ChAPTER 36 -- Part 2: Western Society and Eastern Europe
The final test of the U.S. containment policy came in the 1960s when communist revolutionaries in South Vietnam began to fight back.
In 1965, the U.S. Air Force began bombing North Vietnam.
By 1968, American troops had reached a total of 550,000.
By this time the United States was spending $2 billion a week on a war that never produced convincing success and wasbogged down in horrendous blood shed on both sides.
By 1970 more bombs had been dropped on Vietnam than on any other place in the 20th century.
Domestic pressure against the war began to force changes in strategy.
Nixon tried to increase the pressure on North Vietnam by expanding the war to other parts of Asia.
The Vietnam March on the Pentagon was taken over by the communists by 1975.
Policy changes were made in the United States due to the furor over the Vietnam War.
The United States had discovered that its military might could be stalemated by guerrilla tactics and some observers thought that new directions might be forged.
The U.S. military and the public became more cautious of regional wars.
The national mood did not lead to policy changes.
Even as the Vietnam conflict wound down, a socialist government was ousted with the help of the U.S. A brutal military regime replaced the socialist government.
Ronald Reagan was elected president of the United States in 1980 and he made sure that the United States would "ride tall" again in world affairs.
In the 1980s, several raids were conducted against suspected terrorists in the Middle East, and the small West Indian island of Grenada was invaded to topple a left-wing regime.
President Reagan sponsored a number of expensive new weapons systems which helped push the Soviet economy to virtual collapse as its leaders attempted to keep pace.
The next president, George Bush, continued an interventionist policy by sending US troops into Panama to evict a dictator and by leading a Western and moderate Arab alliance against Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.
In the 1990s, the United States led military action against forces in the Balkans.
Its military spending was more than the next 20 nations combined.
It was able to take over and expand many of the international policing functions once held by Western nations.
The other Western states supported the U.S. initiatives, even though they resented American leadership.
Dramatic changes in gender relations and political and economic changes in Western society have an effect on earlier indus Western society.
The United States and western Europe shared in leading aspects of change as the first example of an advanced industrial society.
Some earlier social conflicts in the West were alleviated by economic growth.
Workers were still propertyless, but they had substantial holdings as consum ers, and their sense of social superiority often declined as a result.
The 1900-Present sector expanded.
Immigrants left a lot of unskilled labor.
Western Europe's peasantry was altered by economic and political change.
Peasants became increasingly commercial, eager for improvements in standards of living and participants, through car trips and television, in urban culture.
State regulations pushed them into cooperative organizations.
There were still social distinctions.
Middle-class people had more leisure opportunities and were more optimistic than most workers.
There were signs of tension.
The United States had high crime rates after the 1940s.
Race riots erupted in the US in the 1950s and 1960s and in British cities in the 1980s and 1990s.
Both western Europe and the United States participated in the upheaval of postwar change, which involved women and the family.
The realities of family life changed in many ways, despite the fact that family ideals continued in many ways.
Family leisure activities have expanded.
Telephones and automobiles were used for extended family contacts.
The authority of parents declined as more years of education increased the importance of peer groups for children.
The new working patterns of women were the most innovative in family life.
The earlier world war increased factory and clerical jobs for women.
The trends continued after a few years of downward adjustment.
In western Europe, the United States, and Canada, the number of working women rose steadily from the early 1950s onward.
Women's earlier educa tional gains had improved their work qualifications; the growing number of service jobs created a need for additional workers and women, long associated with clerical jobs and paid less than men, were ideal candidates.
Many women sought entry into the labor force as a means of adding to personal or family income, to afford some of the consumer items now becoming feasible but not yet easy to buy, or as a means of personal fulfillment in a society that associated worth with work and earnings.
The employment of adult women, most of them married and many with children, represented the employment of the female segment of the labor force up to 44 percent of the total in most Western countries by the 1970s.
Long-term work commitments rose as more girls stayed in school.
This wasn't a full stride to job equality.
Men's pay is higher than women's.
Despite a growing minority of middle-class women entering professional and management ranks, most women were concentrated in clerical jobs.
The trends of the 19th-century Industrial Revolution to keep women and family separate from work outside the home had yielded to a dramatic new pattern.
There were other new rights for women.
In France, where women had lacked the vote before, they now got it, and in western European nations, only Switzerland refused this concession until 1971.
Full equality remained elusive despite gains in higher education.
Women made up 23 percent of German university students in 1963, but under socialist governments the figure rose.
Most women stayed out of engineering, science, and management, as preferred subjects were different from those of men.
Most women's advocates think that family rights have improved.
Women were viewed as particularly important to the increase in access to divorce.
In countries of Catholic background, it became easier for women to regulate their birth rate.
New birth control methods, such as the contraceptive pill introduced in 1960, as well as growing knowledge and acceptability of birth control, decreased unwanted pregnancies.
Sex and procreation became separate considerations.
According to 1960s polls, more women wanted to link sex, marriage, and romantic love than men did.
Questions help clarify meaning.
Is there a major change and how can it happen?
The framework for a challenging analysis is provided by statistical patterns.
Changes in the family, including the roles of women, brought new issues and redefined ideals.
Children were involved in the first issue.
There was a brief increase in the birth rate in the early 1960s.
Women's work and the desire to use income for high consumer standards mitigated against children, particularly in the middle class, where birth rates were lowest.
When new fears about population growth began to surface, more and more children were sent to daycare centers at an early age, one of the amenities provided by the European welfare state.
Parents often claimed that the result of collective care was better for their children than maternal care.
The Western family and society were worried that they were becoming indifferent to children in an eagerness for adult work.
Between the 1950s and 1980s, American adults shifted their assessment of family satisfaction away from parenthood to focus on shared enjoyments between husbands and wives.
There were new cracks in family stability.
Pressures to adjust family roles, women working outside the family context, and growing legal freedoms for women caused men and women alike to turn more readily to divorce.
In 1961, 9 percent of British marriages ended in divorce; by 1965, the figure was 16 percent.
One third of all British marriages ended in divorce by the late 1970s, and the U.S. rate was higher still.
The strains caused by women's new activities and continued limitations were shown in the development of a new surge of feminist protest.
Many women were impoverished because of the growing divorce.
There are new work roles that show the earnings gap between men and women.
The new feminism promoted specific reforms and female empowerment, as well as domestic roles and qualities that would play down a moreliteral equality that would play down special domestic roles and qualities.
Feminism's most avid audience was not all women in the middle class.
Some of the most sweeping practical changes that were taking place were not caused by it.
It supported the revolution in roles.
Issues that were difficult to fit into political contexts were raised from the late 1960s onward.
The gap between new expec tations and ongoing inequalities in gender was articulated by the movement.
Some unanswered questions about family functions were promoted by the new feminism.
Feminism seemed to respond to the same desire for individuality and work identity in women that had been urged on men as part of the new mentality suitable for a commercial economy.
Family was important in the evolving view of women, despite some feminist leaders attacking the institution as hopelessly repressive.
Family goals were less important for less ideological women.
The National Women's Conference was held in Houston in 1977.
In order to symbolize the link between the American feminists and the women at the Conference, a torch was lit in the seat of the famous women's right convention in New York.
The torch is accompanied by feminist leaders on the last mile of the journey.
The torchbearers are Betty Friedan, Susan B. Anthony II, Representative Bella Abzug, Sylvia Ortiz, and Peggy Kokernot.
Western cultural life continued along established lines despite great innovations in politics, the economy, and social structure.
Basic frameworks had been set earlier in the early 20th century, but a wealth of scientific data was assimilated as a result of a host of specific new movements.
A shift of focus was one of the key developments.
Many prominent intellectuals moved to the U.S. shores during the 1930s and 1940s due to political stabil ity and Hitler's persecutions.
The United States was 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 The costliness of cutting-edge research produced a U.S. advantage.
As patronage became more important, New York replaced Paris as the center of international styles.
Some of the leading scientific advances of the postwar years were made by Europeans.
The discovery of the basic structure of the genetic building block deoxyribonucleic acid by Francis Crick, of Cambridge University in England, opened the way for rapid advances in genetic knowledge and industries based on artificial synthesis.
The human genome project was progressing quickly on both sides of the Atlantic.
Europeans were involved in nuclear research through laboratories funded by the European Union.
The European space research was slower to develop than the U.S. initiatives, but still produced noteworthy achievements by the 1970s.
The arts continued earlier 20th-century themes quite clearly.
Most artists continued to work in the "modern" modes set before World War I, which featured unconventional self-expression and a wide array of nonrepresentational techniques.
Growing public acceptance of the modern styles was the clearest change.
Europeans had more advantages in artistic films.
Italian directors produced a number of gripping, realistic films in the late 1940s, portraying both urban and peasant life without frills.
In the 1960s, Italy, France, and Sweden became centers of experimental filmmaking.
Ingmar Bergman produced a series of dark psychological dramas, while Jean-Luc Godard and Michelangelo Antonioni portrayed the emptiness of urban life.
In Spain, Britain, and Germany, individual directors broke new ground because they were more comfortable than the U.S. counter parts.
The results of economic and social change were reflected in the Western society's popular culture.
As European economies struggled to recover from the war, some observers spoke of a U.S. "coca-colonization" of Europe.
Soft drinks, blue-jean fashions, chewing gum, and other artifacts became more common.
The influence of U.S. films continued to grow.
The impact of U.S. television series was more important.
European popular culture had its own power and began to influence the United States.
The Beatles were the most celebrated figures of popular culture in the 1960s.
A good-natured desire to enjoy the pleasures of life is a characteristic of modern Western popular culture regardless of national context.
British popular music groups continued to set standards in the 70s and had an impact on western Europe.
Other aspects of popular culture had a new energy.
Youth fashions in Britain were different from the standards of the upper class.
The use of color and cut in punk hair was similar to the anti-conventional tone of modern painting and sculpture.
Sexual culture in the West was influenced by earlier trends that linked sex to a larger pleasure-seeking mentality and a desire for personal expression.
The standards for sexual display in films and television shows have become more relaxed.
Sex shops in Britain, Holland, andDenmark sell a wide range of erotic materials and products.
The United States and western Europe experienced significant changes in sexual behavior around 1960.
Sex before marriage became more common.
The age of first sexual intercourse began to go down.
The growing number of nude bathing spots in western Europe is in contrast to the more cautious initiatives in the United States.
Although the association of modern popular culture with sexuality and body concern was not novel, the openness and diversity of expression undoubtedly reached new levels and also demonstrated western Europe's new confidence in defining a vigorous, nontraditional mass culture of its own.
Critics of Western popular culture worried about its role in distracting people from the real issues.
There were no huge reactions to the cultural trends of the 1920s.
Western popular culture helped set global cultural standards, enhancing the West's international influence even as its formal political dominance declined.
The Soviet system had several ingredients by 1945.
The desire to regain tsarist boundaries was joined with traditional interest in expansion and in playing controls.
The desire to set up buffer zones under Soviet control was caused by genuine revulsion at Germany's two invasions.
The nation emerged as a world power as a result of the Soviet industrialization and World War II push.
Concentration on heavy industry and weapons development, combined with strategic alliances and links to communist movements in various parts of the world, helped maintain this status.
Some islands in the northern Pacific were seized by the Soviets during the late phases of the war against Japan.
The Soviet Union established a protection over the communist regime of North Korea.
The Soviet Union gained a new ally in communist Vietnam in the 1970s, which provided naval bases for the Soviet fleet, as a result of Soviet aid to the victorious Communist party in China.
During the 1960s, the Soviet Union gained new leverage in the Middle East, Africa, and even parts of Latin America, thanks to its growing military and economic strength.
The Soviet Union's status as a superpower was confirmed by its development of the atomic and then hydrogen bombs, as well as its deployment of missiles and naval forces to match the rapid expansion of the U.S. arsenals.
The Soviet Union was a world power.
The Soviet Union developed increasing worldwide influence, with trade and cultural missions on all inhabited continents and military alliances with several Asian, African, and Latin American nations.
The clearest extension of the Soviet sphere was in eastern Europe after World War II.
The Soviets made it clear that they intended to stay and push the Soviet sphere of influence farther to the West than ever before.
The cold war started because of the Soviet Union's insistence on this empire.
Between the world wars, the small nations of eastern Europe went through a difficult period.
They failed to establish vigorous, independent economies or solid political systems.
Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Yugoslavia were seized by German or Italian forces after the Nazi attack.
Eastern Europe was under Nazi control for four years.
The resistance movement in Yugoslavia was strong enough to affect the postwar results.
The Soviet army was the dominant force in eastern Europe by 1945, as it pushed the Germans back.
The combination of the Soviet military might and local communist movements in the nations that remained technically independent led to the downfall of the opposition parties.
Greece, which moved toward the Western camp in diplomatic alignment and political and social systems, was the only exception.
By the early 1950s, a standard development dynamic emerged in eastern Europe after the Soviet takeover.
The Roman Catholic Church was attacked by the new Soviet-sponsored regimes.
The development of mass education and propaganda outlets was rapid.
Without creating a property-owning peasantry, collectivization of agriculture ended the large estate system.
The five-year plans pushed industrialization through, though with some limitations due to Soviet insistence on access to key natural resources on favorable terms.
The Soviet and eastern European trading zone became separate from the larger trends of international commerce.
The Warsaw Pact defense alliance and a common economic planning organization were formed after NATO was formed.
Soviet troops were stationed in most eastern European states to ensure the continuation of the new regimes and their loyalty to the common cause.
Although it resolved some social problems in eastern Europe, as well as responding to the Soviet desire to expand its influence and guard against German or more general Western attack, the new Soviet system created obvious tensions.
The workers' rise in East Germany was suppressed by the Soviets.
There was a lot of immigration from East Berlin along the new borders of eastern Europe.
More liberal communist leaders in Hungary and Poland sought to create states that would allow more diversity and politics, despite the fact that they were communist.
The Soviets accepted a new leader in 1991.
The Berlin Wall was destroyed by the Soviet army and a hard-line Stalinist leadership was set up in its place in Hungary.
For the heavy-handed repres sion cost considerable prestige, soviet control over eastern Europe did loosen slightly.
Eastern European governments were given a freer hand in economic policy.
Several countries overtook the prosperity of the Soviet Union.
Contacts with the West grew with greater trade and tourism.
There was room for limited diversity in the economic bloc of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.
The freedom fighters in Hungary headed for the front with whatever weapons they could find as the Soviets moved into Hungary to crush the revolt of 1956.
The crowd is urging this truckload of supporters on.
diplomatic and military alignment with the Soviet Union remained essential as the communist political system remained in full force, with its single-party dominance and strong police controls.
The limits of experimentation in eastern Europe were brought back in 1968, when a more liberal regime came to power.
The soviet army responded by expelling the reformers and setting up a rigid leader.
The Polish army took over the state under Lech Walesa, but the labor movement was slightly more subdued.
National diversity was visible in both political styles and industrial levels.
Poland differed from hard-line, neo-Stalinist Bulgaria.
There were important discontents as well.
The social revolution brought economic change and social upheaval.
The lives of ordinary people have changed a lot thanks to new systems of mass education and industrial growth.
Russian, not French or English, was the first foreign language that was learned.
The Soviet foreign policy goals were answered by the expansion of Soviet influence.
The Soviets kept a military presence deep in Europe, which made them less anxious about another German threat.
Supplies and advisors for Soviet ventures in Africa, Latin America, and elsewhere were provided by Eastern European allies.
There was a check on Soviet policy as a result of the unrest in eastern Europe.
The need for continued military presence may have diverted Soviet leaders from emphasizing expansionist ambitions in other directions.
The Stalinist system remained intact during the initial postwar years.
The war encouraged growing use of nationalism as well as appeals for communist loyalty, as millions of Russians responded heroically to the new foreign threat.
The cold war with the United States developed after 1947, with news media blasting the United States as an evil power and a distorted society.
Many Soviets were afraid of a new war and agreed that strong government authority was necessary.
After the war, the Soviet Union was able to regain its prewar industrial capacity and grow quickly, thanks to this attitude.
Stalin's efforts to shield the Soviet population from foreign ideas were supported by the attitude.
The Soviet Union's culture, like its economy, was largely removed from world currents because of strict limits on travel, outside media, and uncensored glimpse of the outside world.
Stalin's political structure continued to emphasize central controls.
Stalin grew more suspicious of possible plots against him as he insisted on increasing adulation.
Moscow-based direction of the national economy, along with the steady extension of education, welfare, and police operations, expanded the bureaucracy both of the government and the Communist party.
Growing secondary school and university ties, as well as recruitment from the ranks of peasant and worker families, allowed talented young people to rise from below.
Party membership, the ticket to bureaucratic promotion, was deliberately kept low, at about 6 percent of the population, to ensure selection of the most dedicated elements.
The new candidates for the party had to be nominated by at least three party members.
Party members promised loyalty and group consciousness.
The relationship with The Soviet government was an impressive new product, not just a renewal of tsarist autocracy.
Although the church and state had links to tsarist days, the government and the party still maintained an active cultural agenda.
After 1917, the regime declared war on the Orthodox church and other religions in order to shape a secular population that would maintain a Marxist, scientific orthodoxy.
To ensure adherence to the party line, artistic and literary styles were carefully monitored.
The educational system was used to create loyal, right- thinking citizens.
May Day parades stimulated devotion to the state and communism.
The Orthodox church's outreach was limited by the new regime.
State schools preached the doctrine that religion was just superstition and the church was barred from giving religious instruction to anyone under 18.
Although loyalties to the church were still present, they seemed to be concentrated in an elderly minor ity.
The Soviet regime held the Jewish minority as enemies of the state in order to manipulate traditional Russian anti-Semitism.
On condition of careful loyalty to the regime, the larger Muslim minority was given greater latitude.
The elderly seemed to be the most interested in church by the 1950s.
Modern Western styles of art and literature were attacked by the Soviet state, particularly when they involved abstract forms that were considered decadent, but which were appropriated as Russian.
Russian orchestras performed a wide variety of classi cal music, and the Russian ballet, although rigid and conservative by 20th-century Western standards, commanded wide attention and enforced rigid standards of excellence.
After World War II, socialist realist principles spread to eastern Europe in public displays and monuments.
After the cold war ended in 1950, the Soviet and eastern European artists began to adopt Western styles.
Jazz and rock bands began to emerge in the 1980s despite official suspicion.
Despite official controls, the Soviet Union's literature was diverse and creative.
Leading authors wrote movingly of the troubles of World War II, maintaining the tradition of sympathy with the people, great patriotism, and concern for the Russian soul.
Their freedom depended on the leadership mood.
In the late 1960s and 1970s, Russian author critical of the Soviet regime relaxed, but also of the Western way of life.
The trilogy on the distinctive Russian values was published by authors who were critical of the Soviet regime.
He continued to seek an alternative to communist policy and to Westernization even though he was barred from his homeland.
Along with interest in the arts and a genuine diversity of expressions despite official party lines, Soviet culture continued to place great emphasis on science and social science.
This was a major part of the global expansion of science.
Scientists had a lot of power and prestige.
Important analyses of current trends and history were produced by social scientific work.
Soviet scientists generated a number of fundamental discoveries in chemistry, mathematics, and physics.
Scientists felt disapproval at times.
As in other areas, controls were strictest in the Stalinist years, so biologists and psychiatrists were urged to reject Western theories of human rationality and social progress.
Freudianism was banned and biologists who over emphasized genetics were jailed.
The idea that the revolutionary states could control human destiny was undermined by too much emphasis on the uncon scious.
Soviet scientists had great freedom and prestige.
As in the West, their work was linked with technology and weaponry.
After the day of Stalinism, scientists gained greater freedom from ideological dictates, and exchanges with Western researchers became more common in what was, at base, a common scientific culture.
The 20th-century Soviet culture was shaped by state control.
The ambivalence about the West remained, as the Soviets continued to use many art forms they developed in common with the West, while instilling a comparable faith in science.
Work incentives were a problem in collectivized as Soviet leaders sought agriculture.
The goal of the poster was to encourage Soviet farm culture that would help build a socialist society.
"Work hard and from the capitalist West" is what it says.