Frankl found attitudinal treatment to be effective in his work with prison inmates and terminal cancer patients.
Frankl stressed responsibility and the need to rise to life's challenges.
In the short run, examining thoughts and feelings regarding responsibility, isolation, freedom, meaninglessness, and death can be painful.
In the long run, confronting them head-on can lead to broadened awareness, selfacceptance, and an enhanced sense of control over one's life.
Existential themes can be integrated into the practices of therapists of different orientations.
Rogers specified three conditions that could be fudged.
He was mostly on the mark when it came to the therapeutic relationship.
The ultimate success of therapy can be achieved by establishing a strong alliance.
The therapeutic relationship is a better predictor of success in therapy than the use of specific techniques.
Rogers was wrong to say that the three core conditions he specified aren't necessary and sufficient for improvement.
Positive regard and empathy are related to therapy outcome, even though he overstated their impact.
Some studies have shown a positive relation between genuineness and therapeutic outcome, but others haven't.
Some people can derive benefits from self-help programs that don't involve therapists, so the therapeutic relationship isn't necessary for Correlation vs. Causation improvement.
No treatment is more effective than person-centered therapy.
Some suggest that person-centered therapy may not help much more than a placebo treatment such as simply chatting for the same amount of time with a non professional.
Other studies suggest that person-centered therapies often result in substantial improvement and may be comparable in effectiveness to cognitive-behavioral therapies.
Group methods have advantages.
There are different approaches to treating the family system.
Group therapies, which typically range in size from 3 to as many as 20 clients, are efficient, timesaving, and less costly than individual treatments and span all major schools of psychotherapy.
In a safe group environment, participants can provide and receive support, exchange information and feedback, model effective behaviors and practice new skills, and recognize that they're not alone in struggling with adjustment problems.
Group sessions are conducted in a variety of settings, including homes, hospitals, inpatient and residential settings, community agencies, and professional offices.
They reach people who are divorced, struggling with gender identity, and experiencing problems with alcoholism and eating disorders, among many other problems in living Group therapy procedures are efficient, time-saving, and less costly than many others.
Self-help groups are forming individual treatment methods.
According to research, group procedures are just as effective as individual treatments for a wide range of problems.
AA is the largest organization for treating people with alcoholism, with more than 2.1 million members and an estimated 114,000 groups worldwide.
At AA meetings, people share their struggles with alcohol, and new members are "sponsored" by more senior members who have achieved years of sobriety.
The program is based on the assumption that alcoholism is a physical disease and that once an alcoholic, always an alcoholic, they must never drink again.
The 12 steps ask members to place their trust in a higher power and acknowledge their powerlessness over alcohol.
A powerful social support network is offered by AA.
Drug users, gamblers, overeaters, spouses and children of alcoholics are some of the people who have formed groups based on the 12-step model.
There is no research on the effectiveness of these other approaches.
Many claims about AA's success aren't supported by data.
People who attend AA meetings or receive treatment based on the 12 steps fare about as well as, but no better than, people who receive other AA meetings.
Self-help to people of all ages and AA members who end up in studies are usually the most active participants.
Almost 70 percent of participants drop out within three months of joining AA, and those who have improved are more likely to remain in treatment.
AA members who attended in the first and third years were found to have less drinking problems.
The ability to participate in an adaptive social network is a key factor in who improves in AA.
Network Support treatment, which encourages adults with alcohol problems to develop networks of friends and associates who support their abstinence, was associated with a decrease in alcohol consumption.
The behavioral view assumes that excessive drinking is a learned behavior that therapists can modify and control without total abstinence.
Treatment programs that encourage people with alcoholism to set limits, drink moderately, and reinforce their progress can be effective for many clients.
Programs that teach people skills to cope with stress are more effective than 12-step programs.
People don't feel guilty or discouraged when they lapse.
When someone slips up, he or she thinks, "Well, I guess I'm back to drinking again" and goes back to drinking at high levels.
People are taught to rebound after a lapse and avoid situations in which they're tempted to drink.
Research shows that relapse prevention programs are effective.
For people with severe dependence on alcohol or who have failed controlled drinking, total abstinence is the best goal.
The text describes two different approaches to alcohol dependency: total abstinence and controlled and moderate drinking.
The AA approach of encouraging total abstinence seems to be more popular in the United States.
The fami system is a part of the strategic family therapy approach.
They need treatment to focus on the family context and not the other way around.
Family therapists there focus on interactions among family members.
According to strategic therapists, the real source of psychological problems of one or more family members often lies in the ways in which they communicate.