One way to think about the history of psychology is to organize theorists and theories into waves.
Each wave is a way of thinking about human thought and behavior that dominated the field for a certain period of time until a new way of looking at psychology started to dominate the field.
The study of psychology is as old as our species due to the fact that humans have always thought about our thought and behavior.
Stone Age humans carved holes through their skulls to release evil spirits.
Plato and Democritus believed in the relationship between thought and behavior.
Thinking about psychology is different from studying it scientifically.
The beginning of scientific psychology can be found in the year 1879.
The first psychological laboratory was established in an apartment near the university in Germany.
The subjects were asked to record their cognitive reactions to simple stimuli.
The goal was to examine basic cognitive structures.
Structuralism is the idea that the mind combines subjective emotions and objective sensations.
The Principles of Psychology was published in 1890 by William James.
James's theory is called functionalism and he looked at how these structures were identified.
Mary Calkins studied with William James and went on to become president of the American Psychological Association.
Margaret Floy Washburn was the first woman to earn a PhD in psychology.
The first president of the American Psychological Association was a student of William James, G. Stanley Hall.
In establishing the science of psychology,pective theories were important, but they do not influence current psychological thinking.
A group of early psychologists were explaining human thought and behavior in a different way.
Human thought and behavior should not be divided into separate structures.
The way we experience the world is more than just a collection of experiences.
The whole experience is often more than the parts of it.
The experience of a painting is much more than rows and columns of points of color.
The context in which the difficulty occurs is examined by therapists when they incorporate Gestalt thinking.
The contribution to specific forms of therapy and the study of perception is what influences current psychology.
Sigmund Freud is most likely to be named if you ask someone to name a famous psychologist.
Freud changed psychology with his theories.
Freud believed he discovered the unconscious mind when he was treating patients for psychosomatic complaints.
Freud believed that the hidden part of ourselves that builds up over the years is the unconscious events and feelings that cause so much anxiety and tension that our conscious mind cannot deal with them.
Freud believed that to understand human thought and behavior, we must examine the unconscious mind through dream analysis and other techniques.
Freud has been criticized for being unscientific and creating unverifiable theories, despite the fact that many therapists still use some of his basic ideas.
Freud's theories are used by many artists.
Freud's terms moved from being exclusively used by psychologists to being used in day-to-day speech.
The first conditioning experiments were done by Ivan Pavlov.
For psychology to be considered a science, it must limit itself to observable phenomena, not unobservable concepts.
behaviorism was the dominant paradigm of psychology.
According to behaviorists, psychologists should only look at behavior and causes of behavior, and not describe elements of consciousness.
B. F. Skinner expanded the idea of behaviorism to include the idea of reinforcement.
For a long time, Skinner's intellectual influence lasted.
From the 1920s to the 1960s, behaviorism was the dominant school of thought in psychology.
There is no one way to think about human thought and behavior.
Many psychologists describe themselves as eclectic.
In the new century, one way of thinking may become dominant.
Look at thought and behavior from multiple perspectives.
In the section about the history of psychology, different contemporary psychologists look at human thought and behavior from different perspectives.
There are seven broad categories for contemporary perspectives.
Some psychologists tried to describe some of the mysteries of consciousness in response to the perceived reductionism of the behaviorists.
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers were theorists who stressed individual choice and free will.
The deterministic behaviorists believed that all behaviors are caused by past conditioning.
Most of our behaviors are guided by our emotional, spiritual, and physical needs, according to the beliefs of the Humanists.
A psychologist might explain that a person with a shyness may choose to limit their social contact with others because they find that they are better off with a few close friends.
The scientific method is not easy to use to test humanistic theories.
Some psychological historians think it's more of a historical perspective than a current one.
Some therapists use humanistic ideas to help clients overcome obstacles in their lives.
If a controversial one of modern psychology, the psychoanalytic perspective continues to be a part.
The unconscious mind, a part of our mind that we don't have conscious control over, is believed to control much of our thought and action.
Psychoanalysts look for impulses or memories in the unconscious mind.
To understand human thought and behavior, we must look at our unconscious mind through dream analysis, word association, and other techniques, according to this perspective.
An emotional person avoids social situations because of a repressed memory of trauma in childhood, perhaps acute embarrassment or anxiety experienced at school or a party.
Human thought and behavior are explained in terms of biological processes.
The effects of our genes, hormones, and neurotransmitters in the brain can cause human reactions.
A person's tendency to be outgoing as a result of genes from their parents and the amount of certain neurotransmitters in the brain can be explained by a biopsychologist.
The field of biopsychology is growing fast.
Some scientists are wondering if the future of psychology might be related to biology.
Evolutionary psychologists look at human thoughts and actions in terms of natural selection.
The next generation might inherit some psychological traits from their parents.
Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection might explain a person's tendency to be in the public eye.
A person who is outgoing might make friends.
The person's chances of passing this trait down to his or her children could be improved by these connections.
The biopsychology perspective is similar to the evolutionary perspective.
Human thought and behavior are explained by behaviorists.
Behaviorists only look at observable behaviors and human and animal responses to different stimuli.
A behaviorist might be able to explain a person's tendency to be in the public eye.
A behaviorist would look for environmental conditions that made a person want to leave their comfort zone.
Human thought and behavior are examined by cognitive psychologists.
Rules that we use to view the world are important to understanding why we do what we do.
In the "Developmental Psychology" chapter, you will learn about Jean Piaget's cognitive development theory, which focuses on how our cognitive development develops in stages as we mature.
A cognitive psychologist can explain how a person interprets social situations.
Being outgoing makes sense to a cognitive psychologist.
Social-cultural psychologists look at how our thoughts and behaviors differ between cultures.
The way we think and act is influenced by culture.
A social-cultural psychologist might look at a person's culture's rules about social interaction in order to explain their tendency to be extroverted.
The cultural norms are important to explain a person's extroversion.
Depending on the situation, psychologists might say that each perspective has valid explanations.
No one perspective has all the answers to the variety of human thought and behavior according to this point of view.
Depending on which point of view fits best with the explanation, psychologists use different perspectives in their work.
As research continues, some perspectives might be combined or new perspectives might emerge.
The modern perspective acknowledges that human thinking and behavior is a result of combinations of biological, psychological, and social factors.
Psychologists who emphasize the biopsychosocial perspective view other perspectives as too focused on specific influences on thinking and behavior.
A psychologist would agree with a cognitive psychologist about how we remember and interpret events, but would point out that biological and social influences are equally responsible for our decisions.
A genetic tendency for extroversion, how a person has been conditioned toward extroversion, and how social pressures influence his or her extroversion are some of the factors that might be explained by the biopsychosocial perspective.
Five suggested answers or completions are followed by each of the questions or incomplete statements.
Pick the one that is the best.
The first scientific psychological theory was the theory of structuralism, according to the speaker at the lecture.
Dr. Marco told the client that his feelings of hostility toward a coworker are most likely caused by the way the client interprets the coworker's actions.
In establishing behaviorism as a paradigm of psychology, John Watson relied on the work of __________.
The paradigm of behaviorism was introduced by B. F. Skinner.