The Connecticut Compromise resulted in the creation of a House of Representatives and a Senate.
The House of Representatives is made up of 435 people.
Each state has one House seat for about 650,000 people.
It also has representatives from the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, The Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.
There is a minimum of two senators and one representative in each state.
The principle of "one man, one vote" was established as a result of the Supreme Court decision.
Guidelines for drawing up congressional districts were created by this decision.
Some districts in the South have been asked to be reviewed by the Supreme Court.
The equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment was the basis on which the Court ruled in 1995 that a racially apportioned district in Georgia was unconstitutional.
Some states created districts that favored the political party in power in order to correct congressional boundaries.
The action became known as gerrymander.
The size, term of office, and qualifications of the House of Representatives make it more representative than the Senate.
The term of office for a senator is six years, compared to two for a representative.
A person who wants to serve in the House needs to be at least 25 years old, an American citizen for seven years, and a resident of the state the congressman represents.
A senator must be at least 30 years old, nine years a citizen of the United States, and a resident of the state that the senator represents.
Many states limit the number of terms a representative can serve.
The Supreme Court ruled in 1995 that the laws were unconstitutional.
The House of Representatives is given the responsibility of starting all revenue bills and starting the process of impeachment because senators were originally appointed by state legislatures.
The House Judiciary Committee passed impeachment charges during the impeachment hearings of Richard Nixon and Bill Clinton.
Clinton was acquitted by the Senate but Nixon resigned before they could try him.
The Senate can pass a different version of the bill, but it must wait for the House to pass its version of the bill.
After voting on articles of impeachment, the Senate failed to convict Andrew Johnson and acquitted Bill Clinton.
The Senate has the responsibility of approving presidential appointments and treaties, which is different from the other body.
The common powers of the Congress are listed.
The powers of Congress are enumerated.
The "necessary and proper" clause states that Congress has the power to make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers.
Congress has shown an ability to change with the times even though strict interpreters of the Constitution reject the extent of its elasticity.
The creation of the National Bank in the 1800s and the passage of the Brady Bill reflect the times.
The denial of the writ of habeas corpus, the passage of bill of attainder laws, and the passage of ex post facto laws are all powers denied to Congress.
Congress can't give titles of nobility to its citizens.
Chapter 7, The Congress, deals with how much power the Congress exerts in comparison to the other branches and whether it becomes an imperial Congress.
The role of the president as a central player in government is defined by the powers and qualifications granted to the executive department.
The qualifications for office are the strictest among the three branches because of the unique qualities of the presidency.
The president must be a natural-born citizen, at least 35 years old, and a resident of the United States for at least 14 years.
A constitutional amendment limits the term of office to four years.
As a result of the way in which the definition of chief executive is stated, the president becomes a central and unique player in government.
The power of the president in modern times has increased more than the other branches because the president can interpret the role of the executive in a broad way.
The power of the president has been on the rise, from Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal to George Bush's new world order.
The visibility of the president in ceremonial areas is much higher than that of a congressman.
The president wields a lot of power in relation to party appointments because he is the head of the political party in power.
Chapter 8 of The Presidency will discuss whether the presidency is turning into an imperial presidency.
The responsibility of the vice president is listed.
If there is a tie vote, the responsibility of the vice president is to preside over the Senate and cast the deciding vote.
In the first administration of President Clinton, Vice President Al Gore cast the decisive vote to pass the president's budget proposal.
It was a piece of legislation that set the course of the new president's economic program.
The vice president is next in line to succeed the president in case of death and can take over the presidency if the president is disabled under the Twenty-Fifth Amendment.
The role of the electoral college is outlined in the second part of the article.
The electoral college has presidential electors in each state.
The state's population is used to calculate the number of electors.
The states with the greatest population have the most electoral votes.
When a voter casts a vote for president, the vote goes to one of the presidential electors in that state.
The number of senators and representatives in each state is equal to the number of electors.
The number can change based on the census.
The candidate who gets the most votes gets all the electoral votes.
A majority of the electoral votes are needed for a candidate to be elected to office.
In December, the electors gather in Washington, D.C., to cast their votes based on the results of the November election.
The election of president is determined by the House of Representatives if no candidate gets a majority of the electoral votes.
Specific cases of how the electoral college affected presidential elections will be discussed.
The media and the public pay more attention to the president.
The job approval of the president is tracked by opinion polls.
The president's life is under scrutiny.
Presidential candidates like Gary Hart and sitting presidents like Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, and Bill Clinton have been criticized for their personal acts.
Political scientists say that this view of the presidency has weakened the institution.
The role of the courts is defined by specific powers and responsibilities granted to the judicial department.
The judiciary does not have a specific qualification for office.
The Supreme Court was established by the Constitution.
Congress established the lower federal courts.
The size of the Supreme Court is not defined.
The number of sitting justices has been as low as five.
The Court ruled a number of Roosevelt's New Deal acts unconstitutional in 1937.
The attempt was rejected by Congress.
Life after appointment for Supreme Court justices is the terms of office.
Supreme Court justices come from other federal judgeships.
The Senate Judiciary Committee questioning has made the appointment process more difficult.
Richard Nixon's appointments were turned down.
George Bush sent Clarence Thomas's name to the Senate and he was accused of sexual harassment by an Oklahoma law professor.
The Court may have to rule on issues such as abortion, so nominees are questioned on their attitudes.
Nominees must tread a thin line and not be too specific.
If they rule on a case they have already spoken about, there will be a conflict.
The major power given to the judicial branch is defined as "the judicial power which shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made."
Specific cases and the role of the Court in American life will be discussed in The Judiciary.
The court can hear cases through original jurisdiction.
Most of the cases heard in the Supreme Court are brought by state and federal courts.
This is called appellate jurisdiction.
The Supreme Court has taken up congressional and presidential actions.
The Supreme Court has no accountability to the voters of the three branches of government.
Once confirmed, sitting justices decide on cases based on their own interpretations of the Constitution.
In modern times, the impact of the Supreme Court on policymaking has increased.
The landmark decision of Brown v Board of Education is believed to be a turning point in the history of the Court.
Montesquieu wrote The Spirit of Natural Laws and James Madison wrote Federalist No.
The concept of checks and balances became a central feature of our government.
The powers of one department should not be administered by either of the other departments.
Some examples of how each branch of government has used its power to check another branch may be useful to show the importance of this feature.
The Republican Congress overrode only 2 of the 30 vetoes that Bill Clinton used.
Bork's position was denied during the Senate confirmation hearings.
The attempt by Congress to pass a flag detainment act was stopped by Supreme Court decisions.
The 1999 Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was rejected by the Senate.
There have been more than 2,500 presidential vetoes of congressional bills.
More than 100 of them were overrode by Congress.
More than 100 acts of Congress were found to be unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
The Supreme Court and nine cabinet members have not been confirmed by the Senate.
Other appointees withdrew because of Senate opposition.
There have been cases of impeachment of federal judges.
One way the president can get around Senate opposition to an appointment is through a recess appointment, a temporary appointment of the president's choice made during a congressional recess.
At the end of the one year appointment, the president must submit the nominee for Senate confirmation.
If one branch tries to challenge the authority of another, it could lead to a constitutional crisis.
If the president deploys troops in a country for an extended period of time and ignores the provisions of the War Powers Act, an act of Congress that limits presidential authority to send armed forces to another country, there is a good chance of an unresolvable conflict.
The Supreme Court doesn't get involved in those kinds of conflicts.
Congress has challenged the president's authority in foreign policy conflicts in Bosnia but has not placed restrictions on his authority.
The most significant feature of checks and balances is that they show that our government is limited.
Even our most dominant presidents had to deal with the interests and concerns of the legislature and judiciary, even though many political scientists point to the power of the presidency.
The relationship between the federal government and the states is mapped out in two articles and one amendment, as well as establishing a balance of power among the three branches of government.
The term "full faith and credit" is used to describe the mutual respect and legality of laws, public records, and judicial decisions made by states.
If Nevada has rules for marriage and divorce, New York must recognize them as valid.
President Clinton signed the Defense of Marriage Act into law in 1996.
The law gives states the authority to refuse to recognize gay marriages performed in other states, and it also denies gays who were legally married all the federal benefits given to other married couples.
The law was challenged and is going to the Supreme Court.
The law within each state is recognized as legal if the state's laws conflict with each other.
Section 2 states that "the citizens of each state shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in all the states."
This provision guarantees that the rights of a citizen in one state will be respected by other states.
The phrase "privileges and immunities" becomes a significant phrase in the Fourteenth Amendment, where states are told they cannot abridge the privileges and immunities of their citizens.
The legitimate claim to fugitives is recognized by the states.
The word republican is important.
It suggests that every state should have a limited government.
Every state will be protected from outside attacks by the United States.
The most important statement in the relationship between the federal government and the states is found in article VI.
The clause tells the states that they can't pass laws that conflict with federal actions.
State officials pledge their loyalty to the Constitution.
When Maryland was told it couldn't tax the National Bank, this precedent was established.
The principle of limited government can be found in the Constitution.
The Tenth Amendment states that federalism is the relationship between the federal government and state governments.
The states are told that they have reserved powers.
Powers not delegated to the government are given to the states.
Federalism will explore the application and interpretation of this relationship.
A federal system of government is formed by including language that gives legitimacy to state governments and establishes a defined relationship between the federal government and the states.
The federal government and state governments are told throughout the document that they do not have unlimited power.
The system of checks and balances limited the three branches.
The Congress is told that it can't deny the right of appeal or pass bills of attainder.
There are exceptions to some of the limitations.
In times of national emergency, the Supreme Court has determined that the federal government can place restrictions on the civil liberties of its citizens.
Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas in the border states during the Civil War.
Japanese-Americans were ordered to internment camps during World War II.
The rationale for including a Bill of Rights in the Constitution was to reinforce the idea of limited government.
The government is told that the rights of its citizens must be protected, from the opening words of the First Amendment, to the due process guarantees of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments.
The Bill of Rights and Civil Liberties will examine this issue further.
The philosophy of the Enlightenment is that government is created by the consent of the governed.
Natural rights can't be taken away by the government.
The Constitution can be amended to meet the needs of a changing society.
The Constitution has only been amended 15 times if you don't count the Bill of Rights.
The revisions help to strengthen, expand, and explain provisions found in the original document.
There are two ways to amend the Constitution.
The one that has been used the most requires a two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress.
The second method, which has only been used once, is when Congress must call for a national constitutional convention after a request is made by two-thirds of the state legislatures.
There may be a time limit on the approval of amendments.
The Equal Rights Amendment, which would have guaranteed the equality of rights by the United States and every state, was given seven years and an extension to pass in two-thirds of the state legislatures.
It died because of political pressure brought on by groups opposed to public funding of abortion and groups concerned about the effect that affirmative action would have on various labor laws.
The Bill of Rights took less than a year to be approved.
One must project that other amendments to the Constitution are a real possibility if the Constitution is an enduring document.
A balanced budget amendment, term limits for Congress, abolition of the electoral college, and a provision for equal rights for women and homosexuals are some of the measures that have advocates.
After the Supreme Court ruled in Texas v Johnson (1989) that flag burning is a form of political protest, Congress failed to pass a constitutional amendment making it illegal to burn the flag.
The Constitution's elasticity adds to its viability.
Political parties, the president's cabinet, special interest groups, political action committees, and the federal bureaucracy are examples of traditions, precedent, and practice incorporated into our form of government.
New instruments of government can be created with the Constitution's flexibility and adaptability.
The elastic clause and powers given to the Congress in the Constitution are some of the greatest instruments of change that Congress has at its disposal.
The Judiciary Act of 1789 gave Congress the power to expand the size of the government.
Congress has used the elastic clause to pass civil rights legislation, it has broadly interpreted the meaning of interstate commerce, and it has passed a war powers act under its power to declare war.
Most of the political system we are used to is not provided for by the Constitution or any law.
The influence of political parties has become a dominant feature of government despite warnings from the Federalist Papers and George Washington.
The importance of party politics can be seen when the Republican Party can unite and not vote for the president's budget proposal.
This becomes an additional check when a party starts a continuous debate in the Senate to block the passage of legislation.
The Supreme Court went beyond the parameters in establishing precedent.
The Marbury v Madison decision established judicial review and found a way to protect the right of a woman to have an abortion.
Government is made up of custom and tradition.
Washington announced the formation of cabinet positions after executive departments were established.
As they approved additional cabinet positions, Congress codified this concept.
Franklin Roosevelt broke the tradition of a two-term president.
The tradition of limiting presidential terms was made a part of the Constitution after he died.
The presidential succession amendment was passed after John Kennedy's death.
The country didn't realize that Spiro Agnew, the country's vice president, and the president, Richard Nixon, would resign after the assassination.
The document that sets the course for American government was the focus of this chapter.
As you look more closely at the workings of our government and political system, an understanding of the Constitution will make your job easier.
A, B, D, and E are incorrect and choice C is a correct generalization, so you have a broadly defined question with a general statement.
In the 1994 midterm election, voters had the chance to change representatives every two years.
The intent of the decision was not to create gerrymandered districts.
The decision did not affect voting districts for state offices.
The creation of the second National Bank was based on the elastic clause, which is a classic example of an implied power of Congress.
As part of the general-welfare-legislating ability of Congress, the passing of an assault weapons ban as part of a crime bill was implied.
The other choices are examples of delegated powers.
Taking on the role of head of a political party is assumed by the president.
If the president dies in office, the vice president is first in line of succession.
There are other roles for the president and vice president.
President Clinton gave Vice President Gore the job of coming up with a report on how to change government.
Presidential electors were given the responsibility of actually voting for the president after an electoral college was instituted.
The number of electors each state had was determined by its population.
The power of the states is expanded by the Reserved Power Clause.
The passage of the crime bill after the conference is the only choice that does not involve a direct check.
The other choices are great examples of checks and balances.
If there is a greater reliance on the federal government to solve problems, you can conclude that a by-product would be an increased role on the part of the president.
If you knew about the Clarence Thomas nomination, you would know that it is characterized by bitter confirmation battles.
The provision had an impact on public policy.
Explain how the amendment changed public policy.
This clause is often used to justify the federal government's actions regarding issues not originally considered at the Constitutional Convention.
The Brady Bill is an example of the clause's impact on public policy.
The bill mandated a seven-day waiting period prior to the purchase of a gun, during which the purchaser's record would be checked for prior convictions and arrests.
The "necessary and proper" clause has given the federal government the authority to do many things that it would not have been possible for it to do, because the Constitution never specifically granted the government the authority to act with respect to those areas.
The elastic clause can be used to apply the healthcare debate, which has often centered on whether or not the federal government has a duty to pay for an individual's medical services.
The federal government has an obligation and responsibility to fund healthcare if one believes that it is necessary in this day and age.
The process is outlined in the Constitution.
There are two stages to the amendment process.
There are two ways in which the first stage can be achieved.
An amendment can be proposed by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress.
The second way is for a national convention to propose an amendment to the constitution.
The second stage of the amending process can be achieved in two different ways.
The first way is for the amendment to be approved by the legislatures of most of the states.
A convention called for by three-fourths of the states is the second way for an amendment to be approved.
The Constitution's flexibility is demonstrated by the Twenty-Fifth Amendment.
There were no provisions for presidential disability when the Constitution was first drafted.
If the president becomes disabled, the vice president assumes the responsibilities of that office until he can resume his duties.
When a president undergoes surgery, the vice president is technically in charge.
After Spiro Agnew resigned and Nixon appointed Gerald Ford, the second part of this amendment was used.
Nelson Rockefeller was appointed vice president by Ford after Nixon resigned.
There are two ways in which the Constitution can be amended.
The Constitution can be amended after a majority of both houses of Congress pass it.
If two-thirds of the states call for a national convention and three-fourths of the states approve, an amendment to the Constitution can be passed.
If the amendment is applied to public policy, a second point will be earned.