Scenes of the pros practicing their faith at the Chinese court, Ricci perous Netherlands.
These images were mostly Chinese.
He testified to the bustling world market that made fucian scholar, and preached the Chris middle-class townspeople so wealthy.
The missionaries working in China were shown as toler young woman grasping a water pitcher.
The pitcher made of Confucianism is made of silver, possibly from the Potosi mine.
pearls are probably from the Orient as the PDF to the printer right of the pitcher is open.
The objects are on a tablecloth.
The woman's clothes are made of Oriental silk, which is an unusual luxury.
The woman's movement to open a window suggests wealth, since leaded glass windows were only used in churches.
A leather map of the world hangs on the wall as a symbol of the new global commerce.
Population growth in the 16th and 17th century fueled the demand.
The number of Europeans increased from 80 million to 105 million as Europe recovered from the Black Death.
The increases continued.
Goods became scarce as the population rose.
Demand drove prices up.
The price of manufactured goods tripled in the 16th century.
The witnesses expressed shock at the event.
There were no concrete solutions to the problem.
New merchant classes received wealth from the global trade.
Their beautiful art that celebrated their new acquisitions was understandable.
Millions of Spanish coins a year were earned from the glass windows, silver pitchers, woven tapestries, and world map of the Potosi mine.
The massive Spanish ships that transported production and economic concepts that together silver across the Atlantic depended on French can be called the commercial revolution, but vas for their sails.
Silver coins from the New World may be called a commercial accretion paid for those sails.
The Economists can trace Spanish silver from Europe to the vital era, a set of business practices and the emergence of capitalism in China.
The coins into Europe were only part of the picture by the mid-seventeenth century.
Capitalists chose to invest their funds in business activities because of the surge in population growth.
All of these actions can't work in the course of trade.
The ordinary pounds are brought to us to increase our wealth.
To sell in wares must necessarily be brought views consistent with mercantilist more to strangers yearly than we con home in treasure.
Through new ventures.
The wealth depicted in the households tors was generated by commercial ventures that were run by boards of direc.
The capi is painted by Vermeer.
We can learn from an early example on higher-risk opportunities.
Tulips joint-stock companies were imported into the Netherlands in the 16th century to raise capital for trading ventures around the Turkey.
Amsterdam was the site of the stock discovered how to grow many different colors of exchange.
By 1634, buyers from all over Europe and New York began trading shares at a tree at the end of the Netherlands.
The English East India Company was founded in 1600 and had a lucrative tulip market and supply of bulbs to the Dutch United East India Company.
Both companies gambled.
The private ownership of novice capitalists was due to the cruel whims of the market merchant investors.
Their charter gave them the economy.
Final PDF to printer wage war.
Medieval ideas that forbad charging inter nies immediately generated huge profi ts, and both est and that kept royal treasuries locked in chests contributed to the early formation of a global network royal bedrooms had become obsolete.
All of their skills were made from the expanded global trade.
Most fi nancial transactions were handled by private bankers through the 16th century.
Germany was the most successful at piece of the pie due to the Fuggers of wealth.
The simple principle of " buy low, sell high" led the Fugger family to become so wealthy that they even lent money to discourage imports.
King Philip II was asked to forbid the import of practice waned by a Spanish bureaucrat in 1586.
Instead, government banks give candles, glass trinkets, jewelry, and other items to individuals.
The Bank of Amsterdam was founded in 1609, followed by precious Spanish gold.
The Bank of Sweden and the Bank of England were targeted by these policies.
Laws were passed to ensure a grow rich.
The founding of new colonies was encouraged by the policy of entering Europe from the New World.
New markets are created to purchase European exports.
To maintain a favorable balance, Spain immediately capital coins.
Some governments tried to keep wages low in order to keep power in the hands of the monarchs.
The vast influx of silver was a ruse to buy expensive imports.
The fortunes of wars that dominated the 16th and early 17th century were spent wastefully by the Spanish king.
The teenth centuries were placed by Mercantilist policies.
The Spanish crown had to declare the monarchies of western Europe bankrupt several times because they achieved their goal.
The wars of the teenth and seventeenth centuries were destructive.
Spain's fi nancial that swept over Europe through the mid-seventeenth troubles hurt merchants in Germany and Italy.
The real burden fell on the Spanish taxpayers, who were saddled with debt as a result of nomic policy.
The politics of empire added Chapter 15 in order to relieve policy into the eighteenth century.
PDF ends up in Europe.
In another example, a 1508 ordinance in the rency was owed to the East for the purchase of the Netherlands.
The commercial revolution enlarged the scale of urban merchants, the old divisions business and redefi ned the way people viewed those who did not begin work.
People still worked to blur.
Women in the city make their living from how they make their living.
Much of the economic power of the middle class was lost due to the dual waves of trade and visibility in the public arena.
There was a rise in ence in these fi elds that feminine forms of piracy.
Pirates were able to take advantage of the fast pace of the world because women owned so many taverns.
The trades in the family workshops were just as good as the rial waters.
The Biography on page 405 shows that Maria Merian learned about piracy as a way of life.
monarchs had often issued licenses for husbands, and widows ran businesses and people to steal from other countries took their husbands' place in the guilds.
As the United States Constitution gave Congress the right to capital and power, it lost its association with issue letters of marque and reprisal and became more linked to the public pirate ships.
Privateers earned profi ts from the arena.
The ships that were robbed were managed by men.
Tinction between the two cities occurred late in the 16th century.
In the case of the famous early English cal overtones, the diffi culties of pirate from privateer entry into guilds may be seen.
A mother and her two daughters joined a radical Protestant sect.
A daughter of a well-known father.
Merian was the second painter and art dealer, Maria's mother married her previous work, and Johanna was the young girl's stepmother.
Maria's father had an interest in art and Amsterdam.
She and her daughter traveled to the New World in 1699 to study insects.
I was able to study the shore of South America after I collected the Dutch colony on the northern.
I was able to sketch Surinam for two years because the devoted naturalist lived in my painter's art.
The couple had two daughters and the artist and publisher had drawings of plants.
She published her first book ten years later.
She returned a book of engravings.
Drake found the privateer less useful.
James sought an alliance with Spain as he gained the admiration and support of the English and Amerindians.
As a token of goodwill to Spain, Queen Elizabeth I imprisoned Raleigh in the Tower of London and low privateers harassed the Spanish ships that executed him in 1618.
Walter Raleigh's fortunes were ruined after he seized wealthy slave-trading.
Pirates often gave the independent captains fragile royal support.
Raleigh is a member of the pirate band.
The ing of her champion.
Many people who had few choices in their lives were drawn to the romanticized dom of the pirate life.
For example, literary pirates went somewhere else.
wasted time on such rituals because of all its dangers.
If they wanted to kill ers to war on the high seas, they threw their captives with amazing wealth.
The pirate cities sprang up because of the trade.
The booming world market that stimulated the Other pirate cities dotted the Caribbean from the movement of goods and the enterprise of pirates coast of the Yucatan to the islands of the West Indies.
Ten percent of places where talented outsiders could rise to positions of them women migrated to Latin America.
A poor North Africa century, comparable numbers of English, French, and can shepherd boy rose through the pirate ranks to Dutch settled in North America.
The immigrants become "king" of Algiers in 1569.
Several women took control of European culture into the New World during the eigh, a new ruling class that transfused much of teenth century.
They built pirate ships.
Unique livestock, tools, plants, and other goods that transformed the lives of native peoples were brought by the new immigrants.
Columbus sails to North America.
World bread has been their staple for a long time.
The crew goes around their traditional farming methods.
The Aztec Empire was conquered by the Spanish.
Pizarro conquered the Empire.
Jacques explores Canada New World in many other ways.
They brought diseases that ravaged native popula.
The colony was transported to the New World.
PDF to printer outnumbered women from their home continent, many of them married native and slave women or kept them as concubines.
The Americas were vastly different from Europe in spite of common languages, religions, and political structures.
Europeans were transformed by contact with the New World as much as the original Americans were.
The earliest explorers to the New World may have brought back a form of syphilis.
Europe was ravaged by a new strain of the sexually transmitted disease until the advent of penicillin in the 20th century.
Europeans spread the New World's ecology.
This kind of toll on Europeans can be seen in the change of Amerindians plant wheat with metal tools and an imported donkey.
Its presence made some people more cautious about sex.
Dandelions are an example of having to struggle to survive.
The tomato is a New World fruit that people reject and animals move across the sea.
Europeans and Africans did not initially view maize as a food.
Africa received sweet potatoes for humans.
It began thriv and maize in the 16th century.
In Spain, it spread to Italy and eventually to the rest of Europe.
The maize tribes believed that the vegetable was more suitable for use as pig feed and peasant fare than for humans.
These plants allowed farming families to sell more expen, which became central to the local culture.
The societies of east Asia kept most lants from the Americas popular in Europe.
European traders brought small amounts from China.
Coffee replaced tea and chocolate as the most popular drink in Europe in the early 17th century.
Coffee was in Mecca by 1511, and in Istanbul in 1517.
Merchants spread coffee quickly from Venice to Europe by 1615.
Coffee was so important to European society that even the social life of the West began to be centered at coffee shops.
Tobacco made a big impression on European culture.
The plant was brought back home by Columbus as an object of curiosity.
It reached as far as China by the mid-seventeenth century.
Settlement expansion was stimulated by the diffi culties of planting tobacco.
Many artists have a talent for portraying life at a particular time and documenting The New World's changing of Euro's distinguishing aspects.
The blend pean culture unfolded slowly in this painting by an unknown artist.
There were new cultures in the villages of Mexico in the 17th century.
Maria Sibylla Merian's drawings of New World plants and animals generated excitement in Europe.
She was an observer.
Ptolemy's vision is shown in Figure 12.2 as the explorers mapped the world.
The perspective of the world was skewed by the Mercator map, which kept Europe in the center.
One of the fruits Vespucci had found so strange was Merian's guava tree projection method, which allowed sailors to plot straight-line.
Most of the spiders in the drawing are eating ants.
European maps still show attacking a nest of hummingbird eggs.
By placing Europe in the center of the map and paying attention to detail and elements of fantasy, mapmakers could not distort their representation of the world.
India becomes smaller, Asia is divided, and global coastlines and great rivers seem to have less mass than they actually do.
Not copying the drawings of the naturalists.
Western culture was no longer contained in Europe by the early 16th century.
Europeans sailed all over the world.
They conquered the Americas and established trading posts in the East.
Merchants and entrepreneurs created a world market that stimulated the growth of commercial capitalism, new banking techniques, and popular inter est in economic opportunity.
Some governments tried to control the flow of money from their countries to other countries.
Huge wealth and unprecedented misery were generated by the great movement of Europeans.
Hundreds of thousands of Africans were enslaved and taken from their homelands because of warfare, disease, and abuse.
European appetites for more exploration and conquest were whetted by the blend of peoples, ideas, and goods.
Review the areas of Spanish and Portuguese exploration, and consider where these early explorers forced England, France, and the Netherlands to focus their attention.
The story of the struggles of European states is told in a complex relationship between technol and commercial exchange.
Consider how Renaissance thought contributed to the 16th century.
How did the Spanish view the world?
The painting shows Louis XIV of France riding a white horse into the gardens of his Versailles palace.
His courtiers are hoping to see him and other courtiers.