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17.3 Definitions of Acids and Bases -- Part 1
Strong and weak acids are defined accordingly.
The acid is strong if the equilibrium is far to the right.
The acid is weak if the equilibrium lies to the left.
The range of acid strength is constant, but the categories of strong and weak are useful.
The single arrow indicates complete ionization.
A 1.0 M HCl solution has an H3O+ concentration of 1.0 M.
The strong acids are listed in Table 17.3.
The ionizes in the solution are due to the presence of sphuric acid.
It ionizes completely when it is dissolved in water.
H3O+ and Cl- are formed by the ionization of water.
Only a fraction of the molecule ionize when it is dissolved in water.
H3O+ and F- are formed by partially ionizing water.
There are many intact HF molecules in the solution.
The arrow indicates partial ionization.
H3O+ is formed by HF molecule ionization.
The generic formula for an acid is called HA.
On the other hand, the conjugate base has a relatively weak attraction to H+--the reverse reaction does not occur to any significant extent.
The attraction between H+ and A- is significant in a strong acid, as the conjugate base has a greater attraction to H+.
The attraction between the reverse reaction and the conjugate base is low in a weak acid.
The H+ and A- are strong.
Weak acids are listed in Table 17.4.
Section 17.9 contains more information on polyprotic acids.
Both forms of the expression are the same.
The ionization constants for weak acids are relatively small, but they do vary in magnitude.
The table shows the constants for a number of weak acids in order to decrease their strength.
There is a complete list in Appendix IIC.
There are three generic weak acids.
If H3O+ increases, then the ion product constant must decrease.
If the H3O+ is 1.0, then we can find the ion product constant expression for [OH-]: (1.0 * 10-3).
The inverse change in [OH-] and [H3O+] can be seen if you change [H3O+] in an aqueous solution.
Unless otherwise noted, 25 degC.
Determine if the solution is acidic, basic, or neutral by calculating [OH-] at 25 degC.
The ion product constant is used to find [OH-].
The solution is acidic.
If you want to solve the acid ionization equation, substitute the given value for H3O+.
The solution is basic.
If you want to solve the acid ionization, substitute the given value for H3O+.
The solution is 1.0 * 10-7 and 1.0 * 10-7 M neutral.
The acidity of a solution can be determined by the pH scale.
The log of a number is the A solution with a pH of 10 to 3 M.
The numbers to the right of the decimal point are significant in a logarithm.
The log of the number of significant figures in the concentration has two decimal places and the result has the same number of places.
Acid solutions can have a negative pH.
The pH is -0.30 if log 1.0 * 10-3 is 3.0 H3O+.
The table shows the pH of the substances.
Many fruits and vegetables are acidic and have low pH values, as we discussed in Section 17.2.
Human blood ranged from 7.3 to 7.4 basic.
Egg whites are sourest.
A factor of 10 decrease in [H3O+] is associated with an increase of 1 on the pH scale.
If the solution is acidic or basic, you should calculate the pH of the solution.
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