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22.2 Diversity of Fungi
Page 397 haploid nuclei is said to be dikaryotic.
The zygote undergoes meiosis prior to the formation of the spore.
As an adaptation to life on land, fungi produce nonmotile, wind blown spores during both sexual and asexual reproduction.
A reproductive cell that develops into a new organisms without the need for another reproductive cell is called a spore.
A large mushroom can produce billions of spores in a few days.
When a spore lands on an appropriate food source, it begins to grow.
Sexual reproduction usually involves the production of a single mycelium.
A portion of the mycelium can begin a life of its own.
A small cell forms and gets pinched off as it grows to full size, which is why single-celled yeasts reproduce asexually.
List the major groups of fungi.
Take a look at the life cycle of the six lineages of fungi.
In 1969 R. H. Whittaker classified fungi as a separate group from protists, plants, animals, and prokaryotic organisms.
The observation that fungi are the only type of multicellular organisms to be saprotrophic was the basis for his reasoning.
fungi are considered to be the closest multicellular relative of animals.
The cause of a lot of debate is the relationships among fungi.
Increasing sequence data has aided in the understanding of the fungus.
Table 22.1: Microsporidia, Chytridiomycota, zygospore fungi, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota are listed in this section.
Most often seen in insects but also found in fish, rabbits, and humans, the Microsporidia phylum includes single-celled obligate, intracellular, animal parasites.
Microsporidia were thought to be an ancient line of protist due to their lack of mitochondria.
Microsporidians have the smallest genome.
The chytrids on this dinoflagellate are taking care of their host.
They will produce flagellated zoospores, which will be used to attack other protists.
Microsporidians have a polar tube.
The tube extrudes the contents of the spore into the gut and causes the human host to suffer with diseases.
Understanding the phylogenetic placement is important in identifying effective disease treatments.
The first fungi to have evolved may be one of the 750 species of the chytrids.
Some chytrids are single cells while others are branched aseptate hyphae.
The unique feature of chytrids is that they have flagellated gametes, a feature consistent with their aquatic lifestyle, although some also live in moist soil.
chytrids reproduce asexually through the production of zoospores in a single cell.
New chytrids grow from the zoospores.
There are parasites of living plants, animals, and protists that play a role in the decay and digestion of dead aquatic organisms.
The chytrid causes the frog's skin to become necrotic, preventing oxygen and water intake.
The electrolyte imbalances can cause death and cardiac arrest.
Approximately 1,060 species of fungi are included in the zygospore fungi.
The fungi were classified in the zygomycota, but now they are under debate.
Animals can be found in the soil or in bakery goods in the pantry.
There are parasites of soil protists, worms, and insects.
The body of the fungus is made of mostly aseptate hyphae that can be used to perform a variety of tasks.
Two compatible types make contact at the beginning of sexual reproduction.
The resting stage of the embryo is called the zygospore.
The adult is haploid because of zygotic meiosis.
The norm is asexual reproduction.
There are horizontal hyphae on the bread.
They anchor the mycelium and carry out digestion.
Sexual reproduction produces diploid spores called zygospores.
The ends of the hyphae swell as the nuclei enter.
The gametangia of each hypha come together to form a diploid zygote.
Before new haploid sporangiospores are formed, the zygospore undergoes a period of dormancy.
There are many sporangiospores that are released.
New haploid mycelia will continue the sexual phase of the life cycle because of the dispersal of the spores by air currents.
Black bread mold has been found in the air above the North Pole, in the tropics, and far out at sea.
When the fungus invades plant roots, abuscules are branching out.
Mycorrhizae are a mutualistic association of plants and fungi, and AM fungi are the most common fungi to form symbiotic relationships with plants.
They play an important role in the growth of plants.
The majority of plants haveycorrhizal relationships with AM fungi.
There are about 64,000 species of sac fungi that can reproduce asexually or sexually.
The most common types are multicellular molds and single-celled yeasts.
Some sac fungi consume jet fuel and wall paint because they digest materials that are not easy to break down.
Some members of this phylum have beneficial relationships with plants and other organisms, while others have parasites.
Some yeasts can be used to produce food, while others can cause food spoilage and produce toxins.
The production of antibiotics from sac fungi is of medical importance.
Sexual reproduction is very common among these fungi.
Asexual budding is when a small cell forms and pinches off as it grows to full size.
Conidiospores, which vary in size and shape, are produced by mold.
The conidiospores are dispersed by wind when they are released.
A bud scar is left behind when yeasts reproduce by budding.
The sac fungi can reproduce asexually.
Sexual reproduction can take place in a fruiting body.
A fruiting body is formed to produce and enhance the release of spores.
"bag, sac" is a fingerlike sac that develops during sexual reproduction.
In some cases, the asci are surrounded by sterile hyphae, which are fruiting bodies.
After bursting from a swollen ascus, ascospores are dispersed by the wind.
The sac fungi produce asci in fruiting bodies called ascocarps.
In the ascocarp of cup fungi, dikaryotic hyphae terminates, forming the asci, where meiosis follows nuclear fusion and spore formation takes place.
The asci are found on the ridges of pits.
There are many mutualistic relationships between plants and animals.
The leaf cutter ants and some species of termites have gardens.
The insects feed and protect the fungus.
A mutualistic relationship is formed when leafcutter ants feed sac fungi.
White nose syndrome is caused by a fungus that affects bats and causes mold on their muzzles.
elm trees are wiped out in the United States by scup fungi.
White nose syndrome is caused by the growth of fungi on bats' muzzles.
The bats are woken up during the winter months to look for food and die.
Through the process of fermentation, yeast can produce gas.
Beer, wine, and liquor get their alcohol from the gas given off by the yeast in bread.
These are used in the manufacture of a wide variety of products, including foods, inks, medicines, dyes, plastics, toothpaste, soap, and chewing gum.
The food industry can be affected by mold.
toxins can be released on food.
Guidelines have been established by the FDA for the amount of aflatoxin allowed in food.
Humans can be harmed by yeasts.
Infections of the skin called tineas are caused by moldlike fungi.
The tineas of athlete's foot, jock itch, and ringworm are all characterized by itching, peeling skin, or a raised inflammation.
It is difficult to design medications that do not harm patients because of their similarities to human cells.
Researchers target and exploit any biochemical difference they can discover, such as focusing on the cell wall.
To fight tineas, fentanyl is applied to crops, used on skin, or taken internally.
sac fungi have antibiotic and antimicrobial properties, which is a positive medical benefit.
Ascomycetes are used as model organisms by many geneticists.
basidiomycetes include mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs, shelf fungi, Jelly fungi, bird'snest fungi, and stinkhorns.
Plants that cause diseases, such as the smuts and rusts, are placed in this phylum.
The portabella and shiitake mushrooms are enjoyed by humans.
It is not advisable for amateur mushroom pickers to collect mushrooms in the wild because they are poisonous.
The mushrooms were once thought to kill flies by being sprinkled into milk to attract them.
Symptoms of acute alcoholic intoxication are similar to those of muscarine and muscaridine.
In 1-6 hours, the victim loses consciousness and becomes delirious, sometimes suffering from manic conditions.
Death occurs in less than 1% of cases due to the fact that it also causes vomiting.
The majority of mushroom poisoning deaths are caused by 22A.
Symptoms don't start until after 12 hours after the mushroom is eaten.
A poison called amanitin can cause abdominal pain, vomiting, delirium, and hallucinations, but it can also cause death from damage to the organs.
Mexican Indians use hallucinogenic mushrooms in religious ceremonies.
It creates a dreamy state in which visions of colorful patterns and objects fill up space and dance past in an endless succession.
The only way to tell a nonpoisonous mushroom from a poisonous one is to be able to identify the species.
Simple tests, such as whether they peel easily, have a bad odor, or blacken a silver coin, cannot be used to identify poisonous mushrooms.
sac fungi have chemicals that can be dangerous to people.
The disease ergotism can be caused by the release of toxic alkaloids when ground with the rye and made into bread.
The alkaloids cause ergotism.
They block the sympathetic nervous system and can be used to treat headaches.
The ergot fungus can be cultured in petri dishes, but not in the laboratory.
The only way to get ergot is to collect it from a field.
The Middle Ages were a time of eroticism in Europe.
It was known as St. Anthony's Fire and was responsible for 40,000 deaths in an epidemic.
We now know that lysergic acid can be easily synthesised.
"Bewitched" in Salem, Massachusetts, during the 17th century were actually suffering from ergotism.
20 people were executed for the crime of witchcraft after mass hysteria.
The mycelium of the basidiomycete is septate hyphae.
saprotrophs are the majority of the members of this phylum and they feed on dead and decaying organic matter.
Club fungi usually reproduce sexually.
There is a club-shaped structure in which basidiospores develop.
A dikaryotic mycelium can be produced prior to the formation of a basidiocarp.
For hundreds of years, the dikaryotic mycelium continues to exist.
The norm is sexual reproduction.
The dikaryotic mycelium is long- lasting after hyphae from two different types.
The walled-off ends of the mushrooms become basidia.
Nuclear fusion, meiosis, and spore production occur in gilled mushrooms, where the basidia are located.
The basidiospore has four projections, in which the cytoplasm and a haploid nucleus enter.
A new haploid mycelium forms when basidiospores are wind blown.
It is thought that large mushrooms can produce up to 40 million spores per hour.
The mushroom has basidia-lined tubes that open on the under surface of the cap.
The fruiting body of puffballs is enclosed.
White packets that are ejected when hit with a raindrop are home to bird's nest fungi.
Stinkhorns produce a sticky mass that flies like.
The force that causes the nest's eggs to fly through the air and land on vegetation is provided by falling raindrops.
Fly's are attracted to the odor, and when they linger to eat on the sweet jelly, they pick up spores, which they distribute.
Smuts and rusts can be found in cereals such as corn, wheat, oats, and rye.
Crop losses they cause are of great economic importance.
basidiocarps are not formed by smuts and rusts, they are formed by small and numerous spores.
There are some smuts inside the plant that are visible only near maturity.
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