How did a cosmopolitan civilization develop in the Middle East during the Late Bronze Age and Ancient peoples' stories give valuable insights into how they thought about their origins and identity.
The harbor is shown in the photo between 750 and 550 b.c.e.
The spread of cultural patterns from older centers to new regions as well as the migration of Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age peoples in the Mediterranean lands and western Asia are highlighted in this story.
Trade, diplomatic contacts, military conquests, and the relocation of large numbers of people spread knowledge.
Historians' term gave them several advantages.
During the time when iron was the primary metal, it was a single metal and not an alloy.
Iron tools were found to have begun at different times harder than bronze tools, because of the amount of carbon added during the forging process.
The story of Mesopotamia and Egypt in the second millennium b.c.e.
is the first part of this chapter.
The Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations of the Aegean Sea were inspired by the technologies and cultural patterns of the older Middle Eastern centers and prospered from participation in long-distance trade networks.
The focus is on three societies: the Assyrians of northern Mesopotamia, the Israelites of Israel, and the Phoenicians of Lebanon and their colonies in the western Mediterranean.
These societies evolved into new political, cultural, and commercial centers after the decline of the ancient centers.
Both Mesopotamia and Egypt were invaded in the 17th century.
Conditions of stability and prosperity were restored after the outsiders were either ejected or assimilated.
The Late Bronze Age in the Middle East was a time of many cultures and lifestyles.
The flow of goods and ideas was fostered by diplomatic relations and commercial contacts between states, and elite groups shared similar values and enjoyed a high standard of living.
The peasants in the countryside, who made up the majority of the population, saw some improvement in their standard of living, but they didn't get as much benefit from the increased contacts and trade.
The relationship between states was fostered by treaties, diplomatic missions, and correspondence.
All were tied together by extensive networks of exchange centering on the trade in metals and peripheral regions, such as Nubia and the Aegean Sea, were drawn into the web of commerce.
In 1532 b.c.e., the rise of Myce dominated northern Egypt.
The Hittites developed 1500 b.c.e.
The script for the Queen Hatshep iron metallurgy betic was developed.
The south of 1450 b.c.e.
was taken over by Ugarit.
The Minoan palaces in Crete have launched reforms.
The Great occupation of Canaan took place between 1200 and 1200 b.c.e.
The southern coast of Israel was attacked by the Hittite kingdom.
Iron metallurgy made the capital of Israel.
The ruler of Tyre came to power 960 b.c.e.
There were two political zones in Mesopotamia, one in the south and the other in the north.
Under the rule of the dynasty of Hammurabi, the city of Babylon gained political and cultural power over the southern plain.
By 1460 b.c.e., the mountains to the east migrated into southern Mesopotamia.
The merchant vessel went down off the coast of southern Turkey.
There is a row of copper ingots to the right of the stone anchor.
The vessel was carrying a cargo of copper and tin ingots, as well as Canaanite pots that probably contained incense, fine pottery from Cyprus, sub-Saharan ebony wood and elephant tusks, and some Mycenaean Greek objects, illustrating the wide-ranging seaborne trade in the eastern
The Kassite dynasty ruled in Babylon.
The Kassites embraced Babylonian language and culture and married the native population.
The rulers of Babylonia did not pursue territorial conquest during their 250 years in power.
The "Old Assyrian" kingdom in northern Mesopotamia was more ambitious.
The Assyrian merchant families exchanged textiles and tin for silver in Anatolian cities.
Anatolia's rich Age was exploited by the Hittites.
The metal deposits have a key role to play in international commerce.
The Hittites vied with the iron to make it soft enough to shape, heating it until it was soft enough to shape.
The process provided New Kingdom Egypt with economic and con tary advantages.
Iron technology may have spread from Syria-Palestine to the Hittite core area after 1200 b.c.e.
Mesopotamian political and cultural concepts have spread.
The old core area is often put under pressure by newcomers who have learned from Mesopotamian civilization.
The Egyptian Middle Kingdom declined in the 17th century b.c.e.
after flourishing for nearly four hundred years.
As officials in the countryside became increasingly independent and new groups migrated into the Nile Delta, central authority broke down and Egypt entered a period of political and economic decline.
Historians don't know who the Hyksos were or how they came to power.
The eastern Nile Delta has been home to Semitic peoples from the Syria-Palestine region for hundreds of years.
Various groups may have cooperated to establish control in the middle of the country in the chaotic conditions of this time.
The horse-drawn war chariot and the wood and horn bow made of wood and horn were some of the military technologies possessed by the Hyksos.
The Egyptian institutions and culture were maintained by the Hyksos.
The reunification of Egypt under a native dynasty was accomplished by princes from Thebes.
The isolation ist mindset of earlier eras was shattered by a century of foreign domination.
New Kingdom Egypt was an expansionist state.
Egypt gained access to timber, gold, and copper by extending its territorial control north into Syria-Palestine and south into Nubia.
The buffer zone was provided by the occupied territories.
The native population of Nubia was forced to adopt Egyptian culture and language.
Egypt fully participated in the diplomatic and commercial net patched a naval expedition works linking the states of western Asia.
New technologies, such as an improved potter's wheel and weaver's loom, were brought back by Egyptian soldiers, administrators, diplomats, and mer to Punt.
The throne of New Egypt was held by a woman.
The Egyptian ruler wore a long, conical beard after her death and used the male pronoun for herself often.
Hatshepsut sent a naval expedition to the Red Sea.
She may have used the success of the expedition to bolster her claim to the throne.
Her name was defaced and her image was obscured by officials opposed to a woman ruler after he built a new capital.
Changing his name is one way to get to the sun-disk.
Relief sculptures and texts commemorate the famous expedition to Punt in this beautiful complex of terraces, ramps, and colonnades.
Hatshepsut tried to prove her worth by publicizing the opening of direct contact with the source of highly prized myrrh.
The belief in one exclusive god has been credited with the invention of monotheism by some scholars.
It is likely that Akhenaten was trying to reestablish the superiority of the king over the priests.
Worship of Aten was limited to the royal family and the people of Egypt.
The site was built with the help of thousands of Egyptians.
Government officials and priests resented the reforms because they linked their privileges and wealth to the traditional system.
The temples were reopened, the capital was returned to Thebes, and the institution of kingship was weakened to the advantage of the priests.
In his insignificant reign the ultimate failure of Akhenaten's reached an accommodation with the Hittites of Anatolia revolution.
He built on the things that Akhenaten neglected.
The monument was strategically placed at a bend in the Nile River so as to face the southern frontier.
Behind the statues of the pharaoh, a temple was carved into the cliff.
Inside the temple, a corridor decorated with reliefs of military victories leads to an inner shrine containing images of the divine ruler seated alongside three of the major gods.
The monument was moved to higher ground in the 1960s.
Archaeologists have been excavating a network of corridors and chambers carved into a hillside near Thebes, where many sons of Ramesses were buried.
Ramesses II fought the Hittites to a draw in a major battle in northern Syria.
Ramesses' marriage to a Hittite princess strengthened the treaty.
The control of Syria-Palestine was strategically located between the great powers of the Middle East and at the end of the east-west trade route across Asia.
The Phoenician towns of the Lebanon seaboard extended commerce to the lands ringing the Mediterranean Sea.
Any state that wants to project its power needs metals for tools, weapons, and ornamentation.
The long-distance trade was stimulated by metals commerce.
We have seen the Assyrian traffic in silver from Anatolia and the Egyptian passion for Nubian gold.
tin came from Afghanistan and possibly the British Isles.
Both ores had to be carried long distances and passed through a number of hands before reaching their final destinations.
There are new modes of transportation that speed communications and commerce.
Horses, domesticated by nomadic peoples in Central Asia, were brought into Mesopotamia through the Zagros Mountains around 2000 b.c.e.
In the Late Bronze Age trade and diplomatic contacts between able horse-drawn chariots became the premier states fostered the flow of goods and ideas.
The team of driver and archer enjoyed similar lifestyles and a high standard of living.
After 1500 b.c.e., immigrant groups came to power in Babylonia.
Thanks to their strength technologies and culture of Mesopotamian civilization, they were able to go long distances without water.
The emergence of metallurgy to dominate Anatolia was the result of the Hittites' use of chariot warfare and iron physical qualities.
New Kingdom Egypt extended control over Syria-Palestine and Nubia.
The era was marked by rulers who challenged tradition.
By the advent of horses and camels, long-distance trade networks were based on metals.
The influence of Mesopotamia, Syria-Palestine, and Egypt was felt as far away as the Aegean Sea.
Aegean peoples had to import metal and timber from abroad, as well as additional food supplies.
The rise and fall of the Minoan and Mycenaean societies were tied to their commercial and political relations with other peoples in the region.
The Greeks remember a time when Crete was home to many ships and skilled craftsmen.
The absence of identifiable representations of Cretan rulers contrasts with grandiose depictions of kings in the Middle East and suggests a different conception of authority.
There is no fortifications at the palace sites and high-quality indoor plumbing.
Statuettes of women with elaborate headdresses and serpents may represent fertility goddesses.
The Aegean Sea was the location of the earliest complex civilizations in Europe.
The Minoan civilization evolved in the late third millennium b.c.e.
Palaces decorated with fresco paintings, a centrally controlled economy, and the use of writing for recordkeeping are features of these societies.
Groups of women in frilly skirts are portrayed in the palaces as conversing or watching performances.
We don't know if pictures of young acrobats vaulting over the horns and back of an onrushing bull show a religious activity or just a sport.
The depiction of nature on vases is a delight in the beauty and order of the natural world.
Historians consider the Mycenaean Greeks to be the culprits because they took over Cnossus.
Around 2000 b.c.e., speakers of an ancestral language of Greek migrated into the Greek peninsula.
The indigenous population and the newcomers created the first Greek culture through intermarriage.
This society was static for centuries.
Farmers and shepherds lived in Stone Age conditions.
Life changed suddenly around 1600 b.c.e.
The site of a fortified contained the bodies of men, women, and children and were filled with gold jewelry and orna palace complex.
The capacity to mobilize human labor, the ability to acquire wealth, and Greece's control of ity were all signs that some people in this society had acquired wealth.
The kingdom of Late Bronze Age was uncovered.
Archaeologists call the Minoan styles of pottery, fresco and vase painting.
The Greek society of the second millennium B.C.E.
may have been caused by the profits from trade and piracy as well as pay and booty.
Mycenae is the first site excavated in Greece and is called the "Mycenaean" civilization.
A large central hall with an open hearth and columned porch was surrounded the burial sites of elite mem by courtyards, living quarters for the royal family and their retainers, offices, storerooms, and bers of Mycenaean Greek workshops.
In the mid-second millennium B.C.E., the palace walls were covered with brightly painted frescoes depicting scenes of war.
Outside the walls lay large houses with gold and belonged to the aristocracy.
The peasants lived on the lower slopes and in the plain below, close to the land they worked.
The number of chariot wheels in storerooms, the ration paid to workers, and the gifts dedicated to various gods were all listed in detail by the palace administrators.
Grain production and the wool industry were under the control of the government.
The political and legal system, social structure, gender relations, and religious beliefs are not revealed in the tablets.
They don't tell anything about historical figures, particular historical events, or relations with other Mycenaean centers or foreign peoples.
Wind and sail were the main sources of power for commercial vessels.
Sailing in daylight hours was preferred by ancient sailors.
The crew could go to eat and sleep at night if the vessels ran up onto the beach.
A set of Cretan and Greek pottery and crafted goods are found not only in the Aegean but also in symbols from other parts of the Mediterranean and Middle East.
Minoan and Mycenaean objects are found side by side, and eventually Greek wares replace Cretan goods in the Myce.
Cretan merchants pioneered trade routes and were later joined by Mycenaean traders, who replaced them in the Bronze Age to write an early fifteenth century b.c.e.
Wine and olive oil were included in the Aegean pots found throughout the Mediterranean and Middle East.
Other possible exports include textiles, weapons, and the Linear B tablets, which provide substantial and other crafted goods, as well as slaves and mercenary soldiers.
Aegean sailors may have information about the eco transported trade goods.
Several sunken ships carrying copper ingots have been found.
The elite classes may have owned metal goods in order to show their superior status.
Mycenaeans were acquisitive and tough.
There was a conflict between the Hittite kings of Anatolia and the I mage not available due to copyright restrictions.
The people of Ahhijawa took advantage of Hittite preoccupation or weakness, and relations were sometimes friendly, sometimes strained.
Troy was destroyed around 1200 b.c.e.
Large numbers of people were moving in this period.
Other people were displaced as migrants swarmed into one region.
The great coastal city of Ugarit was swept away by the tide of destruction.
The Nile Delta was attacked around 1220 b.c.e.
Egypt gave up its territory in Syria-Palestine and lost contact with the rest of the world.
It is easy to imagine the participation of Mycenaeans.
The Minoan civilization on the island of Crete and the Myce half of the twelfth century b.c.e.
were destroyed in the first.
The older centers in Egypt, Syria, and Mesopotamia have no trace of foreign paths of cultural evolution.
The demise of Myce tion with complex political and social structures and advanced naean civilization occurred at roughly the same technologies that Crete was home to the first European civiliza.
The Mycenaean ruling class depended on centers in mainland Greece.
The influence on the import of vital commodities and the profits of Minoan Crete caused the destruction of major trading part networks in 1600.
The Linear B tablets show how the Mycenaean palaces may have led to internal unrest and centralized control over the economy.
The economic interdependence of the major centers of the increased vulnerability to attacks by migrating people illustrates the end of Mycenaean civilization.
It shows the conse 1200 B.C.E.
The region descended into a centuries-long "Dark quences of political and economic collapse.
There was a huge administrative apparatus in the Linear B tablets.
The technique of writing was no longer useful since it had only been used by a few palace officials empire.
Some regions of Iran were depopulated to Syria-Palestine, Greece and other places that had escaped destruction, according to archaeological studies.
The Greeks conquered the Assyrians, and a thousand years later people still worship the gods mentioned in the northern Mesopotamia Linear B tablets.
The artistic and technical skills of the people who made the vessels and implements continued to decline in a much poorer society.
Increased isolation of different parts of Greece was reflected in the use of force and terror.
The cosmopolitan world of the Late Bronze Age in the Mediterranean was a thing of the past.
The Middle East was also preserved.
The societies that had prospered through complex links of trade, diplomacy, continued the cultural and and shared technologies now collapsed in the face of external violence and internal weakness, the peoples of the region entered a centuries-long "Dark Age" of poverty, isolation, and loss.
After 1000 b.c.e., a number of new centers emerged in western Asia and the eastern Mediterranean.
The Assyrian homeland in northern Mesopotamia is hillier and has a better climate than the flat expanse of Babylonia to the south.
Peasant farmers, accustomed to defending themselves against raiders from the mountains to the east and north and the arid plain to the west, provided the foot-soldiers for the revival of Assyrian power.
T A U R U S M T S.
The gods chose the king as their representative, according to the Assyrians.
In the ancient city of Ashur, the high priest anointed the new king's head with oil and gave him a crown and scepter.
The kings were buried in Ashur.
The king received information from every corner of the empire.
The king appointed officials, heard complaints, dictated correspondence, and received foreign envoys.
He was the military leader and was often away from the capital commanding operations in the field.
The king oversaw the state religion, attended elaborate public and private rituals, and oversaw the upkeep of the temples.
He consulted the gods through rituals of divination.
The actions were done in the name of Ashur.
Military victories were cited as proof of Ashur's superiority.
The king and nobility were the main beneficiaries of military campaigns that were heavily promoted by the government.
The inscriptions posted throughout the empire extolled the determination of the king, and promised ruthless punishments to anyone who resisted.
The walls of the royal palaces were covered with relief sculptures depicting hunts, battles, sieges, executions, and deportations.
The king was larger than everyone else and fierce.
Visitors to the Assyrian court were awed and intimidated.
The early armies were made up of men who served in return for grants of land.
Under the watch of officials and soldiers, workers are moving a huge stone sculpture from the riverbank to the palace.
They use a lever, a sledge, and thick ropes to accomplish this task.
The forc light-armed bowmen and slingers who launched stone projectiles, armored spearmen, cavalry ible removal and relocation equipped with bows or spears, and four-man chariots.
Assyrian engineers created machinery and tactics to besiege fortified towns.
They built mobile towers for archers, dug tunnels under the walls, and applied Assyrian and Persian battering rams to weak points.
While a network of spies gathered intelligence, long-distance communication Empires were meant as a tion.
The heads of defeated rulers were hung on the city walls.
The spirit of the rial center was broken by unskilled labor.
Up to 4 million people may have been relocated because of this tactic, which had a long history in the Middle East.
The deportees worked on royal and noble estates, which opened new lands for agriculture, and built palaces and cities.
Control was tight at the center and in lands close to the core area.
The Assyrian kings fought for control over territories that were subdued in previous wars.
The Assyrians exploited the wealth and resources of their subjects.
Military cam nasirpal was funded by plunder and tribute.
The king and nobility grew rich from the wealth from the center.
The Assyrian Empire was more than just parasites.
There is evidence of royal investment.
Some subject populations were loyal to their Assyrian rulers, and the cities and merchant classes thrived on expanded long-distance commerce.
Priests, diviners, doctors, and artisans were also bound.
Surviving sources shed light on the actions of kings and elites.
The lives and activities of millions of Assyrians are a mystery.
The Assyrian homeland has a large number of immigrants and deportees.
Human beings were entitled to the same legal protections and liable for the same labor and military service.
The ethnic makeup of the core area changed over time because of the inflow of outsiders.
Most of the subjects worked on the land.
A large collection of writings experts, merchants, artisans, and other professionals in the towns and cities are drawn from the ancient liter cialized activities.
The state fostered long-distance trade, it was assembled by imported luxury goods in the seventh century B.C.E.
The Assyrian ruler Ashurba weighed silver for each transaction before the invention of nipal.
The originals were brought to the capital and the copies were made at the king's request.
Much of what we know about Mesopotamian art, literature, science, and earlier history comes from Assyrian sites.
The rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, which dominated western Asia from the late tenth to seventh centuries B.C.E., was aided by tough farmers in northern Mesopotamia.