Compare the differences between the five main classes of psychotropic medications.
Psychotherapies are based on the idea that psychological disorders arise from cognitive, emotion, and behavior.
Biological therapy is based on the idea that psychological disorders are caused by abnormality in bodily processes, so treatment must address these physical problems.
Medical approaches to illness and to disease are reflected in biological therapies.
Drugs have provided effective treatment for some psychological disorders.
Their use is based on the assumption that psychological disorders are caused by imbalances in certain neurotransmitters.
Psychotropic medications affect mental processes.
Changing how neurotransmitters work in the brain is how they act.
In the United States, the use of psychotropic medications is very common.
About 1 in 6 US adults filled at least one prescription for drugs to treat psychological disorders, mostly antidepressants, less commonly anti- anxiety drugs or sleeping pills, and a small percentage of antipsychotics.
Psychotropics can be used to treat specific disorders.
Drugs from one category are sometimes used to treat a disorder from another, such as when antidepressants are used to treat anxiety.
Co comorbidity is one reason for this approach.
Many people who have a depression also have an anxiety disorder, as noted in study unit 14.3.
There are many questions about brain chemistry and illness.
Drugs can affect mental processes.
Some of the drugs that can be used to treat psychological disorders are effective in treating specific disorders.
Not all people with psychological disorders can be successfully treated with medication or a combination of both.
Alternative biological treatments, such as electrical or magnetic stimulation of the brain, or brain surgery in the most extreme cases, may be suggested in extreme treatment resistant cases.
The procedure was developed in Europe in the 1930s.
It was the first time an electricconvulsive therapy could be tried on a human.
A woman preparing for ecT has used to treat some psychological disorders.
Researchers don't know how ECT prevents her from hurting her tongue.
The general public doesn't like ECT very much.
Ken depression has not responded to medication or therapy.
Tms is used to treat depression.
The area film version isStimulated.
ECT and its extreme side effects were graphically depicted by Kesey, as well as the tragic effects of brain surgeries such as lobotomy and abuses in mental health care.
Many reforms have been made to care for those with psychological disorders.
ECT is usually done under anesthesia to eliminate convulsions.
ECT is particularly effective for some cases of severe depression, but it still has some risks.
When you first read about transcranial magnetic stimulation in study unit 2.4, an electrical current produces a powerful magnetic field.
When this magnetic field is switched on and off, it creates an electrical current in the brain region below the coil, which causes the activity of neurons in that region to be interrupted.
Deep brain stimulation is one of the most dramatic new techniques for treating severe psychological electrical current to the client's brain to disorders.
The brain surgery technique involves produce a seizure and ecT is effective in implanting electrodes deep within the brain, depending on the severity of the depression.
The treatment for psychological disorders using a magnetic field is being tested.
In study unit 15.8, it was mentioned that sds might be useful for treating function in specific regions of the brain.
The treatment for psychological disorders involves passing electricity through the client's brain and stimulating it at certain frequencies and intensities.
Depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder can be treated with deep brain stimulation, an electrical generator placed under the skin below the collarbone.
It is used to treat depression.
Write your own explanations of bold and italic terms.
Reenactment of your birth, screaming, and having body parts manipulated are some ways to reduce traumas from birth.
Many "therapies," such as those mentioned, have no scientific basis.
You also need to recognize therapies that do not have scientific evidence of effectiveness, just as you need to use critical thinking to recognize flawed science.
Some treatments that are thought to be effective lack scientific support and can be harmful.
Teens in "scared straight" programs show an increase in conduct problems, even though exposing them to prisoners or tough treatments supposedly scares them away from committing crimes.
Children who attend drug education programs are more likely to drink alcohol and smoke cigarettes than children who don't.
Many self-help books make questionable claims.
It is important to know the difference between evidence based psycho therapies and fringe therapies because the latter can prevent people from getting effective treatment and may even be dangerous.
A 10 year old girl died from suffocation after being wrapped in a blanket for 70 minutes during a supposed rebirthing therapy session to mimic her own birth.
This was an unscientific method being used to correct unruly behavior.
The people conducting the session were unlicensed and did not pass the tests to certify their knowledge of therapy.
The only way to know if a treatment is valid is to conduct empirical research.
The treatment should be compared with a control condition such as receiving helpful information.
In keeping with good scientific principles, client participants should be randomly assigned to conditions.
Random assignment helps ensure that groups are comparable and it controls for many potential confounds.
The treatments shown to be effective are recommended by most psychologists.
There are three features that describe evidence- based psychological treatments.
Treatments vary depending on the psychological disorder and the client's symptoms.
The techniques used in these treatments have been developed in the laboratory.
Treatment is not guided by a single theory.
Treatment is based on evidence.
If you want to work in a career that uses the best and most effective treatments to help clients overcome psychological disorders, you should read Putting Psychology to Work.
Write your own explanations of bold and italic terms.
Information about mental health practitioners can be applied by describing two people seeking help for psychological disorders or life problems and indicating what type of treatment provider might be most appropriate to help each person.
At the start of Chapter 14, it was noted that half of Americans meet the criteria for a psychological disorder at some point in their lives.
It's important for people with symptoms of disorders to get treatment because of the societal impact.
There are different types of professional who work in different settings and provide different services to different people.
In addition to mental health specialists, regular health care providers, human- services workers, and volunteers provide services related to treatment.
Most of the techniques used today have come from psychological laboratories.
It's important to choose the right treatment provider for successful treatment.
If not, the client should seek another provider.
In most places, psychiatrists only prescribe psychotropic medication for work in hospitals and treatment centers.
The choice of therapist should not be a factor in the prescriber's decision.
Efforts are underway to give more practitioners, such as clinical psychologists, outreach services to people with the ability to prescribe medications.
PhD, PsyD, mD, msw, master of social work, AsN, rN, and BsN are abbreviations for Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Psychology, and Doctor of Medicine, respectively.
Most practitioners have arrangements with physicians who can prescribe medication.
To find a provider who is right for you, the most important thing is to find someone who is both compassionate and experienced in the methods used to treat psychological disorders.
It's important that people don't feel discouraged in their struggles with psychological disorders.
They should seek help if they have an injury or illness.
College students have access to free or low cost therapies.
Most communities have sliding- fee, low- cost, or free facilities to help people who don't have insurance.
You might have considered seeking therapeutic support, but were hesitant.
That hesitation is understandable.
It's hard to admit that you need more support.
It's not easy to step into a stranger's office and talk to them.
Some questions and answers can help you decide if the time is right for you to see a therapist.
If you go to the health center because you feel tired all the time, the doctor might ask if you have been stressed or sad.
Depression can be helped by a therapist.
You might be aware that you have a psychological problem.
If you find it hard to fall asleep because of your anxiety, you might want to seek help.
You can ask your friends, teachers, or clergy if they can recommend someone in your area.
Many of the referral services hosted by the American Psychological Association are free and web based.
It's not a good idea to just have a name and phone number.
To figure that out, you need to gather some information.
As you interact with the therapist, pay attention to your comfort level.
You need a therapist who is trustworthy and caring.
The initial consultation should make you feel confident that your issue can be solved.
Seek another therapist if you don't feel a connection with one.
It will take more than one attempt to find someone you want to work with.
Do not expect every therapist to be a good fit for you, just as you wouldn't expect every first date to be a love connection.
It's important that you find someone you connect with that will be successful in treatment.
Write your answers to the questions and check them out.
The story of James opened this chapter.
The treatment for James's disorder was time consuming and difficult.
Some psychological disorders are hard to treat.
It is difficult to make comparisons between disorders and therapists because the outcomes of treatment are influenced by how clients and therapists interact.
Over the past three decades, research has shown that certain types of treatments are more effective for certain types of disorders.
The best practice treatments for anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, mood disorders, and schizophrenia are summarized in Table 15.4.
Writing explanations of bold and italic terms in your Anxiety Disorders can be own words will help you understand them.
Kim Basinger, an actor, said that cognitive behavioral therapy could be used to treat people who feel like they are dying when they have a disorder.
She needs to leave her house for six months to analyze the impact of different treatments.
Repeatedly exposing a client to an anxiety exposure component is a therapy technique.
The goal of this technique is to reduce the client's fear by exposing them to stimuli.
A dog scares her.
The figure shows how exposure to reduce phobias anxiety can be used.
The person learns new, nonthreatening cognitive- behavioral therapies when confronted with feared stim exposure.
Exposure is used to help a little girl overcome her fear of dogs.
They aren't a treatment of choice.
By contrast, the effects of CBT Therapy technique that involves persist long after treatment, so this remains the best treatment in general for anxiety exposing a client to increasingly disorders.
The studies suggest that antidepressants might be useful for the same time.
In one comprehensive study, researchers found that cognitive behavioral therapy was just as effective as an anti-depressant in treating social anxiety disorder.
Those taking the drug had more physical complaints.
This shows that cognitive behavioral therapy is the best choice for social anxiety disorder.
Learning theory suggests that certain phobias can be acquired by experiencing a trauma or by observing similar fear in others.
Phobia can be developed without being brought about by any particular event.
Learning theory can't explain the development of phobias, but behavior techniques are the treatment of choice.
Systematic desensitization is a gradual form of exposure therapy.
The client learns to relax in this method.
An example of a fear hierarchy can be found in Try It Yourself.
Computer Simulations techniques are being used.
Exposure therapy is the next step.
While relaxed, the client is asked to imagine scenarios from the fear hierarchy that become more and computer-generated images that can be upsetting.
It is possible to expose clients to fearful situations.
The client can stand on the edge of a tall building or fly in an aircraft object in a virtual world.
Exposure to virtual and practice relaxing to get rid of environments can reduce fear responses.
Before taking on the feared situation in real life, panic disorder has multiple components.
If your fears are not as extreme, you can use systematic desensitization to overcome them.
The first thing to do is create a fear hierarchy.
The fear hierarchy was created by a person who wanted to conquer a fear of heights so he could go mountain climbing.
Take yourself through the hierarchy once you have created it.
Put yourself in the least fearful situation you can imagine, either in real life or in your imagination.
Relax and breathe until you are calm.
Proceed to the next fearful situation and repeat the process until you are completely relaxed.
It may take a while.
You can overcome your fear by going step by step.
I'm standing on the balcony of an apartment building.
I'm sitting on the slope of a mountain looking over the horizon.
I'm on a ski lift.
I'm climbing a ladder to get to a window.
I'm on a rock that is 8 feet high.
Two feet from the edge of a cliff is where I am walking.
I'm walking outside.
I'm on a lift that is 15 feet above the ground.
I'm walking on a slope on a trail.
On one side of the trail, there is a steep downward slope.
I'm walking on a ridge.
The trail slopes are warmer than 25 degrees.
It is possible to break the association between the physical symptoms of anxiety and the feeling of impending doom with the help of cognitive behavioral therapy.
Cognitive restructuring is a technique used in cognitive therapy to address ways of reacting to the symptoms of a panic attack.
The clients should first identify their fears, such as having a heart attack.
The clients estimate how many panic attacks they have had.
The therapists help the clients assign percentages to their fears and then compare them to the number of times the fears have been realized.
Clients might think that 90 percent of their panic attacks and 85 percent of their heart attacks are heart attacks.
The actual rate of occurrence was zero.
People don't faint during panic attacks.
The physical symptoms of a panic attack, such as a racing heart, are the same as the symptoms of faint.
Clients may still experience panic attacks even if they recognize the irrationality of their fears.
The attacks continue because of a conditioned response to the triggering event.
The goal of therapy is to break the connection between the panic and the symptom.
Exposure treatment can break this break.
In the treatment of panic attacks, cognitive behavioral therapy appears to be more effective than medication.
David Barlow and colleagues found that in the short term, the results were the same for the two treatments.
Six months after treatment ended, those who had received CBT were less likely to return to their previous lifestyles.
The results show that cognitive behavioral therapy is the treatment of choice for panic disorder and other anxiety disorders.
In study unit 14.5, you learned that obsessive-compulsive disorder is a combination of recurrent intrusive thoughts that cause anxiety and behaviors that a person feels compelled to perform over and over to reduce the anxiety temporarily.
Adding an antidepressants might bring additional benefit, but cognitive- behavioral therapy is the best choice for OCD.
Exposure and response prevention is a common therapy for OCD.
The treat ment is based on the idea that performing a certain behavior reduces anxiety.