He would believe that he controls what happens to him if he had an internal control over it.
The idea of boys wanting their mothers and fathers wanting their mothers' love is a Freudian idea.
A person with an inborn temperament would be shy, unlike Rocco.
People can be self-actualized when they reach their full potential.
If students are randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups, it doesn't matter if the experimental group already listens to Mozart or has studied geometry.
The speed of neural transmission can be increased with the help of the myelin sheath.
The axon is protected by a substance called myelin, which is a fat substance that insulates the axon.
The axon is between the soma and terminal branches.
The brain's medulla regulates breathing and heart rate.
Changes in the gene pool are not likely.
People who live in cities walk more than people who live in suburbs.
People who work longer hours don't gain weight, and there are many ways to exercise.
Operant conditioning is related to negative reinforcement and shaping.
Insight learning happens when you suddenly realize how to solve a problem.
While convergent thinking involves the pursuit of one answer to a problem, often in a particular way, divergent thinking promotes more open-ended, innovative thought.
There are approaches to problem solving that guarantee correct answers.
The inability to think of a novel use for an object is an obstacle to creativity.
Excellent recall ability is not related to being creative.
Telegraphic speech, also known as the two-word stage of language, is common around age two.
The other theories of motivation are hard to explain.
This style of parenting is called democratic because it is more flexible with the creation and implementation of rules.
Parents who don't pay enough attention to their children's needs are more likely to shun rules.
This disorder is caused by breaks in consciousness and memory as the sufferers shift from one personality to another.
Conversion disorder is a type of somatoform disorder in which someone complains of a physical problem for which no organic cause can be found.
Schizophrenia does not involve multiple personality disorders.
Someone with a mental illness suffers from profoundly disordered thought.
People who have experienced tragic events like wars and natural disasters are more likely to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder.
There are periods of mania and depression in the form of a type of depression called a manic depression.
Biological factors such as hormones and neurotransmitters are more important to psychologists than other factors.
Behaviorists believe that experience would have an important impact on anxiety, but they wouldn't credit events from one's youth as being particularly powerful.
The influence of the way people process information is emphasized by cognitive psychologists.
A test that lacks validity doesn't test what it's supposed to test.
Psychodynamic psychologists useive tests to measure personality.
It is possible for a test to be standardized, normed, and reliable.
People fill out questionnaires on self-report inventories.
The other methods are more difficult to use.
Psychoanalysts useive tests, free association, and dream analysis the most.
The other choices are all stages of one's life.
The parasympathetic nervous system will return the body to normal if a person is stressed out.
It is easier to form a link between the action and its consequences if something is reinforced every time.
Reinforcements are more resistant to extinction.
Opiates relieve pain.
Stimulants are the drugs listed.
The cochlea is connected to the brain.
The organ of Corti can be found in the cochlea.
The pinna is a part of the ear.
The smallest amount of stimuli required to detect its presence is the absolute threshold.
If you were to add salt to a plain glass of water, you would be testing the threshold.
The question is about the difference threshold since the soup already had some salt.
Magnetic fields can be used to show the structure of the brain.
fMRI uses magnetic fields to show both structure and function.
Brain function can be shown by measuring electrical activity and metabolism.
All research conducted at registered research institutions and intended for publication must be approved by the IRB prior to any interaction with participants.
None of the other people or groups listed in the choices would be allowed to stand in as replacements.
There are clear, intended applications for Choices A, B, C, and E. Although learning about how children's use of language changes could yield knowledge that would ultimately have a practical impact, such an application is not its immediate goal.
A boy has an extra X chromosomes.
Genetics are to blame for Alzheimer's and Tay-Sachs.
Fetal alcohol syndrome can be caused by a mother drinking alcohol.
Damage to the fovea would affect vision and an inability to use binoculars would affect depth perception.
The principles of perception are thought to be inborn.
There is a theory about how we recognize pitches.
Insight learning would involve parents realizing that holding their babies is a good thing.
If babies applauded their parents when they were picked up, they would be reinforcing them with positive reinforcement.
Latent learning occurs when there is no reinforcement.
If we rephrased the question and asked how the parents were learning to avoid putting their babies down, the answer would be punishment.
Sometimes, in the process, they apply the rules when they are incorrect.
A child who understands the idea that the past tense in English is often marked by the addition of -ed might add -ed to irregular verbs like go.
People think about women differently if they are referred to as "girls".
Bandura's social learning theory explains how people learn.
The nativist theory of language is based on the belief that human beings are wired in such a way that we can learn language quickly and easily.
There are two theories about signal detection and arousal.
Mari is attracted to the idea of seeing Ben Folds but not willing to spend the evening with him.
One has to choose between two attractive alternatives.
One has to choose between two unattractive alternatives in an avoidance-avoidance conflict.
In a multiple approach-avoidance conflict, one has to choose between several options which have attractive and unattractive features.
William James's theory of functionalism focused on how these structures function in our lives.
The importance of the whole was the focus of Gestalt psychology.
The ancient practice of putting holes in people's skulls was called trephination.
Freudian theory states thatpression is a key part.
Social-cognitive theorists believe that the interaction between environment and cognitive gives rise to personality, while behaviorists stress the impact of the environment.
Psychodynamic theorists emphasize the role of unconscious processes.
There is no evidence that attitudes are heritable or that hair color is more heritable than conscientiousness.
A power test consists of items in increasing level of difficulty and is meant to determine the highest level at which one can perform, whereas a speed test contains many easy items and is meant to determine how fast one can solve the problems.
What someone has learned is measured by achievement tests.
Individual tests are given to one person at a time.
The high school students taking AP Psychology are thought to be similar to the Introductory psychology students in college, so their performance is used to standardize the test.
The distractors are the other choices.
When there is no organic cause for a physical complaint such as paralysis of a limb, deafness, or blindness, a diagnosis of conversion disorder can be made.
It's not surprising that masochism is a paraphilia, that generalized anxiety disorder is an anxiety disorder, and that psychogenic amnesia is a type of dissociative disorder.
Humanistic psychologists stress the importance of fulfilling one's needs, biomedical psychologists focus on the impact of neurosciences, cognitive psychologists emphasize the influence of how one thinks, and behaviorists emphasize the effect of the environment.
When unattractive features of a decision are hidden, it's called lowballing.
People feel obliged to treat other people the same way they have treated them.
Self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when one person's expectations of another person elicits behavioral confirmation in the other person.
Foot-in-the-door is when one asks for a small favor and then follows up with a larger request.
It is more likely that people will say yes to the more substantial second request if they acquiesce to the small favor.
The stress causes people to bring their beliefs into line with their actions.
Since she can't change her behavior, she is likely to change her beliefs about her boss.
Severe depression that has not responded to drug therapy can be alleviated by ECT.
The importance of the clients' understanding of their problems is emphasized by humanistic therapies.
Psychopharmacology, psychosurgery, and behaviorist techniques do not depend on or value the clients' insights.
The idea that when others are present, a person's feeling of responsibility decreases is one of the reasons for this phenomenon.
Religion has not been found to predict helping behavior.
People lose interest in almost everything when they are depressed.
It means self-love.
Bandura's theory is that people's quirks, environments, and behaviors affect their personality.
A projective personality test is called thematic apperception.
People strive to be the best they can be in order to be self-actualization.
It is1-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-6556 Choices B, C, and D are drawbacks to longitudinal research, and the effectiveness of cross-sectional research does not seem to be related to the background of the participants.
The type of job one wants to do is more important than the type of job they have.
People with high achievement want to do their best, not just to make money or get other rewards, but to challenge themselves.
Gay men and lesbians do not make good parents, are likely to have been abused as children, and have domineering mothers, according to recent studies.
Proactive interference occurs when something we learned first affects our ability to remember later.
The tendency to overlook novel uses for items we are used to using is called functional fixedness.
Belief bias occurs when people's beliefs interfere with their logical reasoning.
The way in which the same information is presented can affect how we perceive it.
25 percent is spent in REM, 20 percent in deep sleep, and only 5 percent in stage 1.
We pass objects that are close to us that move faster than objects that are far away.
It is possible to see more texture in objects that are close by than in objects that are far away.
The appearance of motion is created by stroboscopic motion.
The light in a movie marquee or traffic sign is explained by the phi phenomenon.
Relative speed is a distraction.
The 362 new mothers who gave birth at Central Hospital could possibly have been selected.
Farnaz speaks to 50 mothers, not the population.
C and E are incorrect.
When the presence of one variable predicts the absence of another, choice D is correct and choice B is incorrect.
choice A does not suggest an inverse relationship between the variables, and when research is done on a group of people, one cannot infer anything about particular individuals.
With technological advances that have made it possible to study the internal workings of the body and mind, the biological and cognitive perspectives have become more prominent.
The heyday of psychoanalytic psychology was around the turn of the twentieth century, but it never achieved the prominence that it had in Europe.
Germany was the birthplace of Gestalt psychology in the 19th century.
The more standard deviation there is, the more diverse the group is.
In a large public school system, we would expect a lot of variability in the IQ scores of students.
We would expect the other groups to have less variability as they are not likely to differ from one another as much in terms of IQ.
Dopamine is one of the neurotransmitters.
The parasympathetic and sympathetic systems are part of the autonomic nervous system.
The brain and spine are part of the central nervous system.
They would have played a role in telling Gonzo to raise his hand, but it was the motor neurons in his system that enabled him to do so.
The endocrine system is made up of the pituitary and other parts.
The part of the brain that regulates breathing is called the medulla.
In memory, the hippocampus is important.
Theory about how one's expectations and past experiences affect perception is called signal detection theory.
Since her experience is limited to the concrete jungle of New York City where cows are unusual and she saw the cow in a place one would not have expected to see a cow, her perception of the cow would have relied on bottom-up processing.
A difference threshold is the amount of aStimulus that needs to be changed in order for someone to see that it has changed.
The relative brightness of objects stays the same even as overhead illumination changes.
If we fatigue one half of the pair and then look at a white surface that reflects all wavelengths of light, we will see an image in the opponent's colors.
The red of the original parrot is seen as green while the yellow is blue.
Tolman had three groups of rats, one that was rewarded every time they finished a maze, one that was never rewarded, and one that was only rewarded on the second half of the trials.
The third group performed like the unrewarded group until the reward was introduced and then showed a tremendous improvement as soon as they could earn a reward.
The rats did not have a reason to hurry to finish the maze since there was no reward in the first half of the trials.
It is said that the US is contingent upon the CS when it predicts the US.
People don't know if their memories are accurate.
Young children's brains don't form clear, explicit memories.
Older people are worse at some types of memory tasks than young people are, so remember to exercise caution when choosing answer choices that contain words like all.
Contrary to what many people think, memories are not like video images we can replay at will; rather, we can reconstruct and alter them each time we recall them to mind.
The first two levels of need are likely to be fulfilled, since Kelsey can support herself and lives in a relatively safe place.
Her friends help fulfill her need to belong.
She is struggling to make a name for herself as an actress, which shows a need to achieve something and be respected, these are esteem needs.
When a baby feels a touch to its cheek, it will turn its head to find a nipple.
The infant will grasp an object placed in its palm.
Real faces are better than most things.
When one takes out their feelings on a less threatening target than the cause, it's called displacement.
One can project their own undesirable qualities to others.
Sublimation is when one channels one's sexual energy into more acceptable activities.
Intellectualization deals with a problem in a detached manner.
The Z scores measure the distance from the mean to the standard deviation.
There is no way to memorize the percent of scores falling under each area of the curve.
The manic and depressed phases respond well to medication.
Research shows that there is a link between bipolar disorder and families.
Though we may be more prone to develop certain phobias than others, they are well explained by and treated from other perspectives.
Some people believe that a traumatic event in childhood is the reason for the existence of the disorder.
In the United States, conversion disorders have become less common as the gene pool remains relatively stable.
A conversion disorder involves a physical complaint and is not likely to have a biological cause.
Under conditions of anonymity and arousal, datememe is a loss of self-restraint.
The just-world bias is a belief that good things happen to good people and bad things happen to bad people.
The idea of Norms of Reciprocity is that we feel obligated to treat other people the same way we treated ourselves.
Outgroup bias refers to the negative attitudes people have towards people who are different from them.
Albert Ellis developed rational emotive behavior therapy.
Modeling involves the observation and imitation of behaviors.
Existential and Gestalt therapies are related to the human condition.
Psychoanalysis involves probing patients' unconscious in order to find the root of their complaints.
The members of minority groups were not compared to Caucasians.
No hypnotism was used.
Men and women behaved the same.
People are likely to make a stable if Artie acts this way all the time.
It is unlikely that some people will develop lasting friendship with all of the other people in their group, even if they make friends with others in their group.
Group therapy can help people understand that many people have the same kind of problems as they do.
There are few differences between group and individual therapy in terms of success rate, length of therapists' training, and time spent in therapy.
Psychodynamic therapies tend to be long because they involve a search for the underlying cause of a patient's issues, a search that often involves a discussion of someone's entire life.
Short-term therapy that focuses on the individual is difficult since people from the sociocultural perspective see society as the cause of mental illness.
Humanistic therapies may focus on more abstract issues such as how to find meaning in one's life rather than on how to alter a particular behavior.
Mostmatic therapies involve changing one's biochemistry via drugs.
The goal of the aggression is to get something.
The aggression is intended to serve as an outlet for Tutti's anger.
The types of intelligence discussed are practical and experiential.
As one ages, fluid intelligence tends to decline.
Spearman's concept of a single factor underlies all types of intelligence.
None of the other choices refer to trait theorists.
FAS children are more likely to suffer from mental retardation.
They are unlikely to become drug dealers because they are not addicted to alcohol.
Smoking is the main cause of low birth weight.
Children with FAS are less likely to develop heart disease.
According to Harlow's work, infants crave the physical comfort of a body.
Gilligan challenged the theory of development as gender biased.
The stage theory of cognitive development was developed by Piaget.
The stage theory of psychosexual development is one of Freud's best-known contributions.
It's an example of an episodic memory, but it's not a choice.
Our memory is for facts.
We don't realize we havelicit memory, which is the same as explicit memory.
There is a name for photographic memory.
Procedural memory can be used to remember how to play the piano or take a foul shot.
You feel excited and happy when you hit a home run.
The theory is often confused with the two-factor theory.
The particular emotion is determined by a cognitive process.
According to the Cannon-Bard theory, the thalamus plays a central role in the process of identifying emotions.
The opponent process theory of emotion is described in choice C. Paul Ekman's work shows that most people recognize emotions similar to how a smile is seen as a sign of happiness.
A girl howling like a wolf and a parrot imitating its owner are not examples of observational learning because of the same species aspect of the definition.
There are two other choices that don't involve observation or imitation.
When it rains, earthworms are easier to find than when it doesn't.
The scores fall within two standard deviations of the mean.
We can't say that everyone falls within a number of standard deviations from the mean because the normal curve is not always hitting the axis.
The standard deviation is dependent on what is being measured.
The charge of the cell can be changed from negative to positive by the influx of sodium ion.
The cell at rest has a negative charge due to the presence of many chloride ion in the cell.
The cell has a positive charge when it is depolarized.
This process does not involve magnesium or strontium.
Confirmation bias is a tendency in all people to pay more attention to information that supports their beliefs than to information that refutes them.
There is a tendency to draw conclusions based on how easy it is to remember something.
The tendency to not recognize that a familiar object can be used in a different way is called functional fixedness.
The tendency to reason by similarity and to underestimate base rate probability is the representative heuristic.
People might think that a tall, thin, attractive woman is more likely to be a model than a librarian.
People tend to be overly confident in their decisions.
It has a large capacity, but only lasts a short time.
The short-term memory can hold only seven items.
Long-term memory is thought to be unlimited in both capacity and duration.
Three to four seconds is how long the echoic memory lasts.
Information is in our working memories when we are processing it.
The information is in your conscious now that you've thought about Washington.
Your body processes are controlled by the nonconscious.
Information in your brain affects how you process it.
Psychodynamic theorists refer to troubling thoughts that have been pushed out of our conscious minds as the unconscious.
People with phallic fixations often have issues about their sexual prowess.
Karl would seek sex frequently if he had a strong libido.
The reality principle guides the ego.
Information about which one is not thinking could be called to the conscious mind easily.
A person with an anal expulsive personality is messy and disorganized.
The standard deviation is 15 and the mean is 100.
Banu scored two standard deviations above the mean.
Z scores are a measure of the distance from the mean in units of standard deviation, so Banu has a Z score of +2, making possible answers D and E. Fifty percent of the test takers scored below the mean.
34 percent of scores fall between the mean and one standard deviation above the mean, and another 13 percent of scores fall between one and two standard deviations above the mean.
Adding these numbers together tells us that Banu scored at the 97.5th percentile.
Being able to see sensory stimulation when there is no is a positive symptom.
Flat affect and catatonia are deficits in movement and emotion.
Greater sensitivity to others and reduced depression are positive things.
We can't use our mouths to say the words we want.
The left hemisphere controls most language functions.
Mild sedatives such as Valium can be used to treat such feelings.
Depression can be treated with tricyclic antidepressants.
The two drugs are used to treat schizophrenia.
It has been shown that lithium can help treat the manic phase of the disorder.
The group's responsibility for the extreme decision seems to be divided among the group's members.
People feel prejudice against other people.
One person's expectations about another person can affect another person's behavior.
The tendency to take more responsibility for successful outcomes than unsuccessful ones is called self-serving bias.
There is a tendency to underestimate the influence of situational factors on other people's behavior.
One or several high scores can skew the distribution.
The mean is higher than the median because it was pulled up toward the extreme scores.
It is difficult to make a general statement about the relationship of skew to the mode because outliers have no effect on the mode.
This is an 8-point question.
There are two possible points.
One point is earned for answering the question about the experimental method and one point for answering the question about the correlational method.
You would need to address the questions in your descriptions.
You don't need to define terms in your answer.
Professor Willborn could use the experimental and correlational method to study the relationship between violent video games and attitudes toward real-world violence.
If you identified playing violent video games as the independent variable in the experiment and attitude toward real-world violence as the dependent variable, you will be awarded.
The reviewer suggested that the follow-up study investigate the relationship between playing violent video games and attitudes toward real-world violence, so violent video games is the only valid independent variable and attitude toward real-world violence is the only valid dependent variable for an experimental study on this research question.
If you identify playing violent video games and attitudes toward real-world violence as the two variables to be correlated, you will be awarded.
Independent variable and dependent variable are not usually associated with correlational studies.
If you explain a possible operational definition for either playing violent video games or attitude toward real-world violence, you will be awarded.
If you describe any of the ways to measure this behavior, the point will be awarded.
If you explain a possible operational definition for either playing violent video games or attitude toward real-world violence, you will be awarded.
If you describe any of the ways to measure this behavior, the point will be awarded.
If you operationally define the same variable as the variable defined for point 3, you cannot earn point 4.
You need to explain that participants are organized into at least two different groups.
You can use the term "control group" and "experimental group", but you need to show that the groups are different based on the independent variable.
If you explain how the two variables of playing violent video games and attitude toward real-world violence are gathered from each participant in the correlational study, you will be awarded.
If you implied that participants are divided into separate groups based on the independent variable, you won't be awarded the point.
The experimental study could lead to a causality inference about the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable.
An example of a conclusion based on this study can be used to explain this.
The correlational study could lead to predictions about the relationship between the variables.
If you implied that correlational studies can lead to inferences about the relationship between variables, you won't get the point.
You can describe how the study might show that one variable increases as the other variable decreases, or that the study might show no correlation between the variables.
You can use correlation coefficients to get the point.
Professor Willborn's study should be changed into an experiment or correlation.
naturalistic observation studies are considered to get better data than these methods.
Professor Willborn would have to assign the variables correctly when she redesigns her study.
There are two variables in every experiment.
The independent variable is video games and the dependent variable is how violent the video games are.
She could get a sample of people to play violent video games in her lab and then observe them to see if they enjoyed the violence or not.
The dependent variable is defined by getting everyone to play violent video games in a controlled way that she can measure.
She could organize her participants to gather her data by making sure they are present and ready for the testing, and again by measuring them carefully.
She should use a double-blind way to set up this experiment.
Since the people playing the games don't know what she's testing, they wouldn't be biased.
Professor Willborn should be able to conclude that playing violent video games causes people to change their attitudes about real-world violence.
It is possible that playing violent video games causes people to not care about violence in their lives.
Professor Willborn should try to correlate the important variables when she redesigns her study as a correlational study.
She would choose the variables "playing violent video games" and "attitude toward real-world violence" as the variables she will correlate in her study.
She could define these variables by observing them carefully.
They will be defined if she observes them in a controlled way.
She would have to have people play violent video games in her lab in a controlled way.
In the correlational study, she would interview her people to see if their attitude towards real-world violence has changed.
She would use the interviews to figure out if their attitude towards real-world violence changed after playing a video game.
She could look at how long they played the games and how they changed.
She should be able to figure out if there is a correlation between playing video games and attitude change after getting all her data.
She might find that people who play violent video games change their attitudes the most.
She might find a correlation relationship between the variables in the study.
Professor Willborn is going to have to do something like this if she wants to figure out what playing violent video games does to people.
It takes a lot of time for psychological studies.
The first paragraph of the essay does not score any points.
The student introduces the topic with a short paragraph, but does not answer any part of the question directly.
It's not necessary to provide an introduction paragraph in your AP Psychology essay, just answer the question in order.
The student chose to answer all of the questions about the experimental design in one paragraph and all of the questions about the correlational method in a separate paragraph.
The organization works well.
The student could have chosen to answer the questions in paragraphs grouped by the pairs of questions listed within the question.
The student wrongly identifies the independent variable as video games.
Students are required to identify the independent variable as playing violent video games.
The definition of video games is too vague to score.
Does not score.
The student doesn't explain the operational definitions of either variable.
The point is not awarded because the student doesn't provide operational definitions of the variables.
Does not score.
The student said that she could operationally define the variables by being careful how she observes them.
The statement doesn't meet the requirement to provide an operational definition for either variable in the study, so it's too vague to score.
Does not score.
The student never talks about organizing participants into groups.
The student's statement about organizing participants is not relevant to creating control and experimental groups in the study.
The rubric requires the student to describe how data on the two variables could be gathered from each participant.
The statement states that the variables meet the requirement of the rubric.
The student explains that there is a positive correlation between the variables.
The point was already scored when the student explained the potential positive correlation conclusion.
The essay scored 5 of the 8 possible points.
There is a 10-point question.
Each definition of the 5 terms counts for 1 point, and each description of how the concept demonstrates a nonconscious influence is 1 point.
You don't need to use the exact words used to define the terms, but you need to communicate the meaning of the definition provided in the rubric.
You should use examples to describe the influence that conscious awareness has on behavior.
Examples will not score the definition points, but will score on the description points.
If you defined it as the process of focusing on something in the environment, and as a consequence that information is stored into memory, you were awarded.
You may be more specific about the process, but that level of detail is not needed to get the point.
If you give an example that explains howselective attention is not deliberate, you will be awarded.
Some aspect of our consciousness that we are not aware of is what determines what we pay attention to.
The tension that exists when our attitudes do not match our behaviors is called cognitive dissonance.
If you give an example of how we are not aware of cognitive dissonance and its effects on our attitudes and behaviors, you will be awarded.
The example must show that we are not aware of how we change our attitudes or behavior to relieve the tension.
The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to underestimate the importance of dispositional factors and underestimate the role of situational factors when we judge the behaviors of others.
There are two factors that need to be referred to in the definition.
If you provide an example that shows we are not aware of attributing behavior to being caused by inner dispositions rather than being caused by the situation, you will be awarded.
The example must show how this error is not intentional.
We are not aware that we committed the error.
Perceptual set is a predisposition to perceive sensations in a certain way.
Definitions must include words that describe sensation and perception.
If you give an example that shows how perceptual sets determine how we perceive sensations, you will be awarded.
The example needs to clearly show how perceptual sets create perception out of sensations.
If you defined sensory memory as the split-second holding area for incoming sensory information, you were awarded.
All sensory information flows into sensory memory when it lasts a very short period of time.
If you provide an example that shows how sensory events are automatically converted into sensory memory for a split second, you will be awarded.
The example needs to include the idea that we don't know which sensory events are in sensory memory.
Many important things have been discovered by psychology.
We need to pay attention to psychology and psychology theories because they matter to us.
Identifying aspects of thinking and experiences outside of conscious awareness is one of the most important contributions of psychology.
If we don't know why we think it, psychology helps us figure it out.
Perceptual sets determine what we see.
Rules that help our brains figure out what to do with what we see, hear, and see.
We don't really know what these rules are, and these perceptual set rules determine how we see the world around us even though we aren't aware of them.
There are things that bother us about what we think.
It's going to bother us even if we don't know why it's bothering us.
When you pay attention to something, you remember it better.
When we pay attention to certain things, those things are better remembered.
Sometimes you don't know why you pay attention to something, but if you do, you will remember it better, even if you don't know what to pay attention to.
Our memory for sensory things is called sensory memory.
We don't choose what senses to pay attention to.
Everything that happens around us ends up in sensory memory for a little while, so that happens outside our conscious awareness.
The fundamental error is when you attribute something without being aware of it.
You don't choose to think that way about them, even if you think they are mean or nice.
Understanding why we do what we do, even if we aren't aware of it, is very important to psychology.
The first two paragraphs of the essay do not score points.
This is an example of a student trying to introduce the topic and then answering the question.
Answering the AP Psychology essay question is a unique experience unlike a lot of other writing you do and these writing techniques are useful in most other contexts.
Don't worry about writing an introductory paragraph.
If you want to answer the question, just dive in.
The student answers the points out of order.
Readers are trained to look for points wherever they occur in a student essay, so this way of organizing is not a problem.
You are not doing yourself or the AP reader any favors by going out of order.
The readers are using a scoring rubric that is written in the order provided by the question, and you make their lives easier by going in order, and there is a slight chance they may miss a crucial part of your essay by going out of order.
The definition matches the rubric definition.
The reader doesn't worry about the next sentence because the point has already been awarded.
This example shows that the student understands that attention is not always under their control.
Does not score.
In the fourth paragraph, the student tries to define cognitive dissonance, but the definition doesn't meet the requirements of the rubric.
Does not score.
The example provided is not specific enough to match the rubric or score the point.
Does not score.
This definition isn't specific enough to score the point.
The rubric requires that a definition of this concept address situational factors and dispositional factors, but the student's definition does not address these factors.
Does not score.
The student may be trying to address this point with the example in paragraph seven, but the example just describes an automatic thought about another person, not an example of the fundamental attribution error being committed.
The student establishes that the thought is automatic and nonconscious, but the example is not specific enough to match the rubric.
Perceptual sets are predispositions to perceive sensations in certain ways according to this definition.
The first sentence is close to a valid definition, but the student uses the word "things" which is too vague because it doesn't establish that these are cognitive rules.
Students need to describe how perceptual sets determine perception without conscious choice or awareness.
Does not score.
The definition of sensory memory in paragraph six is very vague and does not match the rubric requirement.
The student doesn't say that sensory memory is a split-second holding area, and "sensory things" is too vague to imply sensory information.
This is a good example of how a student can't define a concept but can understand it and apply it to lack of conscious awareness.
The student shows how sensory events can be stored in sensory memory for a short time.
This matches the requirement and scores the point.
The essay scored 5 points out of 10.
The scientific nature of his theory is not relevant to his reputation or the academic setting.
He was not a clinical psychologist.
It wasn't the first comprehensive theory.
Freud didn't use dissection to come up with the theory.
The sex drive is important in the theory, but it is not the focus of the theory.
There are explanations of other psychological perspectives wrongly applied to behaviorism or cognitive theory in the rest of the answers.
Other types of explanations would be emphasized by the other perspectives.
naturalistic observation, inferential and scientific are general terms that can be applied to many different types of research.
The unconscious mind has memories and impulses that are repressed.
The other concepts are unrelated to the theory.
The theory was not tied to behaviorism because it was based on individual male and female cases.
The other psychologists mentioned are not part of the behaviorist paradigm.
The concepts of unconscious thinking and defense mechanisms are from the Freudian perspective.
Skinner did his research before using the term conditioning.
It was a technique used by Wundt.
They are behaviorists.
The idea of personal choice is restricted by this conditioning, and behaviorists don't usually refer to evolutionary theory.
The unconscious mind is a concept.
The ability to manipulate the independent variable, randomly assign subjects to conditions, and eliminate differences between the conditions are hallmarks of an experiment.
The only thing that differed between the groups was the independent variable.
Control is required to make an Attribution.
None of the statements are true.
Random assignment is used by many psychologists since it is impossible to match participants on every possible dimensions.
The laws of probability allow random assignment to make it likely that participants in an experiment will be the same.
Random assignment does not affect the need for statistics.
Their measure is not consistent because they disagree so often.
They need to operationalize their dependent variable more clearly.
Sometimes reliability is confused with validity.
In this case, validity refers to the accuracy of the measure.
It is unlikely that any parents would consent to participate in our experiment if we told them that half of them would be assigned to divorce and the other half would stay married.
If you wanted to compare children whose parents had divorced with children from intact families, you could do a quasi-experiment.
The researcher can't manipulate the independent variable but tries to control as many other factors as possible.
The independent variables of color, exercise, exposure to violent television, and studying are not difficult to manipulate, making the other four examples relatively easy to study.
There is no evidence that Professor Ma deceived the participants.
The validity of the study is not concerned byfounding variables.
There is a clear scientific purpose for the study.
The scientific purpose of the study is not disputed, and he provided anonymity of individual results.
The issue of deception is not applicable to animal research.
"Any amount" is not an appropriate response because researchers must keep suffering to a minimum.
Choice C and E are incorrect because animal subjects must be chosen carefully and their environment must follow strict guidelines.
The distance from the mean to the Z scores is measured in units of standard deviation.
Since the mean is 100 and the standard deviation is 15, the score is 3 standard deviations above the mean.
If you put the scores in chronological order, the problem will be easier.
Since the distribution has an even number of scores, there is no middle score and you must average the two middle scores, 4 and 6.
The distribution will be skewed since it is a high score in a low score distribution.
Scatter plots can be used to graph correlations.
Jose wouldn't know if his hypothesis had been supported until he used inferential statistics.
Bar graphs and means-end analysis are problem-solving techniques.
The first example shows random assignment and not random sampling.
Selecting a group of people from a population is called sampling.
One might assign participants to certain conditions once sampling has been completed.
If the person who picks the people tries to do so randomly, approaching 50 students during a lunch period does not constitute random sampling.
The meaning of the word random is very specific.
Random sampling means that everyone in the population has an equal chance of being selected.
Potential participant-relevant variables include how fast and frightened the mice are at the beginning of the experiment.
Possible situation-relevant variables are when and where the experiment takes place.
The population from which Vincenzo selected his mice all came from the same area.
The population can be flawed.
It can be very homogeneity and fail to reflect how other mice would perform.
A flaw is not a variable.
She can observe the finger-painting table as a student.
She doesn't interact with the finger painters.
She is not using any kind of experiment because she does not attempt to control any aspect of her study.
If she were conducting a survey, she would ask the participants questions.
If she had been interested in putting together a case study, she would have focused on a single participant or a small group of participants.
Ethnographic research has not been conducted by Olivia.
Ethnography is a type of research in which the researcher immerses himself or herself in another culture.
Ethnography is a method used by anthropologists.
She doesn't know if a cause-and-effect relationship exists between studying and earning high grades on the exam.
She doesn't know if studying improves exam grades.
The correlation between studying and exam grades can only be determined using inferential statistics.
Even if the correlation was significant, it wouldn't guarantee that someone would do poorly on the test if they didn't study.
It doesn't tell us that better students study more.
It doesn't tell us anything about better students.
The sensory cortex interprets touch stimuli and the cerebral cortex is the term for the entire wrinkled surface of the brain, so those items are incorrect.
The motor cortex is in the frontal cortex, not the temporal cortex.
The other places for the motor cortex are incorrect.
The locations for the auditory cortex are incorrect.
The sensory cortex, hypothalamus, and cerebellum are not involved in hearing.
The cerebral cortex grew larger as humans evolved into primate.
Children have all brain structures from birth.
New or old information can be dealt with by all parts of the brain.
The old or new brain is not more likely to be affected by dementia.
The chance that the next neuron will fire decreases when neurotransmitters are received by the cells.
Synaptic peptides and adrenaline-type exciters are nonsense terms.
Terminal buttons do not contribute to the depolarization of the brain.
Serotonin isn't responsible for losing control over your muscles.
It is involved in hunger control.
The drug is prescribed by psychiatrists.
Adrenaline is a hormone that is released in response to stress.
The brain stem, limbic system, and cerebral cortex are divisions of the brain but not the entire brain.
Major divisions of the brain are not part of the neuroanatomy.
Afferent and efferent nerves are not relevant to the process.
The peripheral nervous system is involved in all spinal reflexes.
Humans have some reflexes that are not limited to animals.
Adrenaline is a hormone that is released in response to stress.
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter.
Endorphins aren't responsible for long-term mood disorders because they aren't painkillers in the brain.
Morphine is used to alleviate pain.
It's electric and chemical in the cell.
The electric charge doesn't jump the gap.
The forebrain and hindbrain are not the only parts of the brain that transmit impulses.
The scans give information about the structure of the brain.
An electrocardiogram is a test for heart function.
Lesioning would not be used in this type of research.
After a short adjustment period, their muscle coordination is usually normal.
Their ability to solve problems is unaffected.
The right hemisphere gets visual information from the left eye.
The left ear gives information to both hemispheres.
This process can happen to a limited extent in adults, but it happens most quickly in children.
The brain takes a long time to connect existing neurons in new ways.
The answer E is a much more specific explanation for the fact that plasticity has little to do with the texture and appearance of the cerebral cortexample.
Throwing objects and our sense of balance are coordinated by the cerebellum.
The specific movements described in the question are controlled by the cerebellum, while the voluntary movements are controlled by the motor cortex.
Our life-support functions are controlled by the medulla.
The signals coming in from the spine are directed by the thalamus.
The motor cortex in the right hemisphere controls the left hand.
The right hemisphere is more active in spatial reasoning according to some evidence.
Both hemispheres are involved in hypothesis testing.
It is possible that smell is a powerfultrigger for emotions and memories.
The connection has nothing to do with learning, long-term memory, or deep processing.
The connection to memory is not explained by the smell being communicated to the cortex.
The cochlea is not the eye and choices A and D are incorrect.
The brain gets messages from the canals about the head and body.
The equipment required to measure the firing of feature detectors is not described in the experiment.
The perception of the top of the box would not be affected by the placement of rods and cones in the eye.
The researchers aren't asking questions about depth, so binoculars aren't the target of the research.
Choices B and C are not correct.
Damage to the eye could cause blind spots.
The question implies that there is a blind spot in everyone's eyes.
Hearing, sight, and touch are energy senses.
They are not valid terms.
All nerve impulses are sent by an electrical process.
The pitch of the sound is caused by how quickly the waves pass a point.
The other choices distract.
It doesn't have anything to do with sight, subliminal messages or amplitude.
Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because the theory is specific to the sense of touch.
Gate-control theory has to do with the perception of pain, not how we interpret sensations in general.
Without two functioning eyes, convergence wouldn't work.
Our brain uses convergence to help gauge distance when we see an object close to our face.
Some sensation processes are more than mechanical.
choice C is incorrect because some researchers think part of perception may happen in the senses.
Choice E is not true.
The functions the retina does not perform are described in the rest of the items.
A visible hue is not a color vision theory.
Dichromatic is not a theory of color vision.
A depth cue is a Binocular disparity.
This is top-down processing.
The example doesn't reflect bottom-up processing because information is being filled in instead of an image being built from the elements present.
Signal detection theory has to do with what sensations we pay attention to, not filling in missing elements in a picture.
The process theory explains color vision.
If you are trying to perceive the picture as a whole, there is no such thing as gestalt replacement theory.
Our sense of sight and hearing are not related to our sense of the vestibular system.
The vestibular sense does not affect repeat digits.
The position of our limbs is given information by our kinesthetic sense.
Choices A and B are incorrect because some perceptual sets are learned.
Sensory apparatuses are not different among cultures and perception is not based on genetics.
A definition of antagonists is Choice C. The other choices distract.
The time spent in REM decreases as we get older.
The statements about the sleep patterns of infants are incorrect.
A dimmer switch is the only analogy that implies a continuum from dim to bright.
The other choices implied that consciousness was an on/off switch.
90 minutes is the duration of a sleep cycle.
The idea that people may be acting out a social role under the influence of hypnotism is supported by this finding.
According to research, choice B is incorrect.
Hilgard's hidden observer is evidence for the theory of dissociation.
Choices D and E are not evidence for role theory.
The other choices don't relate to the theory.
Hilgard's experiments are evidence against the other theories.
General theories of consciousness or sleep are not related to these experiments.
The items are not categories of drugs.
tolerance has nothing to do with the treatment of others or with sleep.
The activation-synthesis theory of dreams is defined by choice A.
Dreams and symbolic representations fit Freud's theory of dreams best.
Choices C and E are not correct.
The levels mentioned in the other choices control only one part of consciousness, the autonomic level, which is a created distracter and not a correct term.
Even if we don't remember seeing the questions, we can still answer them.
Primary-attribution error is a concept in social psychology that describes our tendency to attribute a person's behavior to his or her inner disposition rather than environment.
The memory chapter has a concept called primordial.
We associate it with a fear-inducing event in the US.
The CR is the fear that will be caused by the event in the movie and the UR is the fear that will be caused by preparing to be scared.
There is no such thing as an NR.
Instinctively, your dog will perform certain behaviors and will drift toward these rather than learning behaviors that go against his nature.
The opposite position asserts that any animal can do anything.
Some people have a tendency to learn things more quickly than others.
Preparedness says teaching a dog to fetch a stick is easier than teaching it to somersault.
Chaining is when you have to perform a number of steps in order to get a reward.
The process of shaping is used to teach a dog a new trick.
Enhancing steps precede the desired response is called shaping.
Chocolate cake and water are examples of primary reinforcers, while applause and high grades are examples of secondary reinforcers.
New behaviors are learned quickly when they are rewarded.
Partial reinforcement will make the behaviors more resistant to extinction once the skill has been learned.
The term aversive conditioning does not have anything to do with the order of presentation, but rather indicates that the UR and CR are unpleasant.
The name suggests simultaneous conditioning, when the US and the CS are presented at the same time.
When the US is presented first, delayed conditioning occurs.
The US is presented first in trace conditioning.
The US is presented after a short time.
The passage of time is important when she is reinforced because the slugs don't show up until after the rains.
She is on a VI schedule since rain does not fall on a fixed schedule.
She would find slugs whenever she looked.
Tina would be on a fixed schedule if the slugs appeared every three days.
She would be on a schedule if she had to turn over three rocks.
She would be on a schedule based on the number of rocks she needed to turn over.
Your behavior is reinforced by the removal of aversive stimuli.
Reinforcement increases the likelihood of a behavior as opposed to punishment, which decreases the likelihood of a behavior.
Three groups of rats ran a maze under various contingencies of reinforcement.
Modeling is a common explanation for this phenomenon.
Modeling, or observational learning, is the idea that people and animals can learn from each other.
As a rat will do in order to maximize his rewards, Tito is doing more chores in order to maximize his rewards.
Behaviorists think that the environment motivates internal motivation.
If his parents stopped rewarding him and he returned to his slovenly ways, there would be a recovery.
When Tito learned to make his bed, he was acquired.
By assuming that Tito's parents don't reward him for making the rest of the family's beds, he will learn to discriminate and make his own bed.
The rat has learned the concept of a dog.
Learning to clean and feed itself by watching its mother is an example of modeling.
Classical conditioning involves learning to associate a person's presence with food.
Learning to respond when a light is on is discrimination training.
Latent learning is when you make a map of a maze without rushing through it.
He didn't think that learning had a cognitive component but he thought that behavior was all there was.
Skinner would disagree with the other choices because they suggest that learning has a cognitive component.
In an effort to teach a desired behavior, shaping is reinforcement of approximations.
Operant conditioning is the learning of a behavior.
Generalization is the act of performing the same behaviors to others that will result in reinforcement.
A token economy uses reinforcers to control behavior.
Positive reinforcement refers to the addition of a reinforcer and not to the goodness or badness of the act that is being reinforced.
Going inside to escape a storm and getting a dental checkup are both examples of negative reinforcement.
Excluding someone from sleep is an example of omission training, and assigning a student for fighting is an example of punishment.
An extinction schedule is put on something that is not reinforced.
Retrieval is a step in the memory process and is associated with creative thinking, and the representativeness heuristic is a rule of thumb for making a judgment that does not apply well to this example.
Belief bias is the tendency to stick with a belief even when there is no evidence to back it up.
They aren't used exclusively in telegraphic speech or associated with memory.
The levels of processing model and the three-box/information-processing model could explain the other examples, but choice D best fits levels of processing.
According to Whorf's hypothesis, our cognitive abilities are not limited by our vocabulary.
The linguistic relativity hypothesis has nothing to do with language acquisition.
If a person has a prototype of young people that are violent, she or he might use the representativeness heuristic to judge the situation.
A problem-solving technique is breaking the problem down into smaller parts.
Judging a situation by a rule that is usually, but not always, true is not a description of the representativeness heuristic.
The right answer is guaranteed by an algorithm.
Making a judgement based on past experiences that are easy to remember is the availability heuristic.
Constructive memory is not part of the model.
The levels of the processing model are described in choice C. Choice D isn't long-term processing.
Brain scans and memory models can't differentiate between true and false memories.
The other options don't accurately describe brain processes.
A behavioristic view of language acquisition is reflected in choice A. Nativist theory has nothing to do with native languages.
Information from sensory memory is used to control the process of working memory.
The three-box/information-processing model does not refer to specific brain structures.
Choice A is not a description of the availability heuristic.
An algorithm is a formula or rule that always gets the correct answer.
The representativeness heuristic is described by Choice D. A problem-solving technique is breaking a problem into simpler parts.
We will pay attention to the memories that are closest to us.
The three-box/information-processing model requires working memory before sensory memory.
D and E are incorrect because sensory memory does not last indefinitely and does not record correctly.
Choices A and B are not descriptions of the process.
There is no difference in recency between recalled and recognized memories.
The behaviorist view of language acquisition says that a child learns language early due to parental instruction.
The critical-period hypothesis does not apply to language-learning rates between cultures.
The critical-period hypothesis is based on the fact that a child is deprived of language early on.
The sensations we attend to and the memories we create are determined by attention.
We don't remember everything that happens to us because stimuli not attended to are not remembered.
Sensory memory, long-term memory, and constructed memories do not contradict the statement.
Recovered memories might support the statement.
Those who believe in recovered memories think they can remember an event for a long time without being aware of it.
Choice A refers to incentive theory, choice B refers to arousal theory, and choice C refers to the hierarchy of needs.
choice E is incorrect because not all psychologists agree that humans are born with instincts.
Animals stop eating because of the ventromedial hypothalamus.
The parts of the hypothalamus that are not controlled by the other answers are described in the other answers.
The behaviors associated with eating disorders can't be controlled by a person with the disorder.
People with an eating disorder need therapy, psychological help, and possibly medication to stop their harmful behaviors.
Homeostasis is a term that describes a state of equilibrium in drive- reduction theory, and self-actualization is a term used in the hierarchy of needs.
The achievement motivation theory shows how we are motivated to succeed.
The theories are not described correctly in the rest of the choices.
Money is usually a temporary motivator, and the individual may lose motivation for the task when the motivator stops or does not increase.
Intrinsic motivation is not easy to provide.
It may be more difficult to inspire people to be motivated.
Intrinsic/extrinsic motivation does not relate to the hierarchy.
Both types of motivation are effective.
Theory X managers believe that workers need to have external rewards in order to work hard.
Both types of managers might ask their workers to do the same tasks.
Theory X and Y do not relate to optimum levels of arousal.
Cannon-Bard states that emotional reactions occur at the same time as physical changes.
There is no theory that says emotions are unrelated to biological changes.
In the exhaustion phase, they become more vulnerable to diseases.
Selye's general adaptation syndrome is not related to the other answers.
Control would not increase the feeling of frustration.
Perceived control is not related to motivation, arousal, or our heart/respiration rates.
Balance is not the most correct term for the word equilibrium.
The highest need in the hierarchy is self-actualization.
The terms primary and secondary satisfaction are not related to drives.
It takes only one trial to establish this form of learning.
In order to create a survival advantage, illness with food and drink may be hardwired.
The other choices do not describe the effect.
A person with an identical twin who is homosexual is more likely to be a member of the general population.
Environmental factors are not correlated with homosexuality according to research.
Selye's general adaptation syndrome is not related to the other choices.
A high score on this instrument shows that the test taker experiences a high amount of stress.
The factors described in the other choices are not related to the test.
Behaviorism is one of the topics that can easily be applied to our lives.
It is studied at both the graduate and undergraduate levels, there are many original research studies done, and pure research is supported even when it involves children.
We can observe the behavior of babies and see what their reflexes and abilities are.
Most senses function at a normal level, even though lack of stimulation seems to have little effect on touch and taste.
The rest of the answers do not have proven effects on a fetus.
Some of the answers might be affected by parental involvement.
There are no differences between the two types of studies.
The mothers didn't feed the baby monkeys or respond to their needs.
In the experiment, stranger anxiety was present, but it is not an important aspect of nurturing.
The incorrect answers identify the wrong parenting style.
It's not a parenting style to have secure attachment.
Choices C and E are not stages in the theory of cognitive development.
The other factors listed in the choices may be of concern to adolescents, but identity is the main concern.
The other choices aren't stages in the theory.
Attachment theory is not referred to as authoritarian or authoritative.
The process of learning is described by Piaget.
We try to fit new information into an existing system, then change the system if we need to.
A syllogism is a type of logical argument, and a hypothesis is an explanation for an environmental event.
The id and ego are part of the mind.
The ego acts as a buffer between the id and the demands of the external world, while the id acts according to the pleasure principle.
The libido is the energy that drives the life instinct.
The test may still have been standardized and normed, both of which mean that it has been pretested on a large population and structured so that certain percentages of people answer each question in certain ways.
Projective tests are used to see what is in a person's unconscious.
It is not a scientific term to say that tests are unfair.
One of the precepts of psychology is that people have free will.
All of the other models suggest that behavior is determined, at least to an extent.
Mary would just do what she wanted if she were all id.
A person like that would have little interest in the proper course of action to take and would rarely be in conflict over what to do.
A highly ethical person is guided by her superego.
A person with an anal retentive personality might also have a strong superego.
All of the choices are made up.
He sees Sally as having feelings for him instead of acknowledging them.
Juan would express love for someone else if he were to lose his feelings.
Juan would claim to hate Sally if he used reaction formation.
Juan could sublimate by honing his ice hockey skills or writing poetry.
When asked about his crush, Juan would continue to deny it.
The Rorschach test asks people not to look at people.
The MMPI simply involves answering questions about yourself.
Factor analysis is not a personality assessment.
The test is an intelligence test.
There isn't much evidence that suggests generosity, sense of humor, neatness, or diligence are genes.
Many psychologists are still looking for this evidence.
Self-actualization is a drive to grow and improve rather than accepting yourself as is.
It doesn't necessarily involve the identification of core principles or bringing one's actions into line with one's desires.
Extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability are the big five.
Psychoanalysts believe in the unconscious.
Freud is not likely to be argued that he over stressed the importance of childhood.
Men and women seem to use different defense mechanisms.
Most feminists agree that women are more envious of the advantages that men enjoy in society than they are of men's penises.
Some traumatic event during the oral stage may have caused some of his libidinal energy to become fixated.
Orally controlled libido is a made-up distractor, Oedipus complex refers to boys' supposed sexual desires for their mothers, and mother distract is a term that Jung might use.
Someone with an external control feels like they can't control what happens.
Externals think their futures are in the hands of fate or luck.
A person with a high sense of self-efficacy believes in their ability to accomplish things.
A strong sex drive is what we usually mean when we say someone has a strong libido.
A person with a high IQ is thought to be intelligent.
The person might be asked to fill out a personality inventory.
People would be monitored for their behavior.
Both self-report inventories and behavioral measures can be used by social-cognitive theorists.
A psychologist would use self-report techniques to watch someone's behavior.
In order to get a full sense of the person, this psychologist might want to talk to them using an interview approach.
It is possible to channel your sexual frustration over your attraction to your opposite-sex parent to become a marathon runner.
Intellectualization involves making a threatening issue into an intellectual matter.
One can deny the existence of a thought or feeling.
Rationalization is when one makes up a plausible excuse for a behavior.
When one returns to a behavior that was common and comforting at an earlier stage of life, it's called regression.
The test is supposed to show if Paul can be a pilot.
The test can be standardized or biased.
The test isn't trying to measure Paul's intelligence.
The test is not an achievement test since Paul has not yet been trained as a pilot.
Every time, standardized tests are given the same way.
If the test measures what it is supposed to measure, it is valid.
Reliable tests are not necessarily valid.
The chapter explains how to evaluate whether a test is fair or biased.
Consistency is not synonymous with the fairness of a test.
None of the other choices are referred to in a specific way.
Multiple intelligences include linguistic, spatial, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, and naturalist.
The test that represents all the material in her class has validity.
Validity is a measure of how well a test measures what it is supposed to measure.
We need to know that the test was successful in differentiating between different levels of achievement in Mrs. Cho's class in order to have construct validity.
If the test successfully identified those students who excelled in their study of American literature and those who would excel in the future, we would know that the test was valid.
A measure of reliability is the score on a test.
Test-retest reliability involves giving the same test to the same population on at least two different occasions and measuring the correlation between the sets of scores.
When one test is divided into two parts, the correlation between people's scores on the two parts is measured.
The mean is 100.
Someone who scores 100 has scored at the 50th percentile on the test.
The standard deviation is 15.
Since 34 percent of the scores in a normal distribution fall between the mean and one standard deviation above the mean, Astor's score at the 84th percentile indicates that he scored almost exactly one standard deviation above the mean.
To calculate Astor's score, we need to add the mean (100) to one standard deviation.
General intelligence is what the g stands for.
Spearman talked about s, which stands for specific intelligences.
The letters are distractors.
The influence of nature or heritability can be seen in the similarity in their IQ scores.
The correlation between parents' and children's IQ scores could be explained by either genetic or environmental factors.
An environmental influence is suggested if the former score more similarly on IQ tests.
Dizygotic twins may be treated the same as other siblings and grow up in the same time period.
Since adopted children don't have any genetic material with the parents who adopted them, similarities must be due to environmental factors.
Genetic or environmental factors could explain the differences in IQ scores between ethnic groups.
fluid intelligence is associated with choices B, C, and D because they involve speed and learning new things.
The ability to perform complex mathematical calculations in one's head is linked to working memory that tends to decline with age, so Choice E is more likely to be associated with fluid intelligence.
Speed tests are done in a small amount of time to see how quickly someone can solve a problem.
Power tests can be given individually or in a group.
It is impossible to have a pure measure of achievement.
IQ scores can be obtained from IQ tests.
People with emotional intelligence are more likely to achieve what they want.
Someone with a high quotient of intelligence will not want a high paying job, go to college, or have many friends.
The test could still be reliable if repeated administrations yielded the same results.
The test may not have been standardized.
Consistency is related to reliability.
The latter is not a psychological term if the test lacks validity.
Santos has an IQ of 125 since 10 divided by 8 equals 1.25.
The Flynn effect is thought to be caused by the exposure to the complex and rapid visual stimuli that appear on television.
Linguistic skills don't decline with age.
The Flynn effect is not known about the statements in choices D and E.
The environment, learning, reinforcement, and culture are all associated with a nurture perspective.
Both obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder have been recategorized.
Conversion disorder is a symptom disorder, and mania is a mood disorder.
Schizophrenia is not the same as depression and dissociative identity disorder, as discussed in the chapter.
Flat affect is not a symptom shared by all schizophrenics.
Some people have delusions of persecution.
There is no belief in the existence of sensory stimulation in delusional thoughts.
Unwanted thoughts are what obsessions are.
People engage in repetitive actions to reduce anxiety.
The DSM doesn't address causes or treatments for many disorders because beliefs about both causes and treatments depend on the theoretical model to which one subscribes.
Double bind would be an environmental cause, not a physical or medical cause, as some researchers theorize.
The biological factors that play a role in schizophrenia are all of the other choices.
There is no psychological meaning to the other terms.
A person who sees themselves as the focus of the world would most likely be classified as having a personality disorder.
Depression is thought to be the result of a biological cause.
The cause would be determined by the person's style of thinking.
Depression is thought to be caused by one's reinforcement history.
Racist or poverty would be faulted by psychologists if they followed the sociocultural model.
Schizophrenia can be treated with drugs.
High levels of dopamine and schizophrenic-like symptoms are associated with excessive use of amphetamines.
Difficult remembering things that can't be explained by a physical trauma is a hallmark of dissociative amnesia.
Generalized anxiety disorder is a constant sense of nervous tension.
There is a type of mood disorder called seasonal affective disorder, orSAD, in which people become depressed during periods of bad weather.
People with obsessive-compulsive disorder are pushed to perform repetitive actions to reduce anxiety.
Reni is aroused by an object.
There is a sexual attraction to children.
Masochism is when one needs to be hurt in order to be aroused, and sadism is when one hurts others.
When one is aroused by exposing himself or herself to others, it's called exhibitionism.
They engage in the binge-purge cycle because of these concerns.
A growing number of men suffer from eating disorders.
bulimics don't always use vomiting to purge calories.
Laxatives, diuretics, and excessive exercise are some of the methods used.
The cause of bulimia is a matter of debate.
Their initial goal is to bring the conflict into conscious awareness.
Psychoanalysts use special techniques to reveal the contents of the unconscious due to patients' defenses.
Dream analysis is a technique.
The behaviorists only look at the clients' behavior.
The clients' waking thoughts are more likely to be explored by cognitive therapists.
Humanistic psychologists will try to help clients feel better about themselves.
Most therapists will recommend drugs if they have a biomedical orientation.
Carl Rogers has a client-centered therapy.
Symptom substitution is when a symptom will disappear but a new one will take its place.
When Craig went to a behaviorist and was cured of his test anxiety in a few months, they would predict the development of a new symptom.
psychoanalysts use free association to uncover the unconscious.
A behaviorist treatment for anxiety disorders includes an anxiety hierarchy.
Transference occurs when patients put feelings about significant people in their lives onto the analyst.
Analysts use interpretation to figure out the source of their patients' difficulties.
Clients imagine the different levels of anxiety.
Experiencing anxiety-provoking situations is part of densensitization.
In both implosive therapy and flooding, an intensely feared situation is imagined until the fear is eliminated.
A common problem that cognitive psychologists fight is depressed people's tendency to internalize negative thoughts as evidenced by Ivan's assertion that he is completely worthless.
The statements in choices A and E are more likely to be made by a psychodynamic theorist as they suggest that the roots of many problems are laid in childhood and they stress the importance of the unconscious mind to which dreams are clues.
The statement in B would most likely be made by a behaviorist as it stresses the importance of behavior, and the statement in D would be made by a psychologist as they believe in being nondirective and reflecting back what their clients say.
Clients are taught to replace fear with relaxation.
The therapies listed are not based on learning principles.
Some drugs are prescribed to treat depression.
The other choices are related to psychotherapy.
The consequences of one's actions lead to learning.
People will act in certain ways to get rewards in a token economy.
Implosive therapy, flooding, and systematic desensitization are all based on classical conditioning methods.
Classical and operant conditioning methods are included in aversion therapy.
When a patient rejects the analyst's interpretations, it's known as resistance.
He practices asking for a raise after watching someone do it.
Psychoanalysts look at patients' early lives.
Cognitive therapists help their clients deal with the present.
Both types of therapists are reticent.
The importance of behavior is not emphasized by psychologists or cognitive therapists.
Psychoanalysts don't face their patients because they see repressed thoughts from childhood as the root of most adult problems.
Psychodynamic therapy uses aspects of other models as well.
The therapy is client-centered.
Aversive conditioning and token economies are behavioral.
Psychoanalytic therapy is what it is.
Valium is used to treat anxiety disorders and Prozac is used to treat depression.
Tardive dyskinesia is a side effect of the drugs used to treat schizophrenia.
Many were homeless because they were unable to find jobs and adequate care outside of the hospital setting.
Superordinate goals break down hostility between groups.
Contact between groups that don't have the same goals is less successful, and avoiding members of the other group is not likely to decrease intergroup hostility.
The use of superordinate goals will be more effective than guest speakers.
Punishing the groups may make them dislike each other.
Door-in-the-face is a compliance strategy.
Foot-in-the-door is when one makes a small request and is followed up with a larger request.
The idea that one good turn deserves another is what would have driven her to bring her teacher an apple.
Although she is attempting to broker a compromise and engage in some bargaining, the strategy she used has a more specific psychological name.
The dependent variable he measured was how far the participants would go in shocking the learners.
The Asch conformity experiment is a reference to the length of the line.
There were no groups involved in the experiment.
The experimenter's instructions were the same.
Ignorance is tested in bystander intervention studies.
It can be seen as a kind of modeling in emergencies.
Due to its clear relationship to emergency situations, pluralistic ignorance is a superior answer.
The more people who witness an emergency, the less likely they are to intervene.
The persuasiveness of an appeal is enhanced by these factors.
One person's expectations affect another person's behavior.
People look to others for clues about how to act in certain situations.
Confirmation bias is when people focus on information that supports their initial ideas.
There is tension when one holds two conflicting ideas.
There is a tension between her hatred of orange and her ownership of orange clothing.
She will be motivated to reduce the tension by either changing her opinion of orange or changing her wardrobe.
The other terms are the same.
Social loafing is when people exert less effort in a group than they would in their own.
Groupthink is the idea that because group members are often loathe to express their opinions different from the majority, some groups fall prey to poor decisions.
People in a group lose their self-restraint due to arousal and anonymity.
One way to explain the inverse relationship between group size and prosocial behavior is through Diffusion of Responsibility.
The other terms are not important in the theory.
A different bias is called a fundamental attribution error.
People underestimate the role of personal factors in explaining other people's behavior.
The self-fulfilling prophecy effect shows that people's expectations about others can affect their behavior.
The false consensus effect is an example of bias.
People underestimate the number of people who share their beliefs.
Conformity is the tendency for people to go with a group.
Santiago has a negative attitude towards cheerleaders.
Billy and Mr. Tamp are discriminating against different groups of people.
She is not prejudiced because she is fast or over confident.
Ginny's belief that all Asians are smart is a stereotype that may or may not lead her to have prejudice against Asians.
People in a group lose their self-restraint due to arousal and anonymity.
The preference that people show for their own groups is called in-group bias.
While healthy in a relationship, dual sharing does not describe this specific exchange.
Jody's aggressive behavior can't be fully explained by Mr. Simpson's grouping, but the fact that he attacks only members of other groups suggests that out-group bias may play a role.
The tendency of groups to take extreme positions is called group polarization.
Jody's aggression can't be seen as an example of deindividuation since he acts alone.
It is helpful to haveordinate goals in order to reduce conflict between groups.
Groupthink is the idea that some groups fall prey to poor decisions because they don't express their opinions the same way as the majority.
LaPiere's study showed that attitudes do not always predict behavior.
Contact isn't usually enough to break down prejudice.
People like to think that others get what they deserve, according to the just-world belief.
Good decisions can be made whenhesive groups engage in groupthink.
The terminal buttons hold chemicals that are released into the brain.
The hormones are not involved in neural transmission.
The smallest units of sound in a language are phones.
The word cat cannot be broken down into smaller meaningful units as it is a morpheme, the smallest unit of meaning in a language.
As toddlers learn language, they use jargon to express more complex ideas.
Slums are units of sound, but they are often composed of multiple phonemes, like the word cat, which has three phonemes but only one syllable.
Fetals are able to hear in the womb.
Sight replaces hearing as a baby's dominant sense by about 6 months.
GAD involves a constant low-level arousal of the nervous system.
Depression is a mood disorder rather than an anxiety disorder.
Symptom sufferers fear that typical body sensations are indicative of medical problems.
People with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder tend to be inflexible and overly concerned with things like neatness.
Post-traumatic stress disorder is caused by trauma and can be caused by memories, flashbacks, and nightmares.
The neuroscience, evolutionary, and cognitive perspectives have yet to capture most people's interest because of the lack of technological resources.
Western Europeans were more interested in Freud's approach than the behaviorist perspective was in the United States.
Sociocultural psychologists look at the role of societal factors in shaping people.
Clinical psychologists can help with psychological disorders.
The importance of mentalistic concepts would be rejected by behaviorists.
Questions about the development of people's personality are asked by personality psychologists.
A speed test is meant to show how fast a person can answer questions.
People's knowledge of a given area is measured on an achievement test.
An IQ test would measure intelligence, whereas an emotional intelligence test would measure it.
Learning to pair a consequence with a behavior is similar to instrumental learning and operant conditioning.
Modeling is learning via observation and imitation.
There istent learning that is not shown until a reward is given.
If the children were taught to cringe only to the sound of their mother's car door, discrimination would be a thing of the past.
The children cringed to the sound of their mother slamming the car door.
If Marva learned to manage her anger and stop screaming at her children, they would eventually unlearn their cringing response to the sound of her car door.
The children at a later date would cringe again if they heard a slamming car door after extinguishing the cringe response.
People believe they have performed better than they have.
A theory is a statement that seeks to explain some observations.
A hypothesis can be a testable prediction.
A host of factors can cause people to answer questions in ways that do not reflect their actual opinions or beliefs.
Low blood sugar levels are a sign that you are hungry.
The other choices are not tied to blood sugar rates.
The MMPI is a self-report instrument.
The personality inventories are used by trait theorists.
Psychoanalytic theorists wouldn't pay much attention to people's conscious reports of their own tendencies since they think important motives are hard to see in the patient's unconscious.
Humanistic psychologists prefer a more in-depth interview with their clients in order to fully understand their unique features.
People say a lot, but behaviorists are more interested in what they do.
Biological theorists are interested in factors other than self- reported characteristics.
The iris, the colored part of the eye, is a muscle that controls the size of the pupil, the hole through which light enters the eye.
The light travels through the eye and lands on the back of the eye.
The blind spot is the part of the retina where the axons of the ganglion cells exit the eye and go to the brain.
The fovea is the part of the eye where you have the highest visual acuity.
Rods are located in the center of the eye and are good at detecting motion.
The presence of others improves performance on well-learned tasks.
Under high arousal and relative anonymity, the loss of self-restraint can occur.
Groupthink is when groups suppress dissent and make bad decisions.
Conformity is when one changes their behavior to go along with a group.
An ultradian rhythm is a cycle that happens multiple times a day.
Over the course of a night's sleep, we cycle through the sleep cycle several times.
The siblings are unlikely to account for their differences in peak alertness time.
An eclectic approach is being used with the combination of these three different perspectives.
Classical conditioning involves replacing one's initial reaction to a stimuli with a new reaction.
The fear response to the stimuli is replaced by a relaxation response in order to treat phobias.
Flooding is related to extinction.
ReBT and stress inoculation are cognitive therapies, and token economies use operant as opposed to classical conditioning principles.
Humanistic psychologists believe that all people are innately good and motivated to fulfill their own unique potential, ideas that some critique as overly optimistic.
None of the other perspectives have a better view of human nature.
The other phenomena contribute to prejudice.
Stereotypes apply to all of the group's members.
scapegoating is the practice of blaming others for one's misfortunes; it can serve to rationalize one's prejudice.
Out-group homogeneity is the belief that members of one's out-group are all the same.
Discrimination is acting on one's prejudices and may amplify them.
naturalistic observation often yields both quantitative and qualitative data.
In experiments, the dependent variable may or may not be behavioral.
Experiments may take place in either the lab or the field, and naturalistic observation may take place in the field.
Experiments and naturalistic observation may yield statistically significant results.
Humanistic psychologists believe that people are naturally good and that as long as their needs are met, they will develop into healthy individuals.
The cause of psychological disorders is most likely to be caused by chemical imbalances.
There is a cognitive explanation for an unhealthy style.
The phrase "genetic predispositions" suggests an evolutionary approach, while the phrase "learned associations" implies a behaviorist perspective.
One of the few chromosomal anomalies that does not result in a miscarriage is the XXY genotype.
Men with Klinefelter's syndrome are less likely to be color blind than other men due to the fact that the trait for color blindness is carried on the X chromosomes.
Everyone who has Klinefelter's syndrome is a male because of the presence of the Y chromosome.
In the second half of their first year, infants learn to clap hands.
Fine motor skills such as writing, cutting with a knife, and turning pages of a book tend to develop before gross motor skills.
Children don't speak in full sentences until they are 2 years old.
She calls a rabbit a cat the first time she sees it.
Assimilation is the ability to take in new information using existing information.
Antonia used her cat's name to make sense of a new animal, a rabbit.
If Antonia is told that this new animal with longer ears and a shorter tail is a rabbit, she will create a new system for rabbits.
Discrimination and generalization are used to discuss learning.
When one can tell the difference between a stimuli and something else, and when one responds the same way to something else, it's called generalization.
Habituation is a decrease in response to repeated stimuli.
Divergence thinking involves looking for a single correct answer or using one prescribed method of problem solving, while more open-ended problems are typically involved.
Creative elements can be found in hypothesis testing, but they are not synonymous with creativity.
Robert Sternberg described contextual intelligence as practical intelligence.
Habituation is a decrease in response to repeated stimuli.
The portion of sensory memory that lasts a few seconds is called echoic memory.
All parts of the nervous system are outside of the central nervous system and comprise the peripheral nervous system.
The brain and spine are in the central nervous system.
The parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems are part of the autonomic nervous system.
It makes sense that the cortex is the seat of high-level thought since it is the part of the brain that has increased the most in size.
The brainstem is an older part of the brain and includes the pons and reticular formation.
The cortex and less advanced structures of the hypothalamus are included in the forebrain.
The clinician tries to reason with the client in cognitive behavioral therapy.
Poor candidates for such an approach are given the disorganized thought and difficulties with oral expression of schizophrenics.
Dissociative identity disorder might be difficult to treat because cognitive psychologists focus on conscious thought and might be skeptical about the unconscious and the existence of DID.
While it might help someone with a mental illness in the depressed phase, it wouldn't be as effective in dealing with people in the manic phase as they aren't thinking logically or receptive to rational arguments.
The hair cells are embedded in the basilar membrane.
The hammer is in the middle ear.
The middle and outer ears are separated by the tympanic membrane.
The outer ear is made up of two canals.
Cognitive psychologists believe that motivation can be traced back to thoughts.
People are motivated to fulfill their needs according to humanistic psychologists.
Psychodynamic psychologists think unconscious thoughts are important motivators.
The behaviorists believe that we are motivated by the reinforcement we have been exposed to.
Sublimation is a Freudian defense mechanism that involves taking inappropriate emotions and redirecting them towards more socially acceptable behaviors.
Other defense mechanisms are the other choices.
Max would take his anger out on a less threatening target than Dylan.
Max might think that he can get a better prom date if he used rationalization.
Max would forget about the event if he repressed his anger.
If Max used projection, he could claim that Dylan and/or Suzy were angry with him because he was the one who was angry.
Performance goes up to a point when arousal increases.
Performance suffers when arousal becomes too high.
The average distance of all scores in a distribution from the mean is shown by the range and the standard deviation.
The mean, median, and mode are measures of central tendency and their aim is to mark the center of a distribution.
If the coach had Jake run laps, it would be an example of positive punishment.
Negative reinforcement and positive reinforcement wouldn't be a good tactic for the coach to use on Jake since they would have encouraged him to be late again.
Jake's future appropriate behaviors could be reinforced by the coach.
He could either praise Jake when he arrives on time or excuse Jake from the laps run at the end of practice when he is on time.
The coach could model being on time himself.
People with multiple abilities should be considered intelligences, including bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, musical intelligence, and interpersonal intelligence.
Schools should encourage students' creative and practical abilities as well as their analytical ones.
There is a belief that one is a god or a king.
Along with delusions of persecution are delusions of grandeur.
The belief of the just-world bias is that if the world is a fair place, good things happen to good people and bad things happen to bad people.
Our tendency to overstate the number of people with the same views is called the false consensus effect.
One person's expectations can cause another person's expectations to cause another person's expectations to cause another person's expectations to cause another person's expectations to cause another person's expectations to cause another person's expectations to cause another person's expectations to cause another person The tendency to take more credit for good outcomes and less for bad outcomes is called self-serving bias.
People are willing to see themselves in vague stock descriptions.
Kate's egocentrism would be attributed by Piaget.
Kate doesn't have the cognitive capacity to realize that she is blocking others' view; she is only capable of seeing things from her own perspective.
Babies are believed to develop object permanence by the end of the first year.
Children learn to conserve around age 7 when they enter concrete operations.
The amount of matter that exists is not changed by a change in the form of matter.
There are limitations in the thought of a preoperational child.
Artificialism is the belief that everything has been created by people, and animism is the belief that life has been created by objects.
The "ante" in anterograde indicates that the trauma causing the memory problem preceded the memories that are interfering.
Some of the most basic functions of the body can be found in the brainstem of less complex animals.
The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
The cerebellum is associated with maintaining balance.
The reticular formation is the job of the arousal system.
The thalamus and the prefrontal cortex are the parts of the brain most associated with planning for the future.
The tendency to remember the first and last items in a list is referred to as the serial position effect.
The rate at which information is lost from short-term memory is predictable, but not relevant to this question.
The fact that the cerebellum plays a role in procedural memory is not the focus of this question.
There is a tendency to think you know an answer all along after hearing it.
Both occur between the ages of 3 to 5 and are the third stage of their theories.
Freud's concept of latency is similar to that of the industry's inferiority stage.
While Freud's final stage is the adult genital stage and it lasts from puberty on, Erikson divided adolescence and adulthood into several stages: identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation, and ego integrity versus despair.
Delayed speech, avoiding eye contact, and preference for routine are some of the symptoms.
An extra chromosome on the 21st pair and a degree of intellectual impairment are likely to be mentioned in a description of Down syndrome.
Fetal alcohol syndrome would likely include mention of a mother who drank while pregnant and intellectual impairment.
Intellectual functioning that is significantly below average is the hallmark of mental retardation.
There is a chromosomal abnormality of the sex chromosomes that leads to Klinefelter's syndrome.
Small testes, atypical secondary sex development, and infertility are some of the signs of Klinefelter's syndrome.
The scores between 70 and 130 represent all the scores within two standard deviations of the mean, which means that the scores between 70 and 130 represent all the scores.
In a normal distribution, 95 percent of scores fall within two standard deviations of the mean.
The schedule is fixed because students are rewarded for every book they read.
The schedule is a ratio because what controls the reinforcement is the number of responses the person makes.
Students who liked to read may have thought they were reading for prizes, not because they liked reading.
They no longer had a reason to read when the prizes are withdrawn.
Experiments and other research methods can garner support for a theory, but not proof.
It isn't possible to prove a hypothesis because the term proof implies that you are absolutely sure about something and given the role of probability in hypothesis testing, we can never really be 100 percent certain about anything.
She is attracted to some aspects of Craig but not others.
If Lupe was attracted to both Craig and his brother Greg, then one has to choose between two desirable options.
Imagine if Lupe's parents and Craig and Greg's parents had agreed their children would marry.
If she had to marry one of them, she would face an avoidance-avoidance conflict.
In a multiple approach-avoidance conflict, one has to choose between attractive and unattractive options.
If she thought Greg was interesting but not attractive to her, she would face a multiple approach-avoidance conflict.
People with an internal locus of control feel more in control of their lives than people with an external one.
A being concerned with morals and ethics is associated with a strong superego.
People with low self-esteem feel bad about themselves.
People with low self-efficacy think they can't get things done.
Extraverted people are friendly.
We find sound by comparing the time it takes a sound wave to reach each ear and the intensity of the sound wave when it hits each ear.
The sounds that come from the right reach our right ears more quickly than the sounds that come from the left.
The location of our ears doesn't increase the range of frequencies we can hear, or help us respond to noises behind us, or figure out what sounds to ignore.
She had trouble recognizing the picture when she saw it next.
Shapes can be explained by Tina's problem.
Perceptual constancy is learned from experience.
We have to learn that the same object is different from different angles.
We make mistakes like Tina's.
When a spot of light in a dark room moves on its own, it's called the autokinetic effect.
There is an increase in response to a novel.
The way the layers of the retina are set up is referred to as summation.
One of the cognitive limitations of the preoperational child is egocentrism.
The mere-exposure effect says that exposure to a person increases liking.
The tendency to take more credit for positive outcomes than negative ones is called self-serving bias.
The belief that we have an equal opportunity to teach all organisms is called equipotentiality.
When people's thoughts don't mesh with their behavior, it's called cognitive dissonance.
Increased exposure increases liking.
Foot-in-the-door is a compliance technique that involves getting someone to agree to a small request in order to increase the likelihood they will agree to a larger, subsequent request.
The central route to persuasion would involve Edy explaining why she is the best candidate.
One explanation for the bystander effect is mindedness.
Under heightened arousal and relative anonymity, datememe is a loss of self-restraint.
People judge the likelihood of an event by comparing it to something they believe to be similar and assuming the probabilities of the events will be the same.
Confirmation bias is when we pay more attention to the information that supports our beliefs than the information that doesn't.
There are cognitive structures that influence how we process information.
Exposure to something increases our liking for it.
At about one month, most infants can lift their head; by 3 months, most can hold their heads steady; by 6 months, most can sit up; and by 9 months, most are beginning to try to stand up.
Harlow compared infant monkeys' attachment to a surrogate mother made out of cloth or wire that was attached to a bottle to the baby's attachment to a surrogate mother.
His study did not include tools.
The goal of the study was not to study the impact of the separation of the baby monkeys from their parents, but to look at their shyness.
Communication problems are thought to reflect bad thought.
Test-retest reliability is a type of reliability.
Since the test should not change over the course of the month, a low correlation would indicate that the test was unreliable.
Jupiter doesn't seem to be looking for outliers.
To standardize the test, Jupiter would have to give it to a sample and then assemble a group of questions that yielded a normal distribution of scores.
Jupiter doesn't think the mean level of perfectionism should have changed, and the correlation won't show whether it has.
Jupiter's work will show whether or not the test is reliable, but it won't show whether or not it's valid.
In this case, validity is a measure of accuracy.
Thorndike named it instrumental learning because people and animals learn that their behaviors bring about specific consequences.
The copycat effect is a term made up to sound like it fits the behavior described but not, in fact, used to do so.
Freud gave a name to the supposed death instinct that drives people to commit aggressive and destructive acts.
Sublimation is a Freudian defense mechanism in which people take the energy from impulses they view as unacceptable and shift them toward more socially acceptable activities.
It is defined as rewarding successive approximations of a desired behavior.
In order for Lana to be able to stop her kick, she must stop slow- moving balls, and that's what she must do in order to reach that goal.
Thorndike said that pleasant consequences will increase the likelihood of a behavior and unpleasant consequences will decrease the likelihood of a behavior.
The partial reinforcement effect shows that partial reinforcement schedules are more resistant to extinction than continuous reinforcement.
Classical conditioning uses something that was initially a US to condition a new US.
A token economy is a method of promoting desired behaviors by rewarding them with token, which can be used for any of a range of items.
Matt will have to use both the mean and standard deviation, but neither of them will tell him whether or not the difference is significant.
Matt would have to run a t-test rather than a chi square test or a Pearson correlation to find a p value in the data he is working with.
The researcher has already decided what the independent variable will be.
Matt can't randomly assign students to be either girls or boys, so the study is an ex-post facto study.
An experiment requires a random assignment of participants.
A case study looks at a small group of people.
Observers use naturalistic observation instead of a survey.
Anyone who could have been in the study is defined as the population.
They all had a chance to be in the study since Matt took a random sample of the whole student body.
The sample is a group of 100 students who took the survey.
American students, high school students in Maine, and high school students throughout the world are all groups that Matt might be interested in, and they might be closer to what you think of when you think of the word population, but they are not the population in this study.
The thalamus sent signals to the cortex and nervous system after receiving information from the environment.
The stages are alarm, resistance and exhaustion.
Conrad died of exhaustion after working so hard to deal with the stress of finals.
The relationship between arousal and performance is explained in the law.
The law of effect explains how the consequences of an action are related to repetition.
The theory says that we are motivated to maintain our attitudes.
According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, certain changes in the body are indicative of certain emotions.
Exposure to circumstances one cannot control leads one to believe that one cannot control later events that are within one's control.
A person with an external control believes that luck and fate determine what happens to them as opposed to internal factors like effort or skill.
People believe vague, stock personality descriptions describe them.
The tendency to take more credit for positive outcomes is called self-serving bias.
Carl Rogers thought it was essential for a person to be psychologically healthy if they had positive regard for one another.
The Freudian idea is that boys love their mothers.
The terms fictional finalisms and feelings of inferiority are related to Alfred Adler.
Jung believed bad memories would be stored in the unconscious.
It's easy to remember the order of the colors in the visible spectrum with the acronym Roy G. Biv.
The red waves are followed by orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and finally violet.
Openness means a willingness to try new things and a lack of cynicism.
A person is less likely to be related to hypnotic suggestibility if they are agreeable, conscientious, hardworking, emotionally stable, and extraverted.
The left hemisphere has a bigger role in speech and language, logical problems, and controlling the right side of the body.
Plasticity is the brain's ability to change as the result of experience, and one way it is illustrated is when the functions of a damaged part of a brain are taken over by another part of the brain.
Since most of Genna's right hemisphere was damaged, her ability to perform functions associated with that hemisphere after the surgery is shown.
The only way she moves her left hand is in the right hemisphere.
Chomsky does not refer to a physical structure in the brain as a language acquisition device.
Critics of the idea that animals have language say that words that result in food rewards are just the result of operant conditioning and do not evidence true language.
Humans and apes are very different in their ability to pick up new vocabulary.
The linguistic-relativity hypothesis states that language influences thought.
People are influenced to think of the person who holds the job in a particular way if they read a job description with only male pronouns.
The gender roles of their culture and the expectations they develop then guide their behavior are held to be part of the gender schema theory.
The social role hypothesis says that hypnotized people play the role that is expected of them and don't actually experience an altered state of consciousness.
Bandura's theory is that people learn by watching and imitating others.
Ethnocentrism looks at things from the perspective of one's culture.
Nature refers to things that are innate.
One's temperament is how they interact with the world.
The environment, culture, and learning are associated with nurture.
One's family plays a role in both nature and nurture.
A valid test is what it is supposed to measure.
A test with high content validity covers all the areas it is supposed to.
There are two types of criterion validity.
A measure of how someone will perform in the future is provided by a test with predictive validity, whereas a measure of how someone will perform in the present is provided by concurrent validity.
If a test is supposed to assess mathematical skill and contains math problems, it has face validity.
Kohler argued that the animals solved the problems by thinking about them and having sudden insights about how to solve them.
The mode is the most frequent score.
Excluding outliers, they are not called skewers.
Standard deviation is a measure of the variability in a distribution.
The belief that too much psychology focused on the negative aspects of the human condition led to the creation of this new area of psychology.
Psychometrics studies how to make tests.
Human factors psychology and engineering work together to make machines that are user-friendly.
Health psychology looks at how psychological factors impact physical health, while social psychology looks at how people interact with one another.
Donald is most likely to sign up for an upper-level undergraduate course in which he will have to work hard to succeed and learn new things, if he is interested in psychology and has high achievement motivation.
Donald's interest in psychology will lead him to want to take more psychology classes and learn new things, while his high achievement motivation will lead him to select a class that will be challenging but not overly difficult.
Human thought and behavior are determined by factors such as hormones.
Most human behavior is determined by genes, according to evolutionary models.
Psychoanalysts see the thoughts in one's unconscious as the factor that controls human behavior, while behaviorists believe that one's history of reinforcement determines future choices.
Parkinson's disease can cause an increase in dopamine and an excess of dopamine, both of which can be a cause of schizophrenia.
Benzodiazepines are used to treat anxiety.
There are two drugs used to treat major depressive disorder and the manic phase of bipolar disorder.
According to Sperling, the reason people were only able to report about four items they were exposed to for a split second was not that more items didn't make it into the sensory register, but that the memory of the items didn't last long.
He used the partial report technique to expose participants to a matrix of 12 letters (3 rows of 4) and showed that they could usually recall the entire row if they were exposed to one of the lines immediately after the matrix was removed from view.
This technique isn't used to test the serial position effect, duration of working memory, or misinformation effect.
Major depression is associated with low levels of two hormones.
The cause of the disorder is not known.
One view holds that there is a shortage of acetylcholine in Alzheimer's disease.
Schizophrenia is associated with elevated dopamine levels.
Conformity involves a change in attitude or behavior to fit in with a group; if a runner ran faster to keep up with her soccer teammates, conformity could be at work.
Under high arousal and anonymity there is a loss of self-restraint.
Roles are sets of expected behaviors for different members of an organization.
The normal people were admitted and then resumed their normal behavior.
According to the study, it took a long time for any of the hospitals' employees to realize that the patients were not in need of treatment.
When the pseudopatients were released from the hospitals, they were diagnosed as schizophrenics in remission.
The study showed that it can be hard to determine who is mentally ill and who is well.
A prototype is a typical example of a category.
Although there are many types of chairs such as the armchair, chairlift, and wheelchair listed in choice D, most chairs we encounter have the features described.
We might think of chairs with desks and tables as a place to keep our pens, pencils, books, and computers.
Someone may have come to associate certain types of chairs with anxiety.
The three levels of moral development are preconventional, conventional, and postconventional.
The ability to see things from multiple perspectives is one of the hallmarks of postconventional thought.
It is possible that someone in the postconventional stage would decide that generosity should be avoided in certain situations.
The theory is not linked to religious beliefs.
The idea of integrity versus despair is not tied to the theory of Kohlberg.
One doesn't have to have learned good moral beliefs from good role models to postconventional morality.
Learned helplessness is correlated with major depression.
They experience deep, slow-wave sleep, which is marked by the presence of delta waves.
Sleep spindles and K complex waves occur mostly in stage 2 when one is awake and alert.
The eyes send information to the brain.
Information from the left side of the eye goes to the left side of the brain, while information from the right side of the eye goes to the right side of the brain.
The information is moving.
The fovea has the highest visual acuity.
The thalamus is where initial visual processing takes place.
The nucleus of the brain are called thebasal ganglia.
Studying from your class notes, homework, old tests, and review book involves a fairly deep level of processing and will result in more elaborative encoding.
It's not a good idea to store information hours later because short-term memory only lasts about 30 seconds.
Even though we hope you find our book helpful, reading any one source over and over again is a relatively shallow form of processing, and you would do better to study from multiple sources.
The serial position effect wouldn't be helpful since the exam doesn't have a long list of items.
Even though minimizing interference is a good goal, you will perform better with a good night's sleep, and research shows that interference during sleep is actually minimal.
Dissent in a group is suppressed in order to preserve harmony, which leads to bad decisions.
The Bay of Pigs fiasco and the Challenger explosion are examples of classic examples.
Groupthink can be promoted by factors such as unanimity, pressure, and homogeneity.
Groupthink can happen in any size.
Information is sent from the thalamus to the primary visual cortex.
The brains of the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and cerebellum are not thought to be involved in the early processing of visual information.
The theory says that emotion comes from the cognitive appraisal of a general arousal.
People perform well-learned tasks better in the presence of other people.
The theories of emotion do not give a prominent role to the cognitive part.
Cannon-Bard's thalamic theory states that the thalamus receives information from the environment and simultaneously sends signals to the cortex and nervous system.
According to the James-Lange theory, every emotion is associated with a unique set of responses that tells us what we feel.
The opponent process theory of emotion states that the experience of an emotion is followed by the experience of another emotion.
Odette isn't experiencing the rapid decline in memory and cognitive function that many people with Alzheimer's experience.
She is unlikely to be diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder since her problems seem to be unrelated to winter.
There is no evidence that she is engaging in the binge-purge cycle associated with bulimia or that she is showing a disregard for and carelessness toward others.
The movement was supposed to save the government money and allow people suffering from mental illness to have more freedom.
Many people who were released from the institutions did not stay on their medication regimes, and without adequate systems in place to follow them up, many became homeless.
The former patients no longer had access to the methods that were used.
The deinstitutionalization movement was not the result of the belief that we had institutionalized healthy people.
Gage's personality changed from being dependable and even-tempered to irascible and irresponsible because of the damage to this part of the brain.
The brain's two hemispheres are linked by the corpus callosum.
The medulla oblongata sits atop the spine and helps regulate heart rate.
The midbrain is part of the brain and regulates arousal.
The experimenter was trained to act the part, but no actual shocks were delivered.
There are two distinct parts to this question.
You are asked to explain how the two terms might explain Eli's dislike of green vegetables.
The additional five terms might be used to encourage Eli to eat green vegetables.
Eli dislikes vegetables and doesn't like to eat them.
Human behavior is motivated by the desire to ensure the survival of our genes, according to evolutionary psychologists.
By age two, children are able to move about on their own and will therefore encounter new plants, some of which may look like vegetables but, in fact, be dangerous to eat.
An evolutionary psychologist might say that Eli's refusal to eat green vegetables is due to a natural avoidance that arises when children are independent enough to eat their own food.
Children from one to three years old are in a stage where there is a conflict between shame and doubt.
Children of this age often try to assert their will, and the word no becomes a common part of their vocabulary.
Eli's refusal to eat vegetables his parents want him to eat may be a way of asserting his independence.
The exposure effect says that if you are exposed to something, you will like it.
Eli's parents could serve him green vegetables frequently in hopes that he will like them more.
The concrete operations stage is when children learn to conserve.
Children can't solve problems that ask them to compare quantities until then.
Eli's parents may be able to take advantage of the cognitive limitation in presenting his vegetables.
Instead of serving Eli many small pieces of celery, they could ask him to eat one large one.
People want to fit in with others.
If Eli's siblings or cousins or friends eat green vegetables, Eli's parents may be able to increase his consumption of vegetables by serving them to him among a group of people who will eat their vegetables.
Modeling is when someone observes another person's behavior.
Modeling can be done by an individual.
Eli's parents hope that Eli will notice and copy their green vegetable eating habits.
A reinforcer increases the likelihood of a behavior.
Positive reinforcement can be given to Eli by his parents when he eats green vegetables.
Eli could be rewarded with a half hour of television every day if he finished his vegetables.
The AP Psychology exam included a free-response question in which students were asked to create and label a bar graph.
We asked for a scatter plot in order to anticipate what the exam might include in years to come and included a bar graph to mimic that style of the question.
A student research project is the focus of the three parts of this question.
Part A of the question asks you to graph a small data set in a scatter plot and describe the correlation found.
You have to relate four psychological concepts to the research described in the question.
The student researcher's conclusion is one of the findings presented in Part C.
The axis labels on the graph are all that is needed to earn this point.
A scatter plot shows a correlation between two variables, one on the x axis and the other on the y axis.
The dependent variable is plotted on the x axis.
In a correlational study like this one, there is no true independent variable because neither variable is manipulated by the researcher.
You would score the point regardless of which variable you plotted on.
I used excel to make the graph.
You won't be expected to show the precision of a program on your exam.
You won't have graph paper.
You will earn the point if you draw and label your axes and plot the points in the correct places.
There was a correlation between weekly practice time and test score.
Musicians who spread out their practice time are more likely to improve.
Experimentser bias is the tendency of researchers to influence their work in such a way as to confirm their hypotheses.
If she is aware of how much practice time the students have reported as she listens to their playing tests, she may subconsciously interpret what she hears so as to support her predictions.
People tend to report the right kind of data.
The students all know they are supposed to practice and may not be completely honest in their reports of their practice time.
The law states that optimal performance is related to moderate levels of arousal.
Students who report being a little nervous during their playing tests perform better than students who don't.
You don't need a ruler to get this point.
Draw the two bars and label them.
To get the point you need to say something about why you don't agree.
You would get the point if you described the two main problems with the conclusion.
If you explain the problem in one of two ways, you can score this point.
It is possible that taking private lessons causes students to improve, but it is also possible that students who are improving are more likely to seek out private lessons.
You could explain that because the school does not randomly assign students to take private lessons, there is a third factor that is responsible for the improvement and for the decision to take private lessons.
The size of the difference between the groups is one of the biggest problems with the conclusion.
This small difference is unlikely to be statistically significant, that is, it is very likely to be the result of chance.
The other theorists didn't focus on operant conditioning in their research.
Control and experimental groups are assigned to participants.
Sampling and assignment make groups that represent a larger population.
The concepts listed as possible answers do not relate to either experimenter or subject bias.
Vision would most likely be affected if the occipital lobe is damaged.
Structural brain damage from the car crash would be revealed by these scans.
The fMRI would provide structural details, but the scans are primarily used to detect brain function.
Brain function is unrelated to an EKG Scan.
The other terms are unrelated to this response.
A young person with brain damage can make new connections in undamaged parts of the brain and regain lost functions.
The other brain-related concepts are unrelated to brain plasticity.
Information on the structure of the brain is what the scans provide.
Brain wave activity is not tied to specific areas of the brain according to the information provided by an EEG Scan.
The scans of heart function are not related to brain activity.
Cones are cells in the eye that respond to light.
Chemical senses such as smell and taste can be categorized as taste and smell.
The pitch of the sound is determined by wave frequencies.
REM sleep deprivation doesn't increase stage 3 and 4 sleep, people who are deprived of REM sleep are more likely to slip into sleep onset and REM sleep, not deeper sleep stages like stage 3 and 4).
REM deprivation is not related to sleep disorders.
Highly suggestible people are more likely to be hypnotized.
The dissociation theory says that hypnotism works by dividing our consciousness.
One part of our consciousness can be aware and respond to the hypnotist, while another part can not.
The answers are not related to hypnotism.
Reinforcements and punishments are involved in operant conditioning, not classical conditioning.
We don't need to learn to value primary reinforcers because they are rewarding and related to basic needs.
Sensations are only stored in sensory memory for a split second and can either be forgotten or put into short term memory.
The receiving neuron becomes more sensitive to the neurotransmitters from the sending neuron after repeated firings.
The capacity of short-term memory is increased by grouping items into groups.
A recall is when you look at someone and remember their name.
The needs of the hierarchy are physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization.
The other brain structures are not involved in hunger motivation.
Extrinsic motivation is effective in the short term, but behaviors slow down or stop after a while since most of them are temporary.
Longitudinal studies follow a group of people for a long period of time in order to understand the impact of age on a variable.
The baby can find the mother's nipple with the help of this reflex.
Children in the pre-operational stage will perform differently on related tasks because they don't understand these concepts.
The results of the pencil and paper tests used by trait theorists show that the person falls into a specific personality category.
The therapists provided positive regard to their clients in order to help them discover how to best move toward self-actualization.
The theory of the projective test is that a person will project his or her unconscious conflicts and desires on to vague and ambiguous stimuli.
IQ tests and most entrance exams measure ability or potential, such as the potential to complete law school successfully.
Both personality tests and projective tests measure aspects of a person's personality.
The ability to use previously acquired knowledge to solve problems is what distinguishes a new logic-based computer game.
IQ test results are compared to a norm group and test items are kept standard for different groups of test takers.
The loss of memory is one of the consequences of all dissociative disorders.
Both schizophrenia and dissociative disorders involve splits from reality, and both disorders are very disruptive and may interfere with a career and jobs.
This kind of analysis is useful because therapists believe that personality and personality difficulties are caused by unconscious conflicts.
Chemtherapies are more likely to be used by somatic therapists than any of the other therapies listed.
The other types of therapists are less likely to be able to prescribe medication.
People are more likely to help if someone has done them a favor by including a gift in a letter.
This bias can contribute to discrimination.
Group tensions are not related to the other concepts.
The study indicated that the participants would have harmed a stranger by obeying an authority figure.
The other possible answers are not unique to psychoanalysis.
The mean can be impacted byliers.
Standard deviation and range are measures of the distribution's variability.
A normal curve is a graph of scores.
Descriptive statistics can be used to describe sets of scores, but they can't help you make sense of the differences between them.
Field experiments and counterbalancing aren't relevant to the question.
The chances of the next neuron firing are either increased or decreased by these neurotransmitters.
Wernicke's area is involved with meaning and interpretation of language.
The parts of the brain not involved in spoken language are the hippocampus and amygdala.
Phineas Gage was a famous case study in brain function, but it is not related to a specific area of the brain.
One of the most protected parts of the brain is the area that controls blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing.
One of the first cases to tie a specific brain area to a specific function was this one.
Procedural memories are memories of skills and how to perform them, while episodic memories are memories of specific events.
There are not specific kinds of long-term memories.
There are implicit memories, such as the skill of tying a tie, that we may not even know we have.
Other factors listed as possible answers do not influence sexual orientation according to research.
Managers believe that workers will only produce if they are rewarded.
The other options are not related to management style theory.
He would want to know how children of different ages responded to the ethics of lying.
The unconscious is not accessible to conscious investigation, so his claims about the unconscious could not be tested.
The belief that our actions have impact and that we are in control of what happens to us is an internal locus of control.
A very high IQ score of 145 is three standard deviations above the average.
Techniques that encourage contrary opinions will work against the groupthink tendency.
The other options are either not true or not unique to the experimental method.
There is no practical way to randomly assign people to "own hybrid cars" and "don't own hybrid cars" groups.
The other research methods wouldn't allow researchers to conclude the likelihood of spending money on organic food.
Self-reports about this sensitive topic may not be reliable, and conclusions from a single case would not generalize to the general population.
Professor Ek should look at correlations between variables.
The person doesn't perceive the low-priority rash pain sensations when she is scratching vigorously, but the pain returns after she stops.
When a person stops using a drug, the body and brain adjust and compensate for the altered levels of neurotransmitters in the brain.
The concepts listed in the answers are unrelated to the tolerance-withdrawal cause-effect cycle.
After a specific response is performed, operant conditioning involves giving a reinforcer or punishment.
Classical and operant conditioning answers are not accurate.
Positive reinforcements increase the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated.
They reinforce the behavior by taking away aversive stimuli, such as aspirin, which makes the person more likely to take aspirin in the future.
Skinner believed that children learn language through rewards and punishments.
Chomsky said that language acquisition can be explained by reward and punishment.
Chomsky believes that humans must be born with a language acquisition device that allows them to learn language quickly.
When we encounter a new thing in the world, we try to understand it by using our existing schemas.
If that doesn't work, we may have to change or expand our schemas in order to deal with the new object, event, or idea.
As our schemas change and become more sophisticated, we learn through accommodation.
Our personality is a result of these interactions.
The causes of psychological disorders are not addressed in the DSM.
Patients move up to the next level of fear hierarchy and use relaxation techniques in a slightly more stressed situation.
The other therapies are either behavioral or cognitive.
There is an 8-point question.
Each application of a term in part A is worth 6 points and each description of an intervention in part B is worth 2 points.
The process of attitude formation is studied by many different kinds of psychological researchers.
The motivation to have consistent attitudes and behaviors should be explained by students.
Students can use a specific example or describe the general influence.
When the attitude is changed, the action that is inconsistent with the attitude causes a reduction in dissonance.
The internal cognitive rules we use to understand the world should be explained by students.
Students can use a specific example or describe the general influence.
A stereotype about a specific type of person is one of the mental rules we use to establish or change an attitude.
Students should explain how attitude is affected by the process of determinism.
Students can use a specific example or describe the general influence.
The relationship between personality, environment, and behavior should be explained in this example.
Students should explain the concept of control.
Students can use a specific example or describe the general influence.
The attitude that our actions determine what happens to us should be included in the explanation.
Students can describe how internal or external controls might lead to other attitudes.
Students need to explain how belief bias affects attitude.
Students can use a specific example or describe the general influence.
The idea that we might not change our attitudes in the face of conflicting evidence should be included in the explanation.
Students should explain how the fundamental error contributes to attitude formation.
Students can use a specific example or describe the general influence.
The mental act of attributing a person's behavior to their internal disposition rather than to the situation reflects and establishes an attitude toward that person.
One intervention should use the behaviorist perspective and the other should use the cognitive perspective.
Students need to describe two interventions a psychologist might use to change an attitude.
Students need to describe an intervention based on their behavioral perspective in order to earn points.
An operant or classical conditioning technique is needed in order to change an attitude.
Students need to describe an intervention based on their cognitive perspective in order to earn points.
How we interpret, process, or remember events need to be involved in this intervention.
The psychologist would try to change the way a person interprets an event by using the perspective.
There is an 8-point question.
Part A is worth 7 points and part B is worth 1 point.
Professor Kester's hypothesis could be tested in part A and students need to make a prediction about the results in part B.
The key variables in this hypothesis are parenting style and independence.
Students can refer to "parenting style" as a variable, or they can refer to authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive styles as variables.
Students need to identify the variables and give a possible operational definition in order to get points 1 and 2.
Students may score these points for other reasonable operational definitions.
The hypothesis is tested in a cross-sectional study.
Students need to include the idea that people of different ages are being tested at the same time.
Students could describe a study in which groups of children, young adults, older adults, and the elderly are given measures of independence, and these results are compared with self-report inventories that measure parenting style in order to test the hypothesis.
There is a longitudinal study that tests the hypothesis.
Students need to include the idea that a group of children are being tested over a long period of time.
Students could describe a study in which a group of children are observed interacting with their parents and a dominant parenting style is established for each child.
The independence of these children is tested over a number of years in order to establish a relationship between parenting style and independence.
Students need to describe how Professor Kester's study meets at least three of the five ethical criteria for research involving human participants in order to earn points.
Only 3 points are awarded for describing more than three of the criteria.
Students need to predict that Professor Kester's results will show that children raised in permissive households will be less independent than children raised in households where other parenting styles are the norm.
The research shows that the permissive parenting style results in more dependence among children and young adults.
The authoritative parenting style is associated with higher levels of independence.
Professor Kester has a hypothesis.
Two of the most important variables are parenting styles and age.
The professor needs to operationalize these variables.
The independence of children who grow up in households with different parenting styles is affected by the operational definition of parenting styles.
The definition of age is obvious.
Professor Kester can do at least two studies to test this hypothesis.
The cross-sectional method is when you take a cross-section of people and test them all at the same time.
If you looked at the people in different age groups, you could figure out if the "permissive" groups were more independent than the other groups.
The longitudinal method could be used by Professor Kester.
Professor Kester would have to find one group of people as kids, then figure out which ones were growing up with their parents.
The professor would have to wait until the kids grew up, then test their independence again.
Take a few years to test again.
The professor might be able to figure out if being a kid of permissive parents has anything to do with independence.
Professor Kester might not be able to meet the ethical requirements for this hypothesis.
She would have to get permission from the partipants to be involved in the study.
It would mean the parents' permission and the kids' permission to be involved.
Professor Kester had to make sure that no one was hurt in the study.
The professor would have to make sure that no one made any risky choices with independence.
Professor Kester would have to make sure that the results of the study are only published in real psychological journals that are reviewed and edited by other psychologists, and not just in popular magazines or newspapers.
Professor Kester might figure out some interesting results if she overcomes all these obstacles.
I believe that the professor will figure out that kids who grow up with their parents are less independent than other kids.
It might be harder for kids to have rules later on in life if parents don't teach them anything about rules.
The student's essay did not score points 1 or 2.
The student correctly identifies parenting styles as one of the key variables, but the student's definition of parenting style is not specific, which is basically a restatement of the hypothesis.
The student thinks age is one of the key variables.
The other key variable in this hypothesis is independence, and age is a variable involved in the study.
The student clearly shows that this study would use people of different ages to compare groups of different ages.
The student is able to find one group of people as kids, then figure out which ones were growing up with their parents.
The professor is following one group of people for a long time.
The student scored 2 points.
"Get the partipants' permission to even be involved in the study in the first place" is point 5.
"Make sure that no one was going to be hurt because of the study" is point 6.
The student does not score point 7 because the last ethical consideration the student discusses is not one of the five ethical requirements for research involving human participants.
The research shows that children who grow up in households with authoritative parents are more independent than either permissive or authoritarian households.