The purpose of this chapter is to help you understand the diversity of cultures.
The various components of culture are presented in the chapter.
Each component is described in terms of its relevance to the exam.
The components are detailed with examples both domestic and international.
There are discussions on the spatial aspects of cultural identity, cultural change, adaptation, globalization, and conflicts based on cultural differences.
The author doesn't have a good answer to this question despite studying cultural geography for several years.
You paid good money for this book, so you deserve better.
A group of people who have a common heritage are called culture.
The definition of culture is too abstract to be used.
We will give you the many components of the cultural landscape instead of trying to tell you what culture is.
To prepare for the AP Human Geography Exam, it is more effective to examine the categories of cultural expression than to try to define culture in a few sentences.
The human landscape expresses some form of culture.
Trying to understand culture can be difficult.
We need to understand how culture is found on the cultural landscape in order to get a better grip on it.
We can see the cultural landscape in the form of signs and symbols in the world around us, which is a general way of saying that there are different ways customs are imprinted on the several components of culture.
The components of culture are expressed in a number of ways.
As simple as the language used on a street sign, or as complex as the cooking methods and spices used in Louisiana Cajun food, these historical influences can be found.
This chapter will detail each component of culture and give examples that will help you answer cultural geography questions on the exam.
The cultural landscape can be seen as a form of text that can be read.
We can read the signs and symbols that we see in culture and understand the heritage of that place.
It is important to know the history of the place to understand what you are seeing.
Most things in the cultural landscape are the product of cultural synthesis, or syncretism, the blend of two or more cultural influences.
Country music in the United States and Canada is an example of cultural synthesis.
Folk music traditions such as bluegrass are strongly tied to American culture.
The Scots-Irish, the German, and African immigrants and slaves in the American South and Appalachia influenced the beginnings of country music.
The mixture of musical sounds, vocabulary, rhythms, and instruments from these four culture groups came together to form a new style of music, as well as later developing into other American musical styles like jazz, the blues, and rock and roll.
It's important to understand the roots of the things we see in the cultural landscape, whether it's original to a single culture or the product of cultural synthesis.
The many components come together to identify and define a single culture group.
Not all of the components will be questioned on the exam.
Detailed geographical examples from Anglo-America and internationally will be given to help broaden your perspective on the subject.
There is a cultural imprint on the landscape with different artistic forms.
Art is not a subject of the AP Human Geography Exam.
If asked a general question about cultural landscape, be able to express art's importance as a source of local pride.
You need to be aware of a number of architectural styles if you want to pass the exam.
Religious buildings and housing types are relevant.
These questions are likely to fall in the multiple choice section of the exam and will have a picture or diagram to look at.
A lot of architectural forms are the product of cultural influence.
When new buildings are built, there is a lot of news about innovative designs.
Some of the forms of traditional architecture have been used for centuries.
As in the art world, architects have a distinct modern period of architecture which is different from new forms.
When describing a building type, be specific.
The 1950s homes of Frank Lloyd Wright and the rectangular steel and glass skyscrapers of the 1970s and 1980s are examples of modern architecture that was developed during the 20th century.
The contemporary architecture of the present is more organic.
Postmodern means that the design abandons the use of blocky rectilinear shapes in favor of wavy, crystalline, or bending shapes in the form of the home or building.
Green energy technologies, recycled materials, and metal sheeting can be used in contemporary architecture.
The Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain, and the Walt Disney Theater in Los Angeles are examples of this.
One of two patterns can be expressed in traditional architecture.
Modern architecture is combined with traditional materials like stone, brick, steel, and glass in a form of traditional architecture that is used in new commercial buildings.
Folk house designs from different regions of the country are used in housing.
A hybrid Swiss chalet-Williamsburg-style home covered in stucco with a clay tile roof is one example of a new home incorporating more than one element of folk house design.
There are some basic traditional housing style forms that could appear on the exam.
Small one-story pitched roof Cape Cod style or the irregular roof Saltbox with one long pitched roof in front and a sort of low-angle roof in back can be found in New England.
These are connected to one another by two or three stories.
Classical Greek and Roman designs are found around windows and rooflines.
As stand-alone buildings, these are symmetrical homes with central doorways and equal numbers of windows on each side of the house.
Simple rectangular I-houses have a central door with one window on each side of the home's front and three symmetrical windows on the second floor.
The rectangle shape and symmetry were lost as the I-house style changed.
I-houses used to have additions on the back or side of the house.
Fireplaces on each end of the house and an even-pitched roof are part of the I-house.
The loss of form as the I-house moved across the Appalachian Mountains to the Midwest and across the Great Lakes to the Prairie Provinces is an example of relocation diffusion.
Religion is an area of architecture that is included in the AP Human Geography Exam tests.
The major world religious groups have their own architectural forms for places of worship.
The front of a traditional house of worship usually has a central steeple or two high bell towers.
The bell towers are found in larger churches and cathedrals.
St. Peters in the Vatican and St. Paul's Cathedral in London have domes similar to the U.S. Capitol building.
There is a sculpture of Darth Vader on the west tower of the National Cathedral.
Temples and shrines are usually rectangular in shape and feature one or more short towers of carved stone.
The towers have carvings of the heads and faces of deities.
The most famous example of this design is the temple complex in Cambodia.
The temple is in Varanasi, India.
Depending on which Buddhist tradition is followed in the region, temples and shrines vary.
In Nepal and Tibet, a temple can have a dome or tower with a pair of eyes.
In East Asia, the tower-style pagoda has several levels, each of which has a winged roof.
One- or two-story buildings with large, curved, winged roofs are found in temples and shrines in China and Shinto Japan.
The Temple of the Sun and Moon in Beijing is guarded by large lion statues.
Temples in Southeast Asia tend to have towers with thin pointed spires that point out at an angle.
Many mosques have central domes.
One or more minarets are narrow towers that are pointed at the top of the mosque.
The most holy place in Islam is the Al-Kaaba Mosque in Mecca, an open-air mosque with a large black cube in its center.
The third holiest place in Islam is the Al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem, which is an eight-sided mosque with a high central dome and thin spire on top.
The Hagia Sofia is a large mosque.
A former Eastern Orthodox cathedral has a broad central dome and four spires.
The main prayer area of most mosques is positioned toward Mecca.
There isn't a common architectural design style for synagogues.
The Western Wall of the former Temple of Solomon is the holiest place in Judaism.
The old foundation walls feature large rectangular stone blocks where Jews pray and place written prayers in the cracks between the blocks.
The common tongue of the country that we live in is what we most often think about when we think about language.
The United States federal government does not have an official language.
Some states have English-only laws.
Since most of the United States is monolingual, these affect education standards and state government publications.
California is one of the states that accepts that they have a large multilingual immigrant population and has made provisions to provide some services in multiple languages.
English and French are the official languages of Canada.
Canada is bilingual.
The Netherlands is an example of a multilingual society.
Students are required to learn English, French, and German in school, as well as learning their native Dutch.
It's common for citizens in South Africa to be able to speak English, Afrikaans, and one or more African languages.
Depending on where you are in a larger linguistic region, the way a common language is spoken can sound different.
There is a distinct "strain" of English spoken in Australia with a variety of different words and sounds.
When traveling to the United States from New England to the American South, dialect can change from region to region.
dialects within Great Britain are shaped by national heritage.
English is not the same in Scotland, Wales, Ireland, Cornwall, or the Isle of Man as it is in England.
The degree of Celtic influence and the degree to which Anglo-Saxon invaders brought their Germanic language with them contributed to the variations.
The received pronunciation is what some refer to as the King's English or "posh" English.
The language of the working-class areas of the East London docklands and surrounding neighborhoods is not posh.
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Code phrases are used to describe everyday situations in cockney rhyming slang.
The word "going up the apples" means going up the stairs, and the word "apples and pears" means going up the stairs.
Slang is similar to other pidgin English dialects.
There are simplified forms of the language that use key vocabulary words.
This is heard in the spoken English of immigrants from India.
Over time, pidgin language forms can evolve into their own language groups.
French Creole is a language spoken in Haiti.
Many of the French overseas territories have their own forms of patois, like the one spoken in the islands of Martinique or Reunion.
Pidgin, Creole, and patois are syncretic language forms that integrate both colonial and indigenous language forms.
French has been used to bridge the linguistic gap between people of different national heritage.
lingua Franca is a bridge language and was created to describe its utility.
France has a long history of learning and diplomacy.
There were many French colonies around the world and Great Britain had territorial claims in France.
English is accepted as the global lingua franca as different forms of popular culture media, the Internet, and the business world are dominated by the English language.
English is the language of all airline pilots and air traffic controllers around the world.
The United States and Britain's international business dominance in the post-World War II era is demonstrated by the fact that this is done mainly for safety reasons.
There are a few major language families that are represented by the early or prehistoric language roots.
Each language family can be broken into groups.
Smaller language groups can be broken down into language subfamilies for larger language families.
Hindi is also from the Indian group along with Bengali and Nepali.
Genetic evidence of prehistoric migrations from the Indian subcontinent into Europe has led to the creation of the Indo-European concept.
These early immigrants brought their native language with them, which led to the creation of the modern European languages.
There are two different theories about the origin of European language.
The group of migrants from the Indian subcontinent and their language were concentrated in the peninsula that makes up most of present-day Turkey, according to the Anatolian theory.
A large migration crossed the Hellespont into continental Europe and spread out into a relatively unpopulated region.
The same group of migrants from the Indian subcontinent made their way into Central Asia, and then migrated across the Eurasian steppe into central and Western Europe, taking their language with them, according to the Kurgan theory.
It will be difficult to prove either theory without significant archaeological discovery or extensive genetic research.
Most Europeans are descended from populations that lived in the Indian subcontinent.
There are many theories as to why this light-skinned population, similar to many light-skinned Aryan Indians, pulled up their roots and moved west.
They took their language and genes with them.
People with red hair can still be found in northern India and Pakistan because of the Celtic trait for red hair.
Music is a form of nonmaterial culture that has geographic roots.
Since the geography of musical culture can be seen on the AP exam, you should know a few things about it.
Folk music is music that is original to a culture.
Folk music traditions often have instruments that are different to that culture.
Folk song lyrics often include cultural stories and religious traditions.
It is usually unplugged without electronic instruments.
Popular culture creates a global flow of pop music that often drowns out local folk music traditions from radio and other media.
Folk traditions accepting the influence of popular music indicates a form of acculturation.
Scots-Irish, German, and African culture have roots in American folk music and country music.
The fiddle, a variant of the European violin, and the banjo--an instrument of African origin--are folk traditions in Appalachia.
The most popular folk music type in the region is bluegrass, which originated in Kentucky and is known as the "Bluegrass State".
The lead instruments in bluegrass are the fiddle and banjo.
The region spans from Mississippi to the Maritime provinces and has a number of other folk styles.
Rock and roll and bluegrass have both influenced contemporary country music.
The guitar is the lead instrument in country music compared to bluegrass.
From country to Western music, the guitar is linked back to the Spanish Americans of colonial Mexico and the American Southwest.
Kentucky is one of the historic development cores of country music.
Folk musicians from other cultures have contributed to many of the recordings sold in the United States and Canada as World Music.
The top-selling group is the Gypsy Kings.
The band is from France, but their families left Spain decades earlier due to persecution by the Franco-led fascist government of gypsies.
TheGypsy Kings play from a variety of folk traditions and languages, including their native Roma to Spanish flamenco, as well as Basque and Catalan folk songs, which they have popularized.
Celts, Irish, Welsh, Scots, Manx (from the Isle of Man), Spanish Galicians, or their migrant descendants are all where Celtic folk music traditions are found.
Irish Celtic music has a large following.
The fiddle, flute, tin whistle, harp, concertina accordion, and "Uilleann" or Irish pipes are just some of the instruments used in the traditional music.
Nowadays, Pan-Celtic music draws from more than one Celtic region and uses other non-Celtic instruments like guitar, banjo, and bouzouki.
If you can pick out the Celtic Scots-Irish folk musical influence, then you should listen to country or bluegrass.
There is a cultural imprint on the land with different forms of film and television.
Film and TV are not subjects of the AP Human Geography Exam.
If you are asked a general question about cultural landscape, you should be able to express film and television's importance.
The media forms are major conduits for cultural globalization.
Food is a form of culture that is different in many ways.
Continental cuisine originated from mainland Europe in the 1800s.
In haute cuisine, a main meat course is served with a flour, cream, or wine-based sauce and side dishes of vegetables and potato.
Duck a l'orange, filet mignon, and chocolate mousse are haute cuisine dishes that are popular in North America.
escargots (snails in garlic butter) from Provence in Southern France, and coq Au vin (Rooster in red wine sauce) from a number of regions can be found in this style of cooking.
You thought that Arnold was the only Austrian in Malibu.
France, Spain, and Italy are some of the countries that have a Nouvelle cuisine.
The lighter, fresh fare of California-style cuisine has become very popular around the world, even though there is a strong style in France.
Gone are the heavy sauces and 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 These have been popularized by celebrity chefs such as the Austrian-born Californian Wolfgang Puck, who uses a number of Mediterranean agriculture products in his dishes.
Wolfgang Puck is a proponent of fusion cuisine, in which more than one global tradition is incorporated in dishes.
One of the leaders of the fusion movement that integrates dishes and flavors from Japan, China, Southeast Asia, Polynesia, and Europe is a Japanese-American celebrity chef.
Hawaii's location makes it a place of heavy immigration from these parts of the world, where cultural synthesis in food and other cultural components such as music takes place.
Folk food dishes are the basis of all of these forms.
Folk food from Japan is called sushi.
A folk form called nigiri is a small pat of rice.
The contemporary form of sushi has become stylized with special rolls, makizushi or just maki and a variety of ingredients like raw, smoked, or fried seafood and fresh vegetables.
A number of regional ingredients from the Mediterranean and North Africa are used in the folk food tradition.
Chicken and lamb are popular in main dishes since they are rare in North Africa and pork is banned by Islam.
Permitted meats must be slaughtered according to religious rules if they want to be eaten by Muslims.
The high Atlas Mountains grow a lot of root vegetables and chickpeas, which are often served with meat.
Food is often cooked in a clay pot called a tajine and has a variety of spices in it.
Chickpeas can be ground and mixed with a sesame seed paste called tahini, along with olive oil, salt, and lemon to make hummus, which is increasingly popular in Europe and Anglo-America.
There is a cultural imprint on the landscape with different clothing styles.
The AP Human Geography Exam does not test clothing like art.
Since the way people dress is an important sign of their ethnicity, be able to express clothing's importance if asked a general question.
Film and TV are conduits for cultural globalization.
Different types of social interaction are culturally constructed, meaning they were created by a specific culture group.
A basic example of culturally different social interaction is physical greetings.
The bow still holds as the primary formal greeting in Japan, whereas in the West a handshake is a common greeting.
The forehead and nose are pressed together in the traditional New Zealand greeting.
Non-touching cheek kissing is an example.
Kiss four times in Paris, France, upon greeting, twice on each side; in Serbia and the Netherlands, three times, right side first; and twice in Spain, Austria, and Scandinavia, where there is a variable number of kisses.
Personal space varies from country to country.
If you like a large personal space bubble, it's rude to sit in an empty seat next to someone in Peru, even if they're not a stranger.
Next time you go to a movie theatre or a bus, think about this.
Religions are as common as languages, according to some social scientists.
Specific religions are drawn from larger global groups.
Religions can be categorized by their expanse.
Universalizing religions allow followers from all ethnicities worldwide, as opposed to ethnic religions which only allow followers from a specific culture group.
The scriptures are said to be written of divine origin.
Religion, worship, and ethical behavior in society are governed by formal doctrine.
Religions can be understood by their ability to compromise.
Compromising religions can be used to reform or integrate other beliefs into their practices.
The fundamentalists have little interest in compromising their beliefs or doctrine and strictly adhere to scriptural dictates.
The worship practices and morality tales of these groups define a right and ethical way to live.
In Latin, Animus means spirit.
Animists believe that items in nature can have spiritual being, including landforms, animals, and trees.
Hinduism was the oldest universalizing religion.
The polytheistic denominations spread throughout Asia by the 1200s C.E.
There are many levels of existence, the highest being nirvana, where someone can achieve total consciousness or enlightenment.
One's soul is reincarnated many times.
The outcome of reincarnation depends on the balance of good and bad in life.
The story of Abraham is a morality tale of respect for the will of God or Allah, similar to the descriptions of the Earth's origins in each of these religions.
Each is a belief system with a single supreme being.
Saints, angels, and archangels can be sub-deities.
prophecy predicts the coming or return of a messianic figure that defeats the forces of a satanic evil for souls of followers
Major religious groups can be broken down into these traditions.
There is a quick and basic guide to the world's major religious groups.
A lot of the questions on the exam rely on your knowledge of religious geography.
The major world religions are most likely to show up on the exam if you have a firm grasp of them.
There are many animist belief systems.
The system is based on belief in a supreme or Great spirit.
shamans, sometimes referred to as "medicine men", who are practitioners that lead worship and religious rites, provide spiritual interpretation.
Depends on tribal following.
Prayers or appeals to the sun, moon, animal spirits, and weather are important in most practices.
Different parts of the world are controlled by multiple deities.
shamanism is part of the system of worship.
Doctrine is dependent upon the community.
Common practices attempt to bring worshippers in contact with deities and family ancestors in the spiritual world through different ceremonies.
The degree of influence from parallel Christian worship by Voodoun followers affects theDenominations.
In addition to India, there are also significant populations in Indonesia, London, Manchester, and other parts of the former British Empire.
The practice of temple-based worship and festivals to praise supreme gods include Vishnu, Shiva, Krishna, and animal forms of Ganesha and Naga.
The historical moral traditions and practices are depicted in several writings.
Different denominations are often based on cults to deities.
The reincarnation principle states that people are born into a social level where they stay for the rest of their lives.
The historical Hindu temple complex at Angkor Wat in Cambodia is one of the locations where a remnant population is found today.
There are several texts known as Agamas in Western India.
The Tattvartha Sutra is often cited.
Every living soul is potentially a divine god because of the complete respect for all other animal life.
People who follow a strict vegetarian diet often wear face masks to protect themselves from insects.
There are three main groups that differ in practice and worship.
During the colonial period, Jain communities relocated to Great Britain.
Mohandas Gandhi's civil rights and peace activism were influenced by his mother's Jainism.
The Gangetic Plain of North Central India and spread throughout Asia contains early Hindu texts and the life and teachings of Siddhartha.
This is done by understanding the effects of suffering on human life and following a "Middle Way" to enlightenment.
The Hindu caste system was rejected by Buddhism because it was oppressive.
Tibetan Buddhists accept westerners into their community but are uncompromising in their beliefs.
Theravada tends to be less universalizing than Mahayana Buddhism.
Zen, Confucianism, Shinto, and Taoism are some of the different forms of philosophy in the Eastern tradition.
There are several examples of Buddhism moving across physical barriers, including Tibetan Buddhism across the Himalayas and the Tarim Basin desert to Siberia and Mongolia, Theravada from Sri Lanka across the Bay of Bengal to Southeast Asia, and Mahayana from the Himalayas to Eastern China.
There are several levels of existence, from the lowest animal forms to human forms and then higher animal forms, which are considered sacred, such as cattle, elephants, and snakes, according to the Hindu scriptures.
The levels are referred to as the chakras.
If the soul has a positive karmic balance, it can be elevated to a higher level.
The balance of good and bad in a person's life is called karma.
When someone is born into a caste, he stays there for the rest of his life, no matter how rich or poor he becomes.
The lowest human form, dalits, are considered less holy due to their distance from nirvana, while the highest human form, the Brahmans, are considered the priesthood of Hindus due to their relatively close position to the enlightened.
Some can be selected as high government officials, because they are responsible for temples and leading religious worship.
Some people may live as monks, who might live as hermits meditating, or as ascetics who sit on sidewalks and perform prayers for those who provide their food donations.
Despite their political power, hereditary princes and kings still bow to the Brahmans.
The vaisya caste is made up of doctors, lawyers, accountants, and middle-ranking officials in the government.
The caste is broken up into several hundred sub-castes, or jati, including potters, glassworkers, and jewelers.
The "untouchables," a name derived from their low position in the system, are considered "unholy" by higher castes.
The lowest-caste humans in the community were the only ones who could clean the train stations and sewer.
The caste structure in Indian society has been eliminated by the government since India gained independence.
Compulsory elementary education, opening public trade schools, high schools, and universities to large numbers of lower-caste members who had been discriminated against in the past are some of the programs that have been put in place to elevate the social and political standing of the lower castes.
The caste difference in Indian cities has become less and less.
Marriage is still one area in which there is an emphasis on caste, as most traditional parents want their children to marry within their caste.
European Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardic Jews from North Africa, and the Middle East and Native Israelis are some of the larger groups.
January 1st was on the Hebrew calendar.
In Israel, peripheral communities in Europe, United States, and Canada, as well as the metropolitan area around New York City and other urban areas worldwide, such as London, Antwerp, Paris, Los Angeles, Toronto, and Cleveland, there is a Torah.
The Jewish Diaspora begins in 70 C.E.
and is part of the Denominations: Hassidic, Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, and Reconstructionism.
The beginning of the Jews' movement to Israel from Europe can be traced back to the aftermath of the Nazi Holocaust.
The Middle East and North Africa were affected by conflicts in the 1950s and 1960s.
The Roman Empire was not officially recognized until the 4th century C.E.
Around 30 C.E., the following begins.
The Bible is divided into an Old Testament, a modification of the Torah, and a New Testament, which depicts the messianic life of Jesus of Nazareth.
Typically involves communion practices.
Denominations can be divided into further denominations.
Christianity spread from the Mediterranean to large cities such as Rome, Constantinople, and Alexandria.
The religion was spread to other towns and cities by missionaries.
The Islamic realm spans from West Africa, east to Indonesia, and the Philippine Island of Mindanao, north to Chechnya, and west to Western China.
If not more, all sects emphasize at least five pillars of Islam.
The Sunni and Shia sects have a number of denominations within them.
Shiites emphasize the need for religious leaders to have a direct blood line back to Muhammad, which leads to differences between the two major sects.
Islam spread very quickly from Mecca.
All of the Middle East and North Africa were followers of Islam by 700 C.E.
Expansion into Europe and Asia continued through the 1600s.
In the 1200s, relocation was seen to Indonesia.
The senior positions of governance are held by religious leaders in a few countries in the Middle East.
Iran has a supreme religious council that can overrule the elected parliament and president.
Some Middle-Eastern states are republics or monarchies that follow Islamic law based on the Koran and Haddith.
A few absolute monarchies have all-powerful kings and large aristocracies who enforce religious standards on the populace.
Other states in the region are secular, meaning they are not directly governed in a religious manner and instead use French or British legal tradition and government structure.
Tension between the secular government and religious activists can cause trouble in these states, even though the influence of religion on government policy remains.
The core beliefs from two or more other religions can be combined into a syncretic religions.
The Druze and the Sikhs incorporate both Christian and Islamic principles.
Sikhs do not agree with the idea of a caste-based social hierarchy.
The basic moral code for all followers of the Judeo-Christian system is based on the Ten Commandments from the Book of Exodus.
Five pillars are emphasized in the Koran in order to guide followers with a moral system.
All work stops and prayer mats are unrolled when the call to prayer is heard.
The azimuth is the angle of direction from Mecca to other parts of the Earth.
There is only one god, Allah, and Muhammad is the prophet.
The creed is a statement of monotheism.
Prior to Muhammad's conversion to Islam, many of the people in the region believed in polytheistic religions, such as tribal religions.
It is the duty of all Muslims to care for and donate to the poor and sick within their communities.
Large charitable foundations in the Islamic world help alleviate poverty, extend health care, and educate children.
Many of these international charities have come under increased scrutiny by the U.
During the month of Ramadan, there is a period of spiritual cleansing and repentance for past sins.
Our Gregorian calendar allows for a wide range of months in which the lunar month of Ramadan can fall.
A Muslim who is able must make at least one pilgrimage to Mecca.
"Haji" is an honorific name for those who make the journey.
The geography of religion can be broken down by region.
In Chapter 6 there is a section about religious-based conflict.
In chapter 9 of Know the Models there is a discussion on religion and ethnicity in urban American neighborhoods.
The collected stories, spoken-word histories, and writings that are specific to a culture and tell the societal histories and morality tales that define a culture's ethical foundations are called folklore.
Similar to religious scriptures, the morality tales dictate culturally constructed rules of behavior.
The folklore from the classical Greeks is an example of Aesop's fables.
Each fable taught a lesson about proper behavior.
Many American forms of folklore, such as Paul Bunyan, John Henry, and Mike Fink, mix a bit of the real to tell tales of a strong work ethic, a product of Puritan Protestantism.
The myth of George Washington chopping down his father's cherry tree can lead to distortions of reality in the lives of historical figures.
Hollywood depictions of American frontiersmen have furthered fictions and half-truths about the long-dead historical persons.
Folklore has been built around the life and travels of Christopher Columbus in many parts of the Americas.
The folklore varies from country to country.
Evidence shows that settlements were established on the northeastern tip of Newfoundland around 1000 C.E.
When a global climate cooling event resulted in crop failures, these were abandoned 100 years later.
People are likely to leave to other settlements in other countries.
The mainland United States was never visited by Columbus.
He traveled to Puerto Rico and the mainland of South and Central America.
The ships he took with him on his first voyage were shown here.
You might not know that the Santa Maria struck a reef off the northern coast of Haiti, the island Columbus named Hispanola.
Columbus and 40 other men were forced to leave a colony named for the Spanish Queen.
This was to establish trade with the Indians.
Not a single sign of the 40 men was found at the village after Columbus returned.
Columbus and the other crew that came back to rescue their friends were devastated.
Columbus was from Genoa, a coastal city in northern Italy.
Columbus tried to get funding for his expedition to the Indies, but was turned down by a number of potential donors because he wanted to sail across the Atlantic instead of around Africa.
Spain was nearly bankrupt from years of war trying to remove the Muslim Moors from the southern Iberian Peninsula and needed the new trade route to raise money.
The western route to land had been rumored for a long time.
The Portuguese were interested in protecting their African trade route and would likely fight to protect it.
The Spanish didn't have access to the sailing charts and maps.
Columbus was given the title of admiral of the seas but did not receive the promised 10 percent of treasure from the New World.
His sons were able to get money from the Spanish government after his death.
Columbus was blind when he died in Spain at the age of 54.
This may seem like a historical example.
The Columbus myth and the settlement of Latin America are areas of extensive research.
You need to be prepared for this kind of thing on the exam.
For an accurate description of the Columbus voyages and the first Spanish settlement in the New World, read Carl Sauer's Northern Mists.
Land survey techniques can show something about the cultural landscape.
Property can say something about culture through its impact on the landscape.
There are cultural differences in agriculture.
Farming can be culturally specific and influenced by technology.
It is, after all, a culture of agriculture.
There are a variety of farming practices seen in the First World.
Modern, mechanized farming is replacing traditional farming practices in the Third World.
There are still some culturally specific and low-tech farming practices in the First World.
Maple syrup production can be found in Vermont.
You can find blue sheep's milk cheese in France or Parmagianno Reggiano in Italy, which is a hard cow's milk cheese.
A culturally specific farm product that brings high value can be found in these high-value appellations.
Champagne and Vermont Maple Syrup are protected by international trade laws.
Chapter 7 contains information about appellations and specialized agriculture.
The distribution of living space is an indicator of culture in rural and tribal areas.
Many cultural traditions impose rules on living space because of singular clan relations, extended family units with more than one clan, or whole tribal communities with multiple clans living in one shared residential area.
Chapter 9 describes the distribution of urban land use.
In Europe, much of Latin America, and Anglo-America east of Central Ohio and Ontario used natural landscape features to divide up land on a system of metes and bounds that had been developed centuries earlier.
The European feudalist political economy can be seen in the Metes and bounds.
Territorial claims of large landholdings were the early form of the irregular property boundaries.
Landholdings became subdivided through partial land sales or nationwide land reform efforts.
Quebec and Louisiana have long-lot patterns.
These are close to a road or waterway with a long lot behind them.
Land survey in the United States and Canada used a rectilinear township and range survey system based on lines of latitude and longitude, which was transferred from sea navigation in the 1830s.
The geometric shape of many western U.S. states and Canadian provinces was produced by this.
It shows the impact of technology on the cultural landscape.
Cultural geography includes how people are identified and who they are.
The several dimensions of identity that may appear on the exam are examined in this section.
In normal conversation, the term nation is used lightly.
There is a specific definition for the term for cultural and political geographers.
A nation is a population represented by a single culture.
A culture group is a term for nation.
A common identity is a mix of genetic heritage and political loyalties embodied in the term ethnicity.
Ethnic groups often claim a single identifiable heritage, which all members tend to identify with as a common social bond.
Several ethnicities can be found within the same linguistic region as with the English language.
French Canadians, South Asian Indians, or Belgians can all be used in a single language.
A state in its most simple form is a population represented by a single government.
This is the case with our previous music example of the Romani peoples of Europe.
The Kurds of northern Iraq, southeastern Turkey, northeastern Syria, and western Iran are all defined as groups with no official government.
The Kurds are trying to establish a Kurdistan in northern Iraq and northeastern Syria.
The relationship between the United States and Turkey prevents the Kurds from being recognized as an independent state.
In the process of migration, ethnicity can be changed.
Italian-Americans and Irish-Canadians are some of the migrant groups in the United States and Canada.
A modified ethnicity can be evidence of acculturation by immigrants to their new home country.
There is a section on acculturation in this chapter.
Ethnicity and race can be confused.
Race refers to the physical characteristics of a common genetic heritage.
The concept of race was developed by anthropologists.
Skin color, bone structure, and the shape of the hair shafts were some of the variables used to categorize racial groups.
Over time these formerly scientific ideas were used as the basis for racism within society and have lead to oppression, suffering, and war throughout the world.
Three large, distinct racial groups emerged from this research: the Caucasian, with a light to dark skin tone, medium body type, and wavy hair shaft; the Asian, with a tan or yellowish skin tone, small body structure, and straight hair shaft; and the wavy hair shaft.
All Asians have similar physical features.
The Native Americans shared many of the same features with the Mongolians.
A body of theory connecting Native Americans to origins in Asia has been added to by archeological and genetic research.
During the prehistoric era, the Caucasus Mountains region is believed to have been a major migration route from the Indian subcontinent to Europe.
The Latin and French term for black is negro.
There are four small populations of physical anthropological groups within the Pacific Islands.
The dark skinned Melanesians, who are also known as the dark skinned, have relatively thin bodies and facial features with a curly hair shaft.
Polynesians have a lighter brown skin color, heavyset body shape, and curly hair shafts.
Micronesians have a light brown skin color, medium body shape, and curly hair shafts.
Light brown skin, medium body type, and wavy hair shafts are some of the characteristics of Australia's aboriginals.
Race has become less of an identity in the contemporary era.
Discrimination based on race was abolished in many countries during the 20th century.
The election of Barack Obama as president of the United States shows that progress has been made.
In many parts of the world, identity is based on a single race being the indigenous population.
Multiple mixed races define identities in other parts of the world.
Identity is based on mixed races in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Several thousand terms are used to describe different degrees of mixed heritage across the region.
The larger representative groups are the focus of the exam.
Mestizos have heritage from both European and Native American.
People with European and African heritage are called mulattos.
The Garifuna are a group of mixed Native American and African people.
The Garifuna live in the Caribbean islands of St.Vincent, Dominica, and Trinidad, as well as the coast of Honduras.
Creole is a term used to describe a culture that is derived from all three racial groups.
The term in Spanish meant someone who was born in the New World, regardless of heritage, and could refer to them with two European parents.
Creole heritage and culture can be found in the Greater Antilles, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica, as well as coastal Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi.
gumbo is an example of Creole food.
bouillabaisse with file is a French Mediterranean soup that is similar to Native American cooking made of sassafras.
West African red rice was first used in American cooking in the 1600s.
Human geographers developed the concept of environmental determinism to explain cultural differences around the world at the same time anthropologists were establishing the physical characteristic of race.
The former scientific ideology that states that a culture's traits are defined by the physical geography of its native region is called environmental determinism.
Modern human geography is based on deterministic philosophies.
The Anthropogeographie of the German geographer Friedrich Ratzel, considered the father of modern human geography, built a large body of research claiming that all aspects of culture were defined by physical geographic factors.
The problem with environmental determinism was that science was being used to reinforce racist ideologies of the 1800s and early 1900s.
An example of this logic is that people from extremely hot tropical regions are considered lazy because they don't want to work in the midday heat.
People from the cold regions had to be more physically and mentally tough to survive the cold winters.
These ideas are based on flimsy evidence and are scientifically incorrect.
Different races and cultures can survive in a variety of climates and environments.
Despite the global elimination of slavery by the late 1800s, racism and environmental determinism were accepted both socially and scientifically.
Carl Sauer was one of the human geographers who opposed the environmental determinists.
The revised concept was called Possibilism.
Cultures were to a partial degree shaped by their environment and the material resources available to them according to this ideology.
Culture groups can modify the environment.
In many cases, cultures made massive modifications to the landscape to meet their food and resource needs, often destroying the natural environment in the process.
The deterministic ideas first proposed by Ratzel had become ingrained in the European society and psychology despite the contribution of Sauer to the science of human geography in the 1920s.
The living space for each nation was based on the optimal physical geography of the culture group, which is what the Nazism concept was based on.
The living space of the Germanic or Aryan race was supposed to be expanded by Hitler.
It was at the expense of other European ethnic groups who were also Caucasians.
Despite Germany's defeat during World War II, Nazi ideologies still persist among some groups in the United States and Europe.
The neo-Nazism is not based on race, but on violence against immigrants and non-whites.
This is an expression of fear of outsiders.
The audience with which people communicate is what determines how they express their identity.
People who share their heritage or place of origin can use internal identity to express their cultural heritage, ethnicity, or place of origin.
People who do not share a common cultural or geographic background use external identity to express their cultural heritage, ethnicity, or place of origin.
An Egyptian in London is introduced to another person of Egyptian descent.
Local place-names, family names, and culturally specific language are included in the conversation immediately.
This is the same Egyptian who met someone from Canada an hour later.
On the other side of the conversation, the Canadian may have her own misconception which can further distance the two people.
The Canadian may lose face if they refer to Egyptians as Arabs, as many Egyptians consider themselves a single culture group as opposed to those who live in the Arabian Peninsula.
The Egyptian thinks that she should refer to the Canadian as an American.
It is possible that we use external identity to compensate for the lack of cultural knowledge from one group to another.
The world is covered with many cultures that create multiple layers on a global scale.
A region is an area of space with a single characteristic.
In the case of culture regions, the homogeneity can be more than one component of culture.
The culture region can be represented by the cultural concept of a nation or ethnicity.
If the culture region is defined by ethnicity, look for a number of cultural components with which to define a number of characteristics as a complex of defining factors.
The border characteristics of cultural regions are different from other types of regions.
fuzzy borders are what cultural regions have.
It's hard to tell where one cultural region ends and another begins.
It is not easy to measure the transition from one cultural region to another.
The cultural regions overlap in an irregular way.
There is a fuzzy border where the American Northeast or Midwest begins.
Some people try to apply a political boundary to it, like the Mason-Dixon Line, but this is not a good definition.
The Mason-Dixon Line runs from Delaware to Maryland.
One part of the state is decidedly Southern and the other part is Northeastern.
Some have tried to quantify certain cultural symbols in order to determine the region's boundaries.
It is possible to estimate the concentration of NASCAR fans or the market areas of country music radio listeners.
You would find that the phenomena of NASCAR and country music extends far beyond the South proper.
The culture hearth is based on the idea that every culture has a specific area where it started and its main population center.
Today's world has temporary culture hearths.
The idea of ancient culture hearths, which developed ideas and technologies that still exist today, is discussed by human geographers.
The domestication of staple food crops is the most common of these technologies.
In the ancient world, staple food crops were very important, as they fed the conquering armies of empires, provided sustenance for the labor force, and were the primary commodity for commercial trade networks.
Most large ancient civilizations had a single staple food, which they either domesticated or utilized heavily.
Rome and Greece were major consumers of wheat.
In Mesopotamia, wheat was domesticated long before.
This happened in northern Iraq and southeastern Turkey.
The Minoan culture of Crete was a progenitor of the culture traditions of ancient Greece and Rome.
The concepts of democracy and the republic are some of the things that Western societies draw upon from Greek and Roman politics.
The core of a contemporary culture region can be represented by fireplaces.
The Mormon culture region of the American West is an example of a region with a distinct core.
The homogeneity of the region is reflected in the religion of the Latter-Day Saints.
The LDS film industry is an example of a distinct Mormon culture.
Notable expressions of the region's culture have been produced by LDS filmmakers.
The Salt Lake City-Ogden-Provo metropolitan area is home to the population and cultural core of the region.
Most of the 1.5 million people in the area are church members.
The main office of the church is located in Temple Square in Salt Lake City, which is also home to a large convention center.
Outside of the Wasatch Front, the region is mostly rural and agricultural.
The Mormon culture region is spread across the farms and dry ranch lands of Utah and the border region of Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, and Nevada, with significant populations in rural eastern Oregon and suburban Southern California.
When you leave Utah's borders, the cultural signs and symbols become less important.
Mormonism is still present in the population even in the peripheral region.
There are large active Mormon communities in Las Vegas, Idaho Falls, Denver, Phoenix, and Los Angeles.
Mormonism was the fastest-growing Christian group between 2010 and 2013, and it has churches in almost all of the U.S. counties.
There are two types of regions, formal and functional, with a central place.
A functional region is an organized network with connections throughout the region.
The Mormon culture region could be argued to be both functional and formal.
Mormon culture can be seen through the population of followers who are concentrated in the Intermountain West.
Mormons in the region are a large and distinguishable populace, even though not everyone who lives there is a Mormon.
The Salt Lake City-based Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints has a very well-organized and hierarchical network of neighborhood ward, local, state, and regional church administration.
The Mormon culture region is a functional region.
The culture of Islam is found along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia.
Mecca is the most holy city of Islam and was where Muhammad was born.
The second holiest city in Islam is Medina, where Muhammad received a portion of the Koran.
The spiritual centers of the faith are the centers of Islamic learning and traditional philosophy.
The Middle East is not as well-populated as other parts of the Islamic world.
The majority of the world's Muslims are not in the Middle East.
66 percent of the world's 1 billion Muslims are found in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, and Indonesia.
In all of the world's populated regions, long-term cultural changes can be seen.
The concept of sequent occupance is one way this is observed.
Over time, different dominant cultures replace each other in a single place.
Think of layers of culture building up on top of each other as if they were layers of rock.
We often see remnants of previous cultural influences when we look at the cultural landscape of a place.
European architecture can be found in former colonial cities of Africa.
There is a postcolonial Nigerian landscape with modern buildings, a product of globalized architecture, and place names and street names with Nigerian references that replaced the British colonial names after independence in 1960.
The British ruled New York City at one point.
The Dutch ruled the city prior to this.
The shores of New York Harbor were rich in oysters and other seafood before that.
Large garbage dumps of mainly oyster shells and other artifacts of Native American life are uncovered in construction site excavations along the waterfront.
There are signs and symbols of the postcolonial and modern American cultural.
The cultural landscape has the imprint of minority and immigrant groups.
The ethnic neighborhood is an example of how these groups make their way into a much smaller area.
In New York, Little Italy or Chinatown immediately come to mind.
Puerto Rican and Dominican immigrants settled in Spanish Harlem from the 1950s onward.
European immigrants came to America in the early 20th century and adopted many new beliefs and behaviors.
As they adjusted to life in America, they kept much of their original culture.
An example of acculturation is the process of adapting to a new culture while keeping some of the original culture.
acculturation is a two-way street, with both the original and incoming culture groups changing cultural characteristics.
It's more of an "all-or-nothing" process.
Assimilation is a complete change in the identity of a minority culture group as it becomes part of the majority culture group.
The U.S. government adopted a policy of "forced assimilation" when it came to the Native American population.
The Native Americans were forced to move to reservations because they were taught in government-run schools.
The people were told to give up their native tongue to learn English.
The dress, manners, language, and ways of the dominant American culture were insisted upon by the government.
The old ways were not allowed.
When new residents are forced to learn new languages and embrace new ways of life, the government usually encourages them to absorb this total absorption into the dominant culture.
Military invasions, mass migrations, and the decline of the indigenous culture have historically threatened national cultures in other parts of the world.
The original inhabitants of a place or region are referred to as indigenous.
The original culture of that region is the indigenous culture.
A major policy issue among governments is the loss of indigenous culture.
External cultural influences can threaten the indigenous culture.
Cultures are in danger of extinction if something is not done to help protect and promote the preservation of cultural heritage.
William Denevan's work on the depopulation of Native Americans in the early colonial era is one of the most important pieces of research on the destruction of indigenous culture groups.
The pre-Columbian population of North and South America was approximately 54 million people, according to research collected by Denevan and allied researchers.
By 1635, the total native population had declined to around 5 million people.
Understanding what caused the decline of the indigenous population was the next part of Denevan's research.
The decline in native culture was caused by diseases of European origin and was found in the diaries and journals of Jesuit priests, ship captains and other individuals.
Prior to the arrival of European colonizers, there were no known diseases in the Americas.
Native Americans did not have an immune system defense against these pathogens.
The flu resulted in deadly epidemics with high rates of mortality among indigenous groups.
According to research, deaths from European diseases vastly outnumbered all other causes of death.
Disease epidemics have a devastating effect on the survival of many unique and advanced civilizations in the Americas.
There is a growing theory that a large civilization existed in the Amazon basin that may have been wiped out by European disease.
The difference is that the people in the area did not use stonework.
The rapid decline of wooden houses and buildings in the tropical environment left little evidence of a large and extensive agricultural society.
terra preta soil formations are the focus of archaeological and geographic research to learn more about ancient Amazonian civilization.
terra preta means black earth, which was formed by combining charcoal, bone, and manure to increase the soil fertility.
A number of indigenous cultures from around the world are under threat from a variety of forces that have the potential to wipe them out.
The concept of cultural survival describes the efforts to research, understand, and promote the protection of indigenous cultures.
In addition to protecting the identity and promoting the livelihood of indigenous peoples, indigenous cultures are seen as valuable to the social, anthropological, and geographical composition and diversity of humankind.
Indigenous cultures are important to their people and governments.
The current research of McSweeney is an example.
The cultural and economic livelihood of the Miskito Indians along the Caribbean coastal region of Honduras are investigated by her.
The Miskito live in a tropical forest region that is under threat from a number of development interests, including plantation agriculture for crops such as bananas and sugar, and land development for new towns, mining, and ranching.
McSweeney's research shows that there is continuous encroachment on the traditional territory of these indigenous people.
The Miskito will continue to suffer from the loss of their indigenous territory and culture if official protections are not instituted by the Honduran government.
Cultural globalization can harm indigenous cultures and threaten the constitution of national cultures.
A number of influences such as literature, music, motion pictures, the Internet, and satellite and cable television, mainly from English-language sources, combine to diminish and potentially eliminate the media and culture of other linguistic groups.
Many unique cultures around the world are threatened by globalizing factors such as architecture, transportation infrastructure, food retailing, clothing styles, and the missionary efforts of proselytic religions.
When people are fully immersed in popular culture, they are denying the importance of their own ethnic culture.
Traditions can be lost and forgotten over time.
People who lose their heritage connection are also losing part of their personal connection to nature.
The social and psychological problems that can be caused by this can be better understood by psychologists.
Culture has value.
By protecting national cultures from the negative effects of globalization, a nation can promote its own cultural economy and products from creative arts and media.
These artistic products can be a draw for cultural tourism.
Large amounts of employment and value can be generated by whole media industries.
Bollywood is a movie industry based in Mumbai, India.
The release of the film Slumdog Millionaire generated its own global economic presence with theater receipts over $50 million by early 2009, and the Academy Award for Best Picture.
A number of national governments around the world have instituted laws and regulations to combat the negative effects of cultural globalization.
Laws and regulations can limit the amount of foreign media and other cultural influences.
There are attempts to ban external cultural influence.
The French government has taken a number of steps to limit the amount of English-language films and television programs released or broadcast in France.
The French government provides funding to develop and promote French-language media for internal release and export.
The goal of these media exports is to push back against the English-dominated global media.
Special funding for French-Canadian media is provided by the Canadian and Quebecois governments.
Bhutan has a number of limits on the import of foreign media.
Bhutan restricts the number of entrance visas for foreigners due to its location in the foothills of the Himalayas.
This is an effort by the royal government to preserve the ancient Buddhist culture and protect its people from the influence of popularized global media brought in and demanded by foreign visitors.
Unfortunately, cultural conflicts are still with us today.
There are cultural conflicts that do not lead to violence or armed conflict.
In a number of cases, bloodshed has been caused by cultural differences of people in the same region.
There have been bloody armed conflicts in places such as the former Yugoslavia and the Caucasus Mountains.
Differences in language or religion are just some of the differences that can lead to war.
The post-World War I Treaty of Versailles created the former Yugoslavia.
There was no such thing as a Yugoslav prior to that time.
There were many different ethnic groups in this part of the Balkans, including Serbs, Croats, Bosnian Muslims, Bosnians, Montenegrins, Kosovars, and Macedonians.
In World War I, the victors of Britain, France, and the United States decided to put them all together as one state.
The idea was short-lived.
There was a power vacuum after the death of the country's long time Communist leader, Josip Tito.
During World War II, he fought alongside Serbians against the Germans.
He was a representation of an artificial Yugoslav identity which existed before the 20th century.
After his death, people and politicians began to argue about ethnic and religious issues.
Croats are mostly Roman Catholic.
Eastern Orthodox Christians are Serbians.
Christianity and Serbo-Croatian language are very different from each other.
There was fighting in northern Yugoslavia in 1989.
Croats forced Serbs out of Serbian enclaves in Croatia and Serbs did the same in northern Serbia.
The first mention of the term ethnic cleansing is here, where people of one ethnic group are eliminated by another, often under threat of violence or death.
By 1990 fighting and ethnic cleansing had erupted in Bosnia between ethnic Croats, Serbs, and Bosnian Muslims, despite the fact that the conflict was quickly resolved by international diplomacy.
Thousands of men and boys were executed in Bosnia for being potential war brides.
The war was stopped by the Dayton Peace Accords.
There are roughly 20,000 foreign troops in Bosnia and Kosovo.
Several political and military leaders have been charged with war crimes in Bosnia.
The leader of the Bosnian Serbs was arrested in late 2008 after living in disguise for several years.
He is accused of ordering the genocide of Bosnian Muslim males in Srebrenica.
A large-scale killing of people of one ethnic group has been seen in a number of ethnic conflicts.
Six million Jews were killed in the Holocaust by the Nazis in World War II.
More recent cases involve the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people in 1994.
The situation in the west Sudanese province of Darfur, where Christians and others have been killed by Muslim militia groups known as Janjaweed, has been referred to as genocide today.
Culture is a source of conflict in Chapter 6.
The Human Mosaic is a cultural geography book.
Also see Cultural Geography in Practice by Pyrs Gruffudd.
A group of people with a common heritage share experiences, behaviors, and practices.
Language, religion, folklore, and various forms of the arts are included in the cultural landscape.
There are several major families and groups based on their prehistoric roots.
dialects can carry vastly different accents and vocabularies.
These distributions and patterns can be seen on maps, charts, or language trees on the AP Exam.
Universalizing religions accept followers from all ethnicities and cultures, and so may spread, depending on their expanse and openness.
There are three major world religious traditions, which can be broken down further into major religious groups.
Hinduism and Buddhism are polytheistic and believe that one's soul is reincarnated into different levels of existence.
It is important that you understand the difference between race and ethnicity, which is a blend of common genetic heritage and cultural identity.
Racist forms of oppression and suffering have been used to justify the categorization of racial groups in the 1800s.
Unlike other types of regions, cultural regions have fuzzy borders.
The culture of a region contributes to a strong sense of place.
We often think of ancient cultures such as Mesopotamia, but contemporary cultures exist as well.
Folk and popular cultures are at odds due to cultural globalization.
Folk culture is based in the traditions of a specific region, popular culture is changeable and contemporary, and may diffuse globally.
The local folk culture can be in danger when this happens.
There are answers and explanations at the end of this chapter.
A saltbox home has a long pitched roof in front and a low-angle roof in the back.
Make sure you qualify all of the clues in the question stem, as a Cape Cod house, (A), has a pitched roof, but not the other identifying features.
Classical Greek and Roman designs can be found in both Georgian and Federalist homes, as well as an I-house with chimneys on opposite ends of an evenly pitched roof.
The minarets are narrow towers that are pointed at the top of the mosque.
The architecture of the other religions does not include minarets, so (C) is the only valid answer.
Land surveys that use natural landscape features to divide up land are a system of metes and bounds.
India has a social hierarchy system called the caste system.
Belief systems have to do with religions, which should be irrelevant to a land division question.
Blending two or more cultural influences is called cultural synthesis.
The African slave rhythms and Scots-Irish song structures that blended to form American blues are examples of bringing two styles of music together.
Mosques have minarets, while Hindu shrines have rectangular-shaped main bodies and short towers of carved stone.
The steeple, bell tower, and cross-shaped floor plan are found in all cathedrals.
Because of the constraints of anti-Semitism, Jewish synagogues follow no single design.
The answer is correct.
The Altaic language family is named after the Altaic Mountains.
The experts believe that both languages are descended from the same language that existed thousands of years ago.
Korean and Japanese are both descended from Chinese, according to the speakers.
Urdu is a descendant of Farsi, the Iranian language, and he is one of the members of the Niger-Congo family.
They are members of the Sino-Tibetan family.
Several campaigns of slaughter have been conducted by Buddhist monks, who are associated with non-violence.
Both traditions believe in reincarnation, which can be defined as a higher plane of existence and continued life after death.
Indonesia is the largest Islamic country in the world.
Abrahamic religions are monotheistic, while Hindu-Buddhist countries are polytheistic.
A creole is a people or culture that is derived from European, African, and local indigenous groups.
African slaves were either shipped to other countries or died off in Argentina, which was colonized by Spanish and Italians.
The native population was wiped out by the European colonists.
The country claims 98% European descent.
The answer is correct.
Traditional architecture went all the way back to the Greeks, the Romans, and up through more recent folk styles such as Cape Cod, Federalist, and I-house design.
Designers such as Frank Gehry reject it completely.
When France was considered to be the most powerful cultural hub of the world, the termlingua franca was used.
French was used as a language to communicate with other foreign languages because of its perceived high value.
English is the global lingua franca.
A place that can boast a single product that is grown there, such as wine or ham, is called an "AOC of origin".
A pizza is made out of many different ingredients in a kitchen and then baked.