15 -- Part 9: Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation
The emphasis was placed on preaching and instructing the uneducated.
The basis for Roman Catholic faith, organization, and practice can be found in Trent.
New religious orders aimed to raise the moral and intel ectual level of the clergy and people, just as seminaries provided education.
The religious unity of Western Christendom was shattered by the Reformation.
The situation was more complicated than a map of this scale can show.
Many of the cities within the Holy Roman Empire accepted a different faith than the surrounding countryside, but all were surrounded by territory ruled by Catholic nobles.
In northern Italy, the poor, sick, and uneducated were where Merici worked for many years.
The first women's re ligious order was established in 1535.
After receiving papal ap proval in 1565, the Ursulines quickly spread to France and the New World.
The order was founded by Ignatius Loyola Loyola in 1540 and played an important role in spreading the faith around the world.
After recovering from a wound, Loyola decided to give up his military career and become a soldier of Christ, studying the life of Christ and other religious books.
The activity of the Society of Jesus was developed.
The sons of the nobility were educated as wel as the poor in schools that adopted the modern humanist curricula and methods.
The Jesuits brought a lot of southern Germany and eastern Europe back to Catholicism.
The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis was signed in 1559 and ended the Habsburg-Valois wars.
Riots, civil wars, and international conflicts were caused by religious dif ferences over the next century.
In France and the Netherlands, Protestants and Catholics fought each other through preaching, teaching, and violence.
The era saw the most witch persecutions in European history, as both Protestants and Catholics tried to make their cities and states better.
King Francis I's treaty with the pope gave the French crown a lot of money and offices, as well as a vested financial interest in Catholicism.
Many French people were attracted to Calvinism.
Reform-minded members of the Catholic clergy, the middle classes, and ar tisan groups converted to Calvinism.
Some French nobles became Calvinist because of their religious conviction or because of their opposition to the monarchy.
Calvinists and Catholics believed in the services and books of the others.
These ideas were communicated in sermons, which caused vio lence at the weddings and funerals of the other faith.
There were battles between Catholic royalist nobles and Calvinist antimonarchical nobles in France.
The power of sacred images was questioned by Calvinist teachings, and mobs destroyed statues, stained-glass windows, and paintings.
One of the bloody events in the religious wars that followed the Reformation was the massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day in Paris.
The leader of the French Protestants is thrown from a window as his people are slaughtered.
Pope Gregory XIII ordered this fresco to be hung in the Vatican Palace.
Both sides used images to celebrate their victories.
There was an attack on Calvinists in Paris on August 24, 1572, which was the usual pattern.
The marriage of the king's sister Margaret of Valois to the Protestant Henry of Navarre was intended to help reconcile Catholics and Hugue nots.
The wedding guests of the Huguenots were massacred in Paris.
Thousands of people were killed in the provinces because of religious violence.
The civil war that followed the massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day lasted fifteen years.
As a result of the conflict, agriculture in many areas was destroyed, commercial life was cut off severely, and starvation and death haunted the land.
The Huguenots were also favored by the politiques.
The death of the French queen Catherine de' Medici paved the way for the accession of Henry of Navarre, a politique who became Henry IV.
Henry sacrificed religious principles to save France.
In 1598, he issued the Edict of Nantes, which granted liberty of conscience and freedom of worship to Huguenots in 150 fortified towns.
The reign of Henry IV and the Edict of Nantes paved the way for French kings to claim absolute power in the 17th century.
A movement for church reform in the Netherlands led to a struggle for Dutch independence.
The 17 provinces that make up present-day Belgium and the Netherlands were taken over by the catholic emperor Charles V. Lutheran ideas took root as a result of Catholic and Protes pressure for reform.
Charles V was able to limit the impact of the new ideas because he grew up in the moderates who wanted to end lands.
In 1556, Charles V restored a strong monarchy in France and gave power over the Netherlands to his son Philip II, who had grown up granting official recognition in Spain.
Philip was opposed to Protestantism, like his father.
Riots and a wave of iconoclasm occurred in the 1560s after Spanish authorities tried to suppress Calvinist worship.
Philip II sent twenty thousand Spanish troops and the civil war raged in the Netherlands from 1568 to 1578.
The southern ten provinces were under the control of the Spanish Habsburg forces.