The need for a chariot-riding aristocracy was reduced by the introduction of cavalry.
Non- Chinese people in the north of China proper were the first to perfect shooting bows and arrows from horseback.
The northern state of Jin created its own cavalry to fight the horsemen.
They had to master the new technology once it started using cavalry.
Military readiness was dependent on acquiring and pasturing horses.
As military competition increased, rulers wanted to increase their populations and have more commoners serve as foot soldiers.
They dug irrigation channels and brought in new land to increase agricultural output.
They wanted to undermine the power of lords in order to get access to the peasants' labor power.
Serfdom gradually declined.
The extension of family names to commoners was preceded by the registration of populations.
There is a depiction of men attacking an animal on a Zhou bronze ritual vessel.
The need for a new type of general was created by the development of infantry armies, and rulers became less willing to let men lead troops just because of their birth.
The ideal general is a master of maneuver, illusion, and deception.
He argued that heroism is pointless and leads to needless deaths.
He said that the army had to be trained to follow the orders of its commanders without questioning them.
The Way of deception is war.
One who is competent pretends to be incompetent, one who uses his army pretends not to use it, and one who is distant pretends to draw near.
If the enemy wants an advantage, give it to him.
Attack where he doesn't think it will happen and go where he doesn't think it will happen.
During the Warring States Period, the states on the fringes of the Zhou realm had more room to grow than the states in the center.
With more resources, they were able to pick off their neighbors.
For two centuries the final outcome was not clear, as alliances among states were made and often broken.
The states were more centralized than their predecessors.
When the "Hundred Schools of Thought" were in competition, the Warring States Period was the golden age of Chinese philosophy.
During the same time period in which Indian mystics developed ideal forms of social and political organization and man's connections to nature.
After leaving Lu, he set out with a small group of students to look for a ruler who would listen to his advice.
In the early Zhou Dynasty, superiors looked after those dependent on them; inferiors devoted themselves to the service of their superiors; parents and children, husbands and wives all embraced what was expected of them.
The basis of society is between ruler and subject, between father and son, between husband and wife, between elder brother and younger brother, and between friend and friend.
He was an advocate of gentlemanly conduct.
He urged his followers to aspire to be gentlemen and not to be opportunists.
The Confucian gentleman was called to serve the ruler.
The ultimate virtue was humanity.
"Be nice to everyone when you go abroad," said the ancient Chinese philosopher.
Employ the people as though they were helping out.
Do not do things that others will not do to you.
There will be no complaints against you in your country or family.
Speculation, meditation, and mystical identification with deities were not valued in the Confucian tradition.
The men who came to study with him were encouraged to master the poetry, rituals, and historical traditions that we know today as Confucian classics.
Several themes emerge clearly from the sayings.
The best way to govern, filial piety, and morally superior gentleman are some of the ideas shown in the passages here.
The superior man will not inspire awe and his learning will not be on a firm foundation if he is not grave.
It is fundamental to hold loyalty and faithfulness.
Don't have friends who aren't as good as you.
He is careful in his speech.
He associates with men of moral principles.
Young men should be respectful to their elders when away from home.
They should be faithful and earnest.
They should be intimate with all men.
When a man's father is dead, look at his will.
Look at his conduct when his father is dead.
When parents are dead, serve them according to the rules of propriety.
"Filial piety nowadays means to be able to support one's parents," said the philosopher.
We support both dogs and horses.
In serving his parents, a son may remonstrate with them.
He should not abandon his effort to serve them when he sees that they don't listen to him.
I would give up food.
The people will be good if you want it.
The people are like wind and the ruler is like grass.
The upright men in my community are different from this.
The father and son hide their misdeeds.
The book was reproduced with permission of the university.
The success of Confucian ideas can be traced back to the followers of Confucius.
Mencius was the most important of them.
Mencius traveled around giving advice to rulers.
Concrete measures to ease tax burdens and improve the people's lot were proposed by Mencius.
Men who worked hard to fill the ruler's coffers or expand his territory earned his contempt.
In one conversation, the king of Qi asked if it was true that the founder of the Zhou Dynasty had taken up arms against his lord.
Mencius said that the histories said that.
Mencius said that the ruler in question was a villain and a criminal, so he was right to kill him.
Mencius argued that human nature is fundamentally good, as everyone is born with the capacity to recognize what is right and act on it, and that is one of the issues in moral philosophy.
The baby would be saved if anyone saw it falling into the well.
This would not be because he wanted a good reputation among his friends and neighbors or that he disliked hearing the child cry, but because of his inborn feeling of commiseration from which other virtues can grow.
Xunzi argued that people are born selfish and that only through education and ritual do they learn to put moral principle above their own interests.
The son yielding to or taking over the work of his father, or a younger brother yielding to or taking over the work of his elder brother are contrary to original nature and violate natural feelings.
Xunzi had worked in the court of his home state for many years and had no political or administrative experience.
Xunzi was a more rigorous thinker than his predecessors and he developed the foundations of many ideas outlined by Mencius and Confucius.
He did not propose abandoning rituals because they have positive effects on performers and spectators.
Ritual traditions sustain the social hierarchy because they specify graduated ways to perform the rites according to social rank.
Xunzi compared and contrasted ritual and music, saying that music shapes people's emotions and creates feelings of solidarity, while ritual shapes people's sense of duty and creates social differentiation.
As their own children look on, the married son and daughter-in-law give food or drink to the older couple and teach them how to treat their own parents.
During the Warring States Period, the Confucian vision of personal ethics and public service gained a small but ardent following.
Men who were educated in Confucian virtues were seen as ideal advisers and officials.
Confucian scholar-officials upheld the best ideals of statecraft and did not oppose bad government.
Chinese society was shaped by Confucian political ideals.
The moral basis for the Chinese family is provided by the Confucian vision.
It was seen as a sacred duty to pay parents and ancestors.
The attitude of children to their parents was extolled.
Newly unemployed men were recruited to serve as court assistants and advisers during the Warring States Period.
Lively debate resulted when these strategists proposed policies.
The circulation of "books" (rolls of silk, or strips of wood or bamboo tied together) stimulated further debate as followers took to recording their teachers' ideas.
Many of the schools of thought were against the ideas of Confucius.
The Legalists argued that a strong government depended not so much on moral leadership as on effective laws and procedures, and that the act of trying to improve society only made it worse.
The knowledge of China in the Warring States Period has recently been added to by newly discovered texts.
The wooden strips depicted here were part of a large cache discovered in 1993 in a late-fourth-century-B.C.E.
The site has a lot of philosophical texts.
There are many other types of books found in the region, not to mention versions of the classics that are not as well known.
One of the most recent discoveries was a multiplication table that could be used to calculate land area or taxes.
The way other objects from daily life were placed there, such as musical instruments and ritual vessels, suggests that these texts were placed in tombs because they meant a lot to the occupant.
Military officers, administrators, teachers, and works of literature and philosophy have been found buried.
The geography of the Chu region made it possible for these texts to survive.
The area has many lakes and streams, and wooden or bamboo objects that ended up below the water table were protected from air exposure.
The physical form of these books is important.
These books are made of wood or bamboo and have writing on them.
Before the introduction of paper, writing was done on these hard materials, which were much less expensive than silk, and were also used as a surface for writing.
A set of strips would be strung together and rolled up.
If a change was needed in a text, it would be done with a knife.
Many challenges have been posed by these texts.
Some scholars are unsure if a character they don't recognize is a variant of a known character or a word not previously seen.
Sometimes the order of the strips is uncertain because of the rotted cords and broken strips.
Many texts have been reconstructed, and the results show that the intellectual life of the Warring States Period was even richer than previously thought.
They believed in moral action.
Men of virtue should devote themselves to making the government work for the benefit of the people.
Those who were labeled Daoists disagreed.
They thought trying to make things better made them worse.
They wanted to let their minds wander and go beyond everyday concerns.
They focused on the larger scheme of things, rather than making human beings and human actions the center of concern.
The way is a term used by the Daoists.
The ruler should allow people to return to their natural state of ignorance and contentment, so that they don't compete.
The people will not steal if you don't value rare treasures.
The people's hearts will not be disturbed if objects of desire are not displayed.
He keeps their hearts vacuous, fills their bellies, Weakens their ambitions, and strengthens their bones in the government of the sage.
To be afraid to act.
Zhuangzi's thought was concerned with death.
He wondered if life is better than death.
I realize that she had no life, no form, and no material force when I think about it.
The material force was evolved in the limbo of existence and non-existence.
The material force was transformed to form, form was transformed to life, and now birth has become death.
The four seasons are spring, summer, fall and winter.
She is sleeping in the great house.
I would show my lack of knowledge of destiny by weeping and wailing.
Zhuangzi was an iconoclastic in his political philosophy.
In a parable, a wheelwright tells a duke that books are useless because all the men in them are dead.
The duke threatened to execute the wheelwright if he couldn't explain his remark.
The wheelwright says that skilled craftsmen do not keep in mind the rules they have mastered and that they respond to situations spontaneously.
The most important truths can't be written down or explained to others.
The validity of verbal reasoning is denied by this strain of thought.
Confucianism can be seen as a rejection of many of its basic premises.
Over the course of Chinese history, many people felt the pull of both Confucian and Daoist ideas and studied the writings of both schools.
Over the course of the fourth and third centuries B.C.E., one small state after another was conquered and the number of surviving states dwindled.
The rulers of the states were ready to listen to political theorists who claimed to know how to accumulate power.
Legalism was the basis for China's bureaucratic government.
The basis for China's later bureaucratic government was laid by political theorists who emphasized the need for rigorous laws.
The king abolished the aristocracy.
Social distinctions were to be based on the number of enemy heads cut off in battle.
In place of the old fiefs, the Qin king created counties and appointed officials to govern them.
Migrants from other states were recruited with offers of land and houses.
Farmers were allowed to buy and sell land to encourage them to work hard.
Ordinary farmers were freed from serf-like obligations to the local nobility, but direct control by the state could be even more burdensome.
Taxes and labor service obligations were high.
vagrants could be forced into labor service if they did not have a permit.
Everyone in the group of five and ten families was responsible for any crime committed in the group unless they reported it.
New and imaginative ways to decorate bronze vessels were developed in the same period when the Hundred Schools of Thought competed.
pounding silver into planned spaces created the diagonal design on this bronze wine flask.
Han Feizi was the greatest example of legalism.
He warned rulers of political pitfalls in his writings.
The ruler should control subordinates by manipulating competition and keeping them ignorant of his intentions.
His relationships with others should not include warmth, affection, or candor.
The officials and common people would be easy to govern if rulers made the laws and prohibitions clear and the rewards and punishments automatic.
Uniform laws get people to do things they would not otherwise be inclined to do, such as work hard and fight wars, which are essential to the goal of establishing hegemony over all the other states.
The laws of the Legalists were designed to make it hard for officials to regulate the common people.
Penalties were usually imposed through fines.
Intellectual debate and private opinion were not valued by legalism.
The ruler shouldn't allow others to question his laws.
In Legalism, there were no laws that were independent of the wishes of the rulers, and no laws that could limit rulers' actions in the way that natural or divine laws could.
The states adopted some Legalist ideas, but only the state of Qin followed them.
Chapters 7 and 8 discuss the extraordinary but brief success Qin had with these policies.
Confucians, Daoists, and Legalists had the greatest long-term impact on Chinese civilization, but the Hundred Schools of Thought also included everyone from logicians, hedonists, and utopians to natural philosophers who analyzed the workings of nature.
Yin is the feminine, dark, receptive, yielding, negative, and weak; the masculine, bright, assertive, creative, positive, and strong.
The poles are not distinct entities or opposing forces.
These models based on observation of nature were extended to explain phenomena such as the rise and fall of states and conflict in families, as well as natural phenomena such as illness, storms, and earthquakes.
There are unwanted things that happen when the balance between the two is disturbed.
One of the poles represents the feminine, dark, and receptive, and the other the masculine, bright, and assertive.
In the south of the Warring States Period, the art of lacquer wood was at its best, and dragons and phoenixes were often depicted.
Archaeologists have unearthed records of the popular religion of the time -- astrological manuals, handbooks of lucky and unlucky days, medical prescriptions, exercises, and ghost stories.
The tomb of an official who died in 316 B.C.E., has records of divinations showing that illness was caused by spirits or demons, best dealt with through performing exorcisms or offering sacrifice to the god Taiyi.
Bronze Age civilization developed in China after several thousand years of Neolithic cultures.
The high god Di and the royal ancestors were sacrificed.
The bronze-tipped weapons and chariots of the Shang armies gave them technological superiority over their neighbors.
Slaves who were sacrificed to the gods provided revenue for the king.
The Zhou Dynasty parceled out its territory to hereditary lords after it overthrew the Shang.
The old domains became independent states during the Warring States Period.
The introduction of cavalry, infantry armies, and the crossbow were some of the advances made in military technology.
The golden age of Chinese philosophy was here.
The virtues of filial piety and duty were promoted by Confucius and his followers.
Mencius argued that human nature is good.
Xunzi argued that human nature is selfish and should be curbed through education.
Legalists and daemons rejected all of the ideas.
The theories of good and bad and life and death were discussed by the Daoists Laozi and Zhuangzi.
The Confucian idea that a ruler can get his people to be good by being good himself was ridiculed by legalists.
The changes of seasons and health are explained by natural philosophers.
China's transition from Neolithic farming villages to a much more advanced civilization with writing, metalworking, iron coinage, crossbows, and competing states occurred centuries later than in Mesopotamia or India, but by the Warring States Period China was at the same stage of development as other advanced countries.
China's civilization was clearly invented in China, with its writing system, method of casting bronze, and Confucian philosophy, as well as elements that spread across Asia, such as the cultivation of wheat, the horsedriven chariot, and riding horseback.
Greece, the subject of the next chapter, was able to borrow many elements of civilization from its neighbors because it is very close to the ancient Near Eastern civilization.
It was smaller than China, yet it had a huge impact on the world.
The political forms and ideas of early Greece will stand out more clearly if we keep in mind India and China.
After looking at Greece and Rome, we return to China's history in Chapter 7.