New attitudes about privacy and individuality emerged as a result of the changes in outward appearances.
The cramped home of a modest family in 1700 had a few rooms with multiple functions.
Sleeping, receiving friends, and working can be done in the same room.
Rents rose sharply in the 18th century, making it impossible to gain more space, but families began to assign functions to specific rooms and put barriers up to separate rooms.
The trend toward more indi vidualized ways of life was accompanied by new levels of comfort and convenience.
Books and prints are now available at lower prices.
Daylight was able to penetrate into gloomy rooms thanks to the improvements in glassmaking.
Coal stoves were more efficient and cleaner than the cold and smoky ones.
The changes made the rooms warmer, better lit, and more comfortable.
The scope of the consumer economy should not be overstated.
The large cities in northwestern Europe and the colonial cities of North America were the focus of these develop ments.
The new modes of life helped the elites the most.
One of the most significant features of modern Western life is that societies based on the consumption of goods and services obtained through global markets in which many individuals' identities and self worth are shaped through the goods they consume.
The growth of trade across the Atlantic Ocean was fed by the consumer revolution.
The triangle trade is a three-way transport of goods between Europe, Africa, and the colonies.
Some of the most important flows of trade are highlighted in the model.
The older trade systems centered on the Indian and Pacific oceans were linked to the Atlantic economy.
The economies of European nations bordering the Atlan tic Ocean relied more and more on colonial exports.
In England, sales to the mainland colonies of North America and the West Indian sugar islands went from PS500,000 to PS4 million.
From 1700 to 1800, exports to Ireland and India rose substantially.
The misery and profit of the Atlantic slave trade was the core of this Atlantic world.
After 1700, the brutal practice intensified due to the growth of trade and demand for slave-produced goods.
Another source of large profits was provided by the dominance of the slave trade.
The French made a lot of money from colonial trade after they lost their North American territories to England.
Plantation agriculture and slave trading flourished in the French Caribbean colonies.
The population of Saint-Domingue included five slaves who helped the colony become the world's leading producer of coffee and sugar.
Spain saw its colonial fortunes improve during the 18th century.
The recovery in silver production boosted its mercantilist goals.
Spanish territory in North America expanded in the second half of the 18th century.
Spain gained Louisiana from the French at the end of the Seven Years' War and its influence extended to northern California through the efforts of Spanish missionaries and ranchers.
As European settlements grew into well-established colonies, new identities and communities emerged.
Creoles in the Atlantic colonies prided themselves on following European ways of life.
The colonial elite felt that their circumstances gave them different interests and characteristics than those of their home population.
Creole traders and planters began to resent the regulations and taxes imposed by colonial bureaucrats, and this resentment would eventually lead to revolutions against colonial powers.
The colonies had Enlightenment ideas.
The colonies of British North America were influenced by the Scottish Enlightenment's emphasis on pragmatic approaches to the problems of life.
The colonies adopted a moderate version of the Enlightenment that emphasized self improvement and ethical conduct.
The Spanish American colonies were often depicted as the epitome of barbarity and superstition.
The publication of books on the Iberian Peninsula was controlled by the Catholic Church.
Economic development and military conflict were encouraged by the growth of trade.
Goods and slaves were exchanged between the four continents.
Someday, you will know them better.
One day they will come back, bearing in one hand the piece of Denis Diderot'sSupplement wood you see in that man's belt, and in the other, the sword hanging by the side of that one, to enslave you.
You will be subject to them as corrupt, vile and miserable as they are one day.
He was the father of a large family.
When the Europeans arrived in Tahiti, they looked upon them with disdain, as if they were animals.
Both of you are children of nature.
He retired on their approach, do you have over him that he doesn't have a hut?
Did we expose your happiness?
The old man made his way forward and respected our own image in you.