an ambitious Dutch prince, unlike the social upheaval that marked the English Civil War of the 1640s.
They didn't want to challenge the institution of the monarchy.
The idea that the king was subject to the rule of law was reinforced by the overthrow of James II.
The English Bill of Rights was enacted in 1689 in order to justify the ousting of James II.
These were both "ancient" and "doubted".
Protestant Dissenters were allowed to worship freely in the following year, although only Anglicans could hold public office.
British politics were mirrored in the American colonies.
Protestant domination was secured in most of the colonies, with the established churches of England (Anglican) and Scotland (Presbyterian) growing the fastest, while Catholics and Dissenters suffered various forms of discrimination.
In some American colonies, religious freedom was more advanced than in England, despite the new regime's language of liberty.
The Glorious Revolution exposed fault lines in colonial society and gave local elites an opportunity to regain authority that had recently been challenged.
The North American colonies had little interference from England until the mid-1670s.
Governor Berkeley ran Virginia as he saw fit; proprietors in New York, Maryland, and Carolina governed in ways that they could persuade the colonists to accept; and New England colonies elected government about its compliance with the navigation Acts.
The acts did not apply to the colony unless the Massachusetts General Court approved them.
England reduced colonial autonomy in the 16th century.
The Massachusetts charter was revoked by Charles II due to violations of the navigation acts.
In order to reduce his dependence on Parliament, James II combined Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, New York, and East and West Jersey into a single super-colony, the Dominion of New England.
The former New York governor, Sir Edmund Andros, did not have to answer to an elected assembly.
James II was thought to be an enemy of freedom.
Almost everyone in New England was not dependent on his administration for favors.
He appointed local officials in place of elected ones, imposed taxes without the approval of elected representatives, and declared earlier land grants void unless approved by him.
The church-state relationship at the heart of the Puritan order was threatened by his rule.
The news of James II's overthrow triggered rebellions in several American colonies.
When the New England colonies reestablished the governments abolished when they were created, the Boston militia seized and jailed Edmund Andros and other officials.
The Committee of Safety was established by the rebel militia in May and they took control of New York.
The colony's Catholic proprietor, Lord Baltimore, was overthrown by the Protestant Association two months later.
The regimes claimed to have acted in the name of English liberties and looked to London for approval.
The degrees of success varied greatly.
The Maryland rebels were the most triumphant.
William revoked his charter and established a Protestant-dominated government after concluding that Lord Baltimore had mismanaged the colony.
Catholics had the right to practice their religion, but not to vote or hold office.
After the Baltimore family converted to Anglicanism, proprietary power was restored.
The events of 1689 changed the ruling group in Maryland and ended the colony's unique history of religious toleration.
In New York, the outcome was different.
The colony was divided along ethnic and economic lines.
After more than two decades of English rule, members of the Dutch majority reclaimed local power.
Prominent English colonists, along with some wealthy Dutch merchants and fur traders, protested to London that Leisler was a tyrant.
The new governor was backed by troops.
He was condemned to be executed and many of his followers were imprisoned.
The manner of his death reflected the depths of hatred the rebellion had inspired.
The rivalry between the anti-Leisler parties and the Leisler parties has been going on for a long time.
The New England colonies fought hard for the restoration of their original charters after Governor Andros was deposed.
Massachusetts was not successful.
The political structure of the Bible Commonwealth was changed by a new charter issued by the crown in 1691.
Property ownership, not church membership, would be required to vote in elections for the General Court.
The governor was appointed in London.
To allow all Protestants to worship freely, it was required to abide by the English Taoist Act of 1689.
Non-Puritan merchants and large landowners came to dominate the new government because of the demise of the "New England way".
The tension in Massachusetts was caused by raids by French troops and their Indian allies on the northern New England frontier.
Puritan clergy were worried about the advent of religious toleration and considered other Protestant denominations a form of heresy.
The minister said he wouldn't have a hand in setting up the worship.
The Puritans didn't think they saw the hand of Satan in the events of 1690 and 1691.
A is the hangman, B is the town crier, C is the sheriff, and D is the magistrate.
Witches Belief in magic, astrology, and witchcraft were prosecuted in Europe and America in the 17th century.
Puritans believed in supernatural interventions in the affairs of the world.
lightning that struck one house but spared another, and epidemics that reduced the population of their Indian enemies were all interpreted as expressions of God's will.
Daily life could be affected by evil forces.
Witches were people who were accused of entering into a pact with the devil to get supernatural powers, which they used to harm others or interfere with natural processes.
Many people believed that a child was stillborn or that crops failed.
In Europe and the colonies, it was a crime to practice witchcraft.
Over 50,000 people were executed in Europe after being found guilty of being witches.
Witches were put to death in New England.
Most were women who were outspoken, economically independent, or estranged from their husbands, or who in other ways violated traditional gender norms.
Both God's will and the standing of men as rulers of society were challenged by the witch's alleged power.
The prosecution of witches was sporadic until 1692.
A series of trials and executions took place in the town of Salem, Massachusetts, that made its name to this day a byword for persecution.
The crisis began in 1691 when several young girls began to suffer fits and nightmares.
Tituba, an Indian from the Caribbean, was a slave in the home of one of the girls.
The only way to avoid prosecution was to confess and name others.
Hundreds of residents of Salem came forward to accuse their neighbors.
The occasion was used to settle old scores in the Salem community.
Almost 150 people were taken to court by local authorities, the majority of them women.
Fourteen women and five men were hanged, protesting their innocence, after many confessed to saving their lives.
A man was crushed under a weight of stones when he refused to enter a plea.
In the Salem witch trials, accusations of witchcraft spread far beyond the usual profile of middleaged women to include people of all ages and those with no previous history of conflict.
Something was seriously wrong with the colony's justice system as accusations and executions increased.
The governor of Massachusetts dissolved the Salem court at the end of 1692.
The events in Salem undermined the tradition of prosecuting witches and led to a greater commitment to finding scientific explanations for comets and illnesses.
In the future, only two accused witches would be brought to trial in Massachusetts.
The British throne was taken from James II in 1688 by a coup engineered by a small group of aristocrats.
The rights of Englishmen were inscribed into law in a series of laws enacted in 1689.
The English regulatory board was established in 1675.
The consolidation of the New England colonies and later New York and New Jersey reverted to individual colonial governments three years later.
All English Protestants were allowed to worship without restriction.
anxiety over witchcraft caused a crisis of trials and executions in Salem, Massachusetts.
The Salem witch trials took place two centuries after Columbus's initial voyage.
The world he had seen was vastly different in the Western Hemisphere.
Powerful states had been destroyed and the native population had been wiped out.
Three new and very different empires had arisen in North America, competing for wealth and power.
Saint Domingue, Martinique, and Guadeloupe are plantation islands of the West Indies.
There were farms and trading posts in the St. Lawrence Valley on the mainland.
The English colonies were far ahead of their rivals in population and trade north of the Rio Grande.
After the crises of the late seventeenth century, English North America experienced an era of remarkable growth.
In the 17th century, backwoods settlements became bustling provincial capitals.
Hundreds of thousands of newcomers arrived from the Old World as epidemics in Indian country diminished, and agricultural settlement pressed west.
The population of England's mainland colonies grew from 265,000 in 1700 to over 2.3 million seventy years later.
The diversity of colonial American society was probably the most striking feature.
The colonies were basically English outposts.
Most of the white population was of English origin, and few Africans had yet been brought to the mainland.
African and non-English European arrivals increased in the 18th century.
The policy of encouraging emigration was changed as economic conditions improved.
Authorities began to worry that large-scale emigration was draining labor from the mother country because of an excess population of vagabonds and "masterless men."
40 percent of European immigrants to the colonies continued to arrive as bound laborers who had temporarily sacrificed their freedom to make the voyage to the New World.
Poor indentured migrants were joined by professionals and skilled craftsmen as England prospered.
Efforts to promote English emigration were ended by this.
The government in London was worried about losing desirable members of its population, but still believed that colonial development enhanced the nation's power and wealth.
The convicts were sent to work in the tobacco fields to bolster the labor force.
Officials encouraged Protestant immigration from the non-English parts of the British Isles and from the European continent, promising easy access to land and the right to worship freely.
The law of 1740 gave European immigrants British citizenship after seven years of residence in the mother country.
Britain's efforts to attract settlers from non-English areas to its colonies contributed to the widely publicized image of America as an asylum for those "whom bigots chase from foreign lands".
The racial and ethnic diversity of the population was one of the most striking features of colonial society.
Increased immigration from the non-English parts of the British Isles and from mainland Europe led to the expansion of the slave trade from Africa.
Most of the 80,000 English newcomers were convicted criminals, but they were outnumbered by 145,000 from Scotland and the northern part of Ireland, where many Scots had settled as part of England's effort to subdue the island.
The impact of Scottish and Scotch-Irish immigrants was profound.
Presbyterians added a lot of religious diversity in North America.
A large majority of the physicians in eighteenth-century America were of Scottish origin, and their numbers included not only poor farmers seeking land but also numerous merchants, teachers, and professionals.
The Germans formed the largest group of newcomers from Europe.
The majority came from the valley of the Rhine River.
The official religion of Germany was determined by a ruling prince in the 18th century.
Those who found themselves worshiping the wrong religion were followers of small Protestant sects.
Other migrants were motivated by the difficulties of acquiring land.
The emigration to America was only a small part of the reshuffling of the German population in Europe.
Most of the Germans who left their homes in the 18th century migrated eastward to Austria-Hungary and the Russian empire.
Germans traveled in entire families wherever they moved.
Redemptioners were given passage in exchange for a promise to work off their debt in America.
The majority of them settled in rural New York, western Pennsylvania, and the southern backcountry, where they formed tightly knit farming communities in which German remained the dominant language.
Their arrival made Britain's colonies more diverse.
British America was not a melting pot of cultures.
The ethnic groups lived and worshiped in the same places.
Outside of New England, which received few immigrants and retained its overwhelmingly English ethnic character, American society had a far more diverse population than Britain.
The practice of religion was the most obvious example of this.
Most of the churches in the colonies were either Congregational or Anglican.
The presence of the Anglicans expanded considerably in the 18th century.
The number of Dissenting churches increased.
The growing diversity of the population was found to be disturbing by some prominent colonists.
Benjamin Franklin was worried about the large influx of Germans into Pennsylvania.
I might be partial to the complexion of my country, for it is natural to partiality.
The colonies did not follow a modern separation of church and state.
Most colonies barred Catholics and Jews from voting and holding public office because of taxes levied to pay the salaries of ministers of an established church.
The establishment of new churches by immigrants, as well as new Baptist, Methodist, and other congregations created as a result of the Great Awakening, a religious revival that will be discussed in Chapter 4, fueled the de facto toleration of Protestant denominations.
Dissenting Protestants in most colonies gained the right to worship as they pleased and own their churches, but many places still prevented them from holding public office and taxed them to support the official church.
Jews contributed to the religious diversity despite the fact that there were few in number.
German Jews were attracted by the chance to escape the strict religious restrictions of German-speaking parts of Europe and many of them settled in London and Philadelphia.
The colony's religious diversity was described by a visitor in the 17th century.
The lack of a military draft, the availability of land, and the absence of restrictions on economic opportunity were all important to immigrants.