An ideal battery would never run down, produce an unchanging voltage, and be capable of withstanding environmental extremes of heat and humidity.
The batteries have a balance between ideal characteristics and practical limitations.
The mass of a car battery is less than 1% of the average car or light-duty truck.
If this type of battery were used in a phone, it would provide unlimited energy, but it would not be accepted because of its mass.
The mass of the battery, its cost, reliability, and current capacity are all taken into account when selecting a battery for a particular application.
There are two types of batteries.
Next, a few batteries of each type are described.
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The battery is zinc-carbon.
The zinc can can be used as both a container and a negative electrode.
The positive electrode is made of carbon and surrounded by a paste of various substances.
More than one reaction occurs in the reaction at the cathode.
Regardless of the size of the battery, the same voltage is delivered.
D, C, A, AA, andAAA batteries all have the same rating.
Bigger batteries can deliver more electrons.
Chapter 17 is about chemistry for extended periods.
A zinc-carbon dry cell is shown in the diagram.
You can learn more about zinc-carbon batteries at this site.
They are replacements for zinc-carbon dry cells.
These types of batteries use alkaline electrolytes.
A zinc-carbon dry cell has about the same amount of energy as an alkaline battery.
It is recommended that alkaline batteries be removed from devices for long-term storage.
Most alkaline batteries are not rechargeable.
If you attempt to charge an alkaline battery that is not rechargeable it will cause a leak of the potassium hydroxide electrolyte.
Direct replacements for zinc-carbon batteries were designed for alkaline batteries.
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These are the types of batteries used in electronic devices.
The positive and negative plates are put into the case after being rolled together.
This design allows the NiCd cell to deliver more current than a similar-sized alkaline battery.
A NiCd battery can be charged 1000 times.
NiCd batteries are toxic and should never be opened or put into the regular trash.
NiCd batteries use a "jelly-roll" design that increases the amount of current the battery can deliver as compared to a similar-sized alkaline battery.
Information about nickel cadmium batteries can be found here.
The battery is small.
Lithium batteries are popular because they can provide a large amount of current, are lighter than comparable batteries of other types, produce a nearly constant voltage as they discharge, and only slowly lose their charge when stored.
In a battery, the charge moves between the anode and the cathode.
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It can produce the high current required by starter motor.
Lead acid batteries are heavy and have a caustic liquid electrolyte, but they are still the battery of choice because of their high current density.
The batteries have a lot of lead.
The low cost and high current output of the lead acid batteries make them excellent candidates for starter motor power.
Visit this site to learn more about lead acid batteries.
Fuel cells are similar to batteries but need a constant source of fuel.
As long as fuel is available, they will continue to produce electricity.
Oxygen from the air reacts with hydrogen to produce water and electricity.
The fuel cell's efficiency is typically 40% to 60%, which is higher than the typical internal combustion engine, and the hydrogen fuel cell produces only water as exhaust.
Fuel cells are expensive and have features that cause them to fail quickly.