statement of intentions by a government or Private organizations as to its intentions towards enviromental performance.
may mimic hormones or interfere with the hormone system.
What is the holistic approach?
input from scientific, economic, cultural and Political dimensions.
What are the principles of environmental policy development?
1. The precautionary principle
2. Enviromental justice
3. Enviromental sustainability
4. The polluter- pays principle
What is the precautionary principle?
States preventative measures should be taken when any activity threatens the enviroment or Public health, even when a cause and effect relationship is not fully established.
What is environmental sustainability?
Adheres to the philosophical viewpoint that a strong, Just, and wealthy society can be consistent with a clean environment, healthy ecosystems and a beautiful planet.
What is environmental justice?
Denotes the equal tx of all people in Society and socioeconomic status irrespective of their racial background, country or orgin.
What is the polluter pays principle?
means that the polluter should bear the expenses of carrying out the pollution prevention and control measures... to ensure that the environment ment is in an acceptable state.
What are the 5 phases of the policy cycle?
1. START= Policy Definition: enviromental problems+ realistic, practical solutions( alternatives) are formulated. 2.AGENDA SETTING- Set priorities, the time frame,& who will deal ł the enviromental problem. The community and Stakeholders need to be involved.
3. POLICY ESTABLISHMENT- Decision markers formally adopt the policy. 4. POLICY IMPLEMENTATION- Gov. agency puts policy in action( regulation). 5. ASSESSMENT POLICY- Gor to assess the effectiveness of the policy.
NEPA- 1949- requires Fed. agencies to integrate enviromental values into their decision making processes.
Clean Air Act- 1970- Regulates Air emissions from area, stationary+ mobile sources.
Occupational Safety& Health Act- 1970- to ensure worker+ workplace safety.
Endangered Species Act -1973- to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend.
Safe Drinking Water Act- 1974 protects the quality of drinking water from surface or groundwater sources.
Clean Water Act 1977- regulates discharges of water pollutants to the environment.
TSCA- Toxic substance control ACT 1976- Authorized EPR to track the 80,000 industrial chemicals currently produced in or imported into U.S. from the cradle to grave.
RCRA -- Resource conservation and Recovery Act- EPA Controls hazzordous waste.
CERCLA- Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act -provided a" superfund" to clear up uncontrolled abandoned hazardous wastes, spills or emergency releases of pollutants.
FIFRA- Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act- controls the sale/ use of pesticides.
Compare and contrast the environmental policies of the U.S. and China.
U.S. -environmental regulations based on Fed. laws vrs China - The state council shapes legislative priorities.
What are the results of Chinese environmental policy?Excessively high cost of resources and the environment. 99% of air would be considered unsafe in Europe.
400,000 premature deaths per yr+ 75 million asthma attacks-in china are linked to air pollution. Some days~ 25% of particulate matter in the air over LA can be traced to china.