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2 -- Part 2: Atoms and the Atomic Theory
H2O2 is hydrogen peroxide.
Rule 5 states that H has an O.S.
The oxidation states of the two H atoms are +2 and the oxidation states of the two O atoms are -2.
The oxidation states of four O atoms are -8.
The sum of the oxidation states must be +8 for three Fe atoms.
Without writing down any arithmetic expressions, you should be able to do the math associated with assigning oxidation states in your head.
Make sure the oxidation states are equal to the charge on the atom, molecule, or ion in order to check your result.
The oxidation states are equal to the charge on the MnO 7 + 4(-2).
We only saw values for oxidation states before that.
The assumption is that all the atoms of an element have the same oxidation state.
Fe3O4 is probably better represented as FeO # Fe2O3 through a combination of two simpler formula units.
The Fe atoms are +3.
We may need to "fragment" a formula into its parts before assigning oxidation states.
It is more useful to know the oxidation states of the individual N atoms than it is to know the average oxidation state of the two N atoms.
The naming of chemical com pounds in the next section is the first use of oxidation states.
A compound with a mass of 32 g>mol has N in a higher oxidation state than NH3.
We have referred to compounds mostly by their formu, but we need to give them names.
When we know that a com contains the same elements, we can look up its properties in a handbook, find a chemical in a storeroom shelf, or discuss an experiment with a colleague.
There are cases in which different compounds have the same formula.
We need to distinguish among compounds by name in these names and formulas.
If all compounds were referred to by the color yellow.
That has its own set of rules.
In Section 3-7, we will introduce the naming of organic compounds.
The approach is illustrated below.
The charge of the ion in a formula unit must be zero.
The names and symbols of simple ion are listed in Table 3.3.
When writing names and formulas of metals and nonmetals, you will find this list useful.
It is important to distinguish between the compounds of some metals.
The oxidation state of the metal is indicated by the Roman numeral immediately following its name.
Two different word endings are used to distinguish between two compounds with the same two elements but in different proportions, such as Cu2O and CuO.
The oxidation state of copper in Cu2O is +2.
Once you understand the pattern, there are some Simple Ions.
The compound is a molecule if the two elements are both nonmetals.
The method of naming these compounds is similar.
In each case, identify the cations and their charges, based on periodic table group numbers or on oxidation states that are Roman numerals.
O2, F-, and S2 are the anions.
The cation in Cu2O is Cu+, copper(I), which is a different form of copper.
It's difficult to know when to use Roman numerals and when not to.
Roman numerals are not used in naming compounds because the metals of groups 1 and 2 have only one ionic form.
We need to distinguish between pairs of nonmetals.
Several substances have common or trivial names that are so well established that their systematic names are almost never used.
We sometimes want to emphasize that their solutions are acids, even though we use names like hydrogen chloride.
In the text, acids will be discussed.
In water, HCl ionizes into hydrogen ion and chloride ion.
It doesn't show a tendency to produce H+ under any conditions.
In Chapter 5, we will see that bases yield OH- in solutions.
Below is a list of the most important binary acids.
It is common among the nonmetals.
Table 3.5 contains a number of polyatomic ion and compound names.
There are more polyatomic anions than there are polyatomic cations.
The only ones that do arehydroxide ion andcyanide ion.
Some nonmetals form a series of oxoanions with different numbers of oxygen atoms.
The species produced in the solution is more complex than the simple ion H+.
The H+ combines with an H2O molecule to produce an ion called the hydronium ion, H3O+.
We will use H+ in place of H3O+ until we discuss this more fully in Chapter 5.
It will become obvious.
For example, hydrogencarbonate, hydrogenphosphate, and so forth are written as a single word.
I carry a charge of -1.
Various numbers of H atoms are found in some series of oxoanions.
There are several oxoacids in Table 3.6.
The names and formulas of compounds in which the hydrogen of the oxoacid has been replaced by a metal are listed.
Acids and salts are both ionic compounds.
formulas are often written to reflect this fact, for example, HOCl instead of HClO and HOClO instead of HClO2.
CuCl2 and Ca(H2PO4)2 are ionic compounds.
We need to identify and name the compounds.
HIO4 and ClO2 are compounds.
HIO4 is a compound of two nonmetals.
The oxidation state of Cu is + 2.
We must clearly distinguish between the two possible chlorides because Cu can also exist in the oxidation state of + 1.
CuCl2 is a metal.
Both are nonmetals.
There is a compound called chlorine dioxide.
The oxidation state of I is 7.
The compound periodic acid should be referred to as "purr-eye-oh-dic" acid.
The compound calcium dihydrogenphosphate has two of these ion present.
It is associated with naming compounds correctly.
It takes a lot of practice to master this subject.
The copper compound that Joseph Proust used to establish the law of constant composition is referred to in different ways.
You have simpler formulas.
N4S4 is the formula.
The subscript 2 should be placed around NH + 4.
The formula is (NH4)2CrO.
In Table 3.6, there is a comparison of bromide acid to HClO3.
This leads to a formula.
The placement of parentheses in writing formulas is important.
You should be able to understand a formula even if it is complex.
Hydrates are some of the complex substances you are likely to encounter.
This doesn't mean that the compounds are wet.
The solid structure of the compound has water in it.
The six H2O mole cules per formula unit are shown.
The piece of filter paper was removed by heating.
Anhydrous com cobalt(II) chloride is allowed to dry.
In the use of anhydrous magnesium dry air, the paper is blue perchlorate, which can be used as water absorbers.
The color change in humid water indicates this.
The paper is pink because of anhydrous air.
This fact can be used to make something.
There are many organic compounds in nature.
The foods we eat are mostly made up of organic compounds, which include energy- producing fats and carbohydrates, as well as trace compounds that impart color, odor, and flavor to these foods.
Most of the fuels used to power automobiles, trucks, trains, or airplanes are mixtures of organic compounds.
Most of the drugs produced by pharmaceutical companies are complex organic compounds.
The diversity of organic compounds is due to the ability of carbon atoms to combine with other carbon atoms and with other elements.
A framework of chains or rings is formed when carbon atoms join together.
Most of the organic compounds contain hydrogen atoms, and there are many common four covalent bonds.
The possibilities allow for many different organic compounds.
Some of the organic compounds are ionic.
There are millions of organic compounds.
Their names are not easy to understand.
The rules for naming inorganic compounds are of little use here, as a systematic approach to naming these compounds is crucial.
The name is a-D-glucopyranosyl-b-D-fructofuranoside.
We only need to recognize organic compounds and use their common names together with an occasional systematic name at this point.
In Chapter 26 we will look at the systematic nomenclature of organic compounds.
The simplest hydrocarbon has one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms.
The number of hydrogen atoms increases in a systematic way as the number of carbon atoms increases.
Carbon atoms can form chains and rings, and the nature of the chemical bonds between the carbon atoms can vary, making organic chemistry complex.
The simplest alkane is methane, followed by ethane, and then propane.
The Number of Carbon ber of the alkane series is formed by the addition of one C atom and two H atoms to the preceding member.
Common names are reflected in the number of the first four word stems in Table 3.7.
Heptane is 7.
The possibilities for isomerism increase very rapidly as organic molecules become more complex.
They have the same formula but different structures.
We check to see if the formulas are the same.
The formulas represent different compounds if they are not the same.
The first compound is called C7H16, while the second is called C8H18.
The molecule are notomers.
The same formula, C6H14, is used for these molecules.
They are related.
In the first structure, a side chain is on the middle carbon atom of a five-carbon chain, and in the second structure it is on the second carbon atom.
There are clearly different compounds shown in part a.
These compounds are expected to have different properties.
The compounds shown have the same formula but different structures.
They have different properties.
The compound shown on the left has a slightly higher boiling point than the compound shown on the right.
The framework of organic compounds is provided by carbon chains, other atoms or groups of atoms replace one or more of the hydrogen atoms to form different compounds.
There is a common alcohol molecule in beer, wine, and spirits.
The common name of one com hydroxide ion is often spelled that way.
Methanol has a common name.
The grain alcohol in beer and wine is safe to consume in moderate quantities, whereas wood alcohol is a dangerous poison.
Some alcohols have their atoms attached to carbon chains or rings of organic molecule and give them their characteristic properties.
There are compounds that have the same functional group.
Functional groups are discussed in more detail in Chapter 26.
The possibility of isomers is increased by the presence of functional groups.
There is only one propane molecule.
If one of the H atoms is replaced by a hydroxyl group, there are two possibilities for the point of attachment: at one of the end C atoms or the middle C atom.
There are two isomers.
The first or end C atom is where the OH group is.
The OH group is on the second C atom.
COOH confers acidic properties on a molecule.
The two O atoms are bound to the C atom in two different ways.
One bond is a single bond to an oxygen atom that is also attached to a H atom, and the other is a double bond to a lone O atom.
The burning sensation that accompanies a bite from an ant is caused by formic acid being injected.
acetic acid is in water.
There are examples of substituting for one or more H atoms with the introduction of an additional functional group.
To determine which functional group is present, look at the formula.
Some of the carbon-carbon bonds may be single bonds.
The bonds of carbon-carbon are all single.
The compound is called alkane.
One H atom has been replaced by a Cl atom, and there are only single bonds in its molecule.
A chloroalkane is a com pound.
CO2H is a carboxylic acid.
This compound is an alcohol.
Carbon-hydrogen and carbon-carbon bonds are notreactive.
The characteristic properties of organic compounds are determined by functional groups.
We will look at organic compounds in more detail in Chapters 26 and 27.
These compounds are named.
Determine the type of compound.
To form the name, count the number of carbon atoms and select the stem from Table 3.7.
The carbon number is placed before the part of the name that relates to the functional group.
The structure of the compound is that of an alkane molecule with a five-carbon chain.
2-fluorobutane is a compound.
The end C atom of the carbon chain is in a carboxyl group.
propanoic acid is a compound.
The compound is called pentan.
In naming the compound, we stated that the F atom was attached to the second C atom in a fourcarbon chain.
We can number the C atoms in two different ways, so there is some ambiguity in that statement.
The correct name is 2-fluorobutane.
Give plausible names for the molecules that correspond to the ball-and-stick models.
First, identify the number of carbon atoms in the chain, and then determine the type and position of the functional group.
The formula is CH31 CH222 CH3 because no functional groups are indicated.
The formula is called CH31 CH222CO2H.
The substitution of a chlorine atom for a H atom means that it is on the first C atom of the carbon chain.
The formula for the structure is CH31 CH223 CH2Cl.
The carbon chain is six C atoms long.
The formula for the structure is CH31 CH224 CH2 OH.
To get a structural formula from the name, we split it into component pieces: stem, prefix, and suffix.
Information about the structure of the molecule is provided by all three components.
The two main classes of chemical compounds are ball-and-stick and space-filling.
Overall, that is neutral.
The concept of the Avogadro can be written in many different ways.
The symbols C and H are mostly omitted from the CHEM shown except for those between C and H atoms.
The percent composition of the compound was determined by the relative sizes.
The names and symbols of some simple ion are used for organic compounds.
There are empirical formulas listed in the table.
There are some ion simplest formulas that can be written.
There is a determination of the determined molecular mass.
One of the uses of the expres concept is to aid in naming sion 3.3, and the names and formulas of oxoanions are given.
Adding names to the formulas of water molecule associated with their formula units.
A 2.250 g sample of a dicarboxylic acid was burned in excess of oxygen and yielded 4.548 g CO2 and 1.629 g H2O.
The mass of the acid was found in a separate experiment.
The percent composition of the compound will need to be determined using the combustion data.
Store intermediate results in your calculator without rounding off, if you use the molar mass with one more significant figure.
The mass percent C is followed by chemical compounds in the sample of dicarboxylic acid.
The empirical formula mass is twice as large as the experimentally determined one.
The two C atoms, two H atoms, and four O atoms are accounted for.
The structure is based on C6H12
There are many other possibilities after we found a plausible structural formula.
We can't identify the H atom on the chain.
A sample of a liquid was heated to remove the water of hydration.
The solid was analyzed and found to be 27.74% Mg, 23.57% P, and 48.69% O by mass.
An unknown solid hydrate was analyzed and found to be 17.15% Cu, 19.14% Cl, and 60.45% O, by mass.
The ball ball-and-stick models of the molecules are given here.
The and-stick models are given here.
The amount of liquid bromine in the blood is about 3.10 g.
0.50 mol of gaseous is supplied in a cylindrical form.
There is 75 mL of liquid thio.
C4H4S 1d is the amount of white phosphorus in a cylinder.
It has four times the number of H atoms as O atoms.
The proportions of C and O are the same.
H is the highest percentage by mass.
It has a mass ratio of 3 and 4.
All of the minerals are semiprecious.
Determine the percent H2O in the element.
Be in beryl and quinine.
Determine the percent, by mass, of the indicated ing in order of increasing %.
There are two oxides of sulfur that have the same molecule.
What is its mass?
One has 28.8% O by mass and the other has a formula unit.
The formula of this compound is 37.8% O.
The indigo dye has a composi hydrogen-oxygen compound with a percent of it's value by mass.
The mass of adenine is 4.8% H, 8.3% N, 37.8% O.
The empir percent composition is 44.45% C, 3.73% H, and 51.82% N.
Its mass is 135.14 U.
The compound is formed by the element X, which contains 3.81% H, 20.73% N, 11.84% O, and 23.72% S.
The chlorophyll has a mass of 2.72%.
The molec of the two compounds was found to be 38.3% C, 1.49% H, 52.28% Cl, and 7.86% O by mass.
The mass is 94.34% C and 5.66% H.
A 0.1888 g sample of a hydrocarbon produces a total of 0.6260 g in combustion analysis, a 1.3020 g sample of thio CO2 and 0.1602 g H2O in combustion analysis.
The phene produces CO2 and H2O with a mass of 106u.
A sample of 1.00 mol of the compound is burned in excess of this carbon-hydrogen-oxygen compound, which yields oxygen: CH4, C2H5OH, C10H8 and C6H5OH.
Its mass is 108.1 U.
A 1.562 g sample of alcohol is used in rocket fuels.
When burned in excess of oxygen.
The density of sample is converted to 0.226 g N2.
How much is the empir?
The organic solvent thiophene is a sulfur compound that can be burned in excess of oxygen and produce CO2, H2O, and SO2 in the process.
The states of FeO 2 dation are +3, +4, and +6.
Two states are +2, +3, and +4, respectively.
Oxygen oxidation following cases remind us that there is a state of -2.
There are exceptions.
There are exceptions.
Oxygen and hydrogen have oxidation states of +2 and -2 in their compounds.
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