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3.5 Nucleic Acids -- Part 1
Sometimes the changes are less damaging.
Minor changes in the structure of the hair or eye color proteins are not detrimental to the organisms.
When researchers first thought of chaperone proteins, they thought that they only ensured that the fold of a new molecule was correct.
A cell's proteins may not be functional if they have misfolded.
Alzheimer's disease is one of several diseases that are associated with misshapen proteins.
The cause of other diseases in humans may be different.
TSEs have no cure because no infective agent could be found.
Mad cow disease is an example of a TSE disease.
TSE diseases may be caused by misfolded prions that cause other proteins of the same type to fold the wrong way.
List the roles of the organisms.
Discuss the differences between primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure.
The structure and function of nucleic acids are compared.
Information about how to copy, or replicate itself, but also the order in which the amino acids are to be joined, is included in the DNA.
MessengerRNA is a temporary copy of a gene in the DNA that tells the synthesis of a molecule.
TransferRNA helps translate the sequence of nucleic acids in a gene into the correct sequence of amino acids during the process of synthesis.
The rRNA works to form the bonds between the amino acids.
Important functions within the cell can be performed by a wide range of other RNA molecules.
Not all of the nucleotides are made into something.
Some of the nucleotides are involved in metabolism.
For example, some components of coenzymes, nonprotein organic for cellular reactions and for various other energy-requiring processes in the cell are included.
A difference in the structure of the sugars accounts for their different names.
A nucleotide has a sugar, a molecule and a base.
The sugar ribose is found in the sugar deoxyribose.
The pyrimidines C and T and the purines A and G are contained in DNA.
The pyrimidine bases in DNA and RNA are called cytosine and uracil.
Both genes have the purine bases adenine and guanine.
The presence of bases raises the pH of the solution.
The table summarizes the differences between the two.
A series of dehydration reactions join the genes into a DNA or anRNA.
The strand is made up of alternating series of sugarphosphate-sugar-phosphate molecules.
The order in which the genes are joined is specified by the strand they are copied from.
Both genes are double- and single-stranded.
There is a single strand of nucleotides.
The sugar of the next is bonded to thephosphate group of one when the nucleotides join.
The strands are held together by hydrogen bonds.
The bases can be placed in any order within a strand, but between strands, they are always coupled with adenine and guanine.
The number of purine bases is always equal to the number of pyrimidine bases.
We will take a closer look at the structure in Chapter 12.
There are two strands of DNA in a double helix.
There are adenine, ribose, and triphosphate in Page 53.
The three groups are attached to each other.
The universal energy currency of cells is called ATP.
A model of an animal.
The energy is released when cells need it.
The last two bonds in the molecule are unstable and can easily be broken.
Cells use the energy that is released by the hydrolysis to power many processes.
The original ATP molecule is more stable than the newer ones.
The whole molecule releases energy even though the third bond is broken.
Key steps in the synthesis of macromolecules are possible because the energy from ATP breakdown is used to pay the energy costs of the chemical reaction.
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