As the United States has grown as a world leader, the power and influence of the president has increased.
Washington, Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, Franklin Roosevelt, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Reagan, and George W. Bush are some of the presidents who have demonstrated leadership.
Even though Nixon resigned in disgrace as a result of the Watergate affair and Bush was not reelected, all the presidents listed dominated the national scene because of perceived leadership during times of national emergencies.
Kennedy's New Frontier and the way in which he stood up to Russia during the Cuban Missile Crisis strengthened the institution.
Many of Roosevelt's New Deal programs were compared to Lyndon Johnson's Great Society programs.
Johnson decided not to seek another term when the country became involved in the Vietnam War.
The end of the Vietnam War, the detente with the Soviet Union, and the diplomatic recognition of China contributed to Nixon's presidency.
Reagan and Bush were credited with ending the cold war.
During the time of the demise of the Soviet Union, George H. W. Bush's vision of a New World Order put the presidency in the middle of crucial policy-making decisions.
The longest period of economic prosperity in United States history was part of Clinton's legacy.
The president who responded to the attacks of 9/11 was George W. Bush.
The order to kill Osama Bin Laden was given by Barack Obama.
Ronald Reagan is the only president since John F. Kennedy to make the top ten.
In a study done in 2008, Truman and Eisenhower were included in the top ten.
The president must faithfully execute the laws of the nation.
The president has organized the executive department into three areas--the cabinet, the executive office, and the White House staff.
The size and scope of the executive department is increased by the administrative responsibilities of these departments.
Presidential appointments have determined the nature of presidential administrations.
The increase of presidential power can be attributed to the growth of the executive departments.
Every Administration since George Washington instituted the cabinet has had one.
Andrew Jackson's Kitchen Cabinet is an unofficial advisor.
Cabinet appointees need to be confirmed by the Senate.
There are 19 cabinet level positions.
Congress needs to approve the creation or abolition of these agencies.
The Secretary of War's name was changed to the Secretary of Defense.
National issues such as the environment, energy, and education are placed high on the national agenda and have led to the creation of cabinet agencies.
The Office of Management and Budget, the Director of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Vice President, the United States Trade Representative, the Ambassador to the United Nations, and the Chair of the Council of Economic Advisors are now part of the Cabinet.
The Director of Homeland Security was added to the cabinet in 2002.
The vice president is a member of the cabinet.
Cabinet officials come from all walks of life.
They include lawyers, government officials, educators, and business executives.
The president has friends and associates in the cabinet.
Robert Kennedy was a relative of the president.
The practice was stopped by law.
Cabinet officials have been used by presidents.
The Attorney General was Nixon's campaign manager.
The American public scrutinizes cabinets to see if they represent a cross section of the population.
It was only recently that full minority representation in the cabinet became a common practice.
In Franklin Roosevelt's administration, the first woman to be appointed to a cabinet was, of course, Frances Hopkins.
Cabinet nominees were turned down by the Senate.
George Bush's appointment of Texas Senator John Tower was defeated by the Senate due to accusations that Tower was a womanizer, had drinking problems, and had potential conflict of interest problems with defense contractors.
President Clinton had trouble getting the approval of his cabinet appointees.
The first woman Attorney General was nominated.
Clinton was forced to withdraw his nomination because of the allegations of hiring an illegal alien as a nanny.
How much reliance should be placed on the cabinet, whether a cabinet should be allowed to offer differing points of view, and how frequently cabinet meetings should be held are some of the issues facing a president.
Each cabinet member is responsible for implementing policy in each area.
After Barack Obama was elected president, he established new vetting procedures for his appointees.
No former lobbyist could serve in an office that the lobbyist had tried to influence.
Many of Obama's cabinet appointees ran into difficulty after they were nominated.
The Secretary of Health and Human Services had to withdraw because of late tax payments.
The Treasury Secretary had tax-related issues as well.
Two people withdrew after being nominated.
Obama's cabinet was described as a modern "team of rivals" because it included political opponents from the presidential campaign, notably Senator Hillary Clinton, who he defeated in the primaries.
The executive office of the president is separate from the cabinet.
Franklin Roosevelt created it in 1939.
The National Security Council is chaired by the president and is the lead advisory board in the area of national and international security.
The vice president and secretaries of state and defense are also members of the council.
The president has a national security advisor.
The Iran-Contra operations, which attempted to obtain hostages for arms, were conducted by the council under President Reagan.
The mismanagement of this operation resulted in accusations that the president violated congressional acts.
Leading economists are members of the Council of Economic Advisors.
They are approved by the Senate and used to prepare the Economic Report to Congress.
The economic state of the nation is outlined in this report.
The OMB is the largest agency in the executive office.
The director is responsible for the preparation of the federal budget, which must be submitted to Congress in January each year.
The OMB is in charge of congressional appropriations.
It is a key agency because of its policy-making ability.
The president's direct link to other agencies is also provided by the department.
The executive office added the Office of National Drug Control Policy.
The director is appointed by the president and approved by the Senate.
The nation's drug czar is the head of the agency.
Recommendations on how to combat the problem of drug abuse are the responsibility of the agency.
Other federal agencies have policies in this area.
Other departments in the executive office include the Office of Policy Development, the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the Council on Environmental Quality, the Office of Administration, and the Office of the United States Trade Representative.
The newest addition to the cabinet is the Office of Homeland Security.
The Office of Homeland Security was created after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.
Each agency is responsible for making policy recommendations to the president.
In the summer of 2004, the 9/11 presidential commission held hearings and issued a report that recommended the creation of a new National Counter-terrorism Center headed by the director of national intelligence.
The bill, which was supported by a majority of Democrats, passed both houses of Congress in a last-minute session.
The director of the new counterterrorism center was appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate.
The director was given broad powers.
The new director and the agency have the responsibility of working with the Department of Homeland Security and becoming a link between federal and state agencies.
The law expanded the security system for airlines and other areas not previously covered such as transportation threats, ports, and illegal immigrants.
The Privacy and Civil Liberties Board is made up of private citizens who are appointed by the president to make sure that the security policies of the federal government do not violate the civil liberties of Americans.
The White House staff directly advises the president on a daily basis.
Critics say that the Chief of Staff has too much power and often controls the president's schedule.
H. R. Haldeman kept a diary.
It showed the close relationship between the president and his Chief of Staff as well as the influence the Chief of Staff has on policy formation.
More than 600 people work at the White House, from the chef to the advance people who make travel arrangements.
The political offices of the Office of Communications, Legislative Affairs, Political Affairs, and Intergovernmental Affairs are some of the key staff departments.
The support services of Scheduling, Personnel, and Secret Service and the policy offices of the National Security Affairs, Domestic Policy Affairs, and cabinet secretaries are included.
Each plays an important role in making the White House run smoothly.
The first lady and vice president have their own staff.
Each of the president's wives has a say in the role of the nation's first lady.
The Health Care Reform Task Force was chaired by Hillary Clinton, who moved from the traditional office in the White House reserved for the first lady to the working wing where other White House staff members work.
Mrs. Clinton became the country's first lady after the failed healthcare bill.
During Clinton's second administration, this role continued.
During the Whitewater investigation, Mrs. Clinton testified.
There were no charges brought against her.
Mrs. Clinton used the theme of her book to advocate for children's causes.
Mrs. Clinton was the only first lady to run for office.
In 2000 she was elected to the Senate by the voters of New York and in 2008 she was a presidential candidate.
Laura Bush followed in her husband's footsteps by taking up the causes of preventing childhood obesity and working with veterans and their families.
The nation's chief executive has an indirect role.
The scope of the presidency is defined by the duties of chief legislator, head of party, chief of state, and chief diplomat.
The power of the presidency depends on the skills of the person in office.
There is a direct relationship between each role and the policymaking body.
The skills and ability to use these roles result in a shared power relationship.
The president has shared powers with the other government and political institutions.
Legislative skills and a shared relationship with Congress are developed by the president as chief legislator.
The president works closely with Congress to develop a legislative agenda.
Different presidents developed different styles in this area.
When Johnson assumed the office after Kennedy's assassination, he already had the skills to work with Congress.
He achieved a lot of success with his programs.
Carter did not implement his agenda and was unable to work with congressional leaders.
Clinton used his support staff and developed a working relationship with his own party leaders who held a majority in each house.
The Family and Medical Leave Act, a National Service Program, Americorp, and the Crime Bill were some of the legislation he was able to push through.
The president's legislative agenda was incomplete if Democrats held a majority.
George H. W. Bush used a veto 45 times.
George W. Bush had to work with a divided Congress when he was elected president.
Bush was able to push his legislative agenda through Congress after the Republicans took control of both houses of Congress.
The No Child Left Behind legislation that helped reform the nation's schools was passed by Bush and the Democrats.
Bush had to deal with the Democrats in the House and Senate after the 2006 election.
He faced criticism for the Iraq War.
Barack Obama used his political capital to pass a bill that reformed the nation's healthcare system.
The veto is used by the president to influence Congress.
Over 1,454 regular vetoes and less than 200 have been overridden by Congress.
Franklin Roosevelt had the most vetoes, followed by Grover Cleveland and Harry Truman.
A president can use a pocket veto.
If the president does not sign a bill within ten days, the Congress will adjourn.
Over a thousand times, this tactic has been used.
One of the reasons why the pocket veto is used is that there is a rush to pass legislation at the time of planned recess.
Some presidents attempt to get a line item veto.
There are often riders attached to bills.
These riders, often in the form of appropriations, sometimes have nothing to do with the intent of the bill itself and are often considered to be pork barrel legislation.
The president would normally veto the legislation.
The Supreme Court ruled that legislative vetoes of presidential actions are unconstitutional.
Congress has oversight over the intelligence agencies.
President Clinton signed a line item veto law in 1994.
The purpose of the line item veto was to let the president strike individual items from the 13 major appropriations bills submitted by Congress that he considered wasteful spending.
The law was intended to stop Congress from increasing appropriations with pork.
The law was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court because it expanded the president's veto power.
The president is the only elected official.
The Speaker of the House and the majority and minority leaders of the Senate and House are elected by their own parties.
The president has a lot of power in setting his agenda if he is a member of the majority party.
The president will make an argument to the congressional party leaders that their support will make or break the presidency.
This kind of pressure was put on the Democratic Party by Bill Clinton.
The president can send a message to Congress by taking away funds.
The president refused to release appropriated funds.
The practice was used by President Nixon.
The 1974 Congressional Budget and Impoundment Act was passed by Congress to retaliate.
The checks and balances scale was shifted to Congress by this act.
Even though he does not have the power to appoint congressmen to committees, the president can influence a party member by promising to support pet legislation of the congressman in return for voting in favor of legislation supported by the president.
The ability of the president to protect personal material has been interpreted by the president.
Because the definition of executive privilege is not written, President Nixon did not succeed in protecting the tapes from the congressional committee investigating potential obstruction of justice charges.
National security is one area of potential conflict between the president and Congress.
The commander in chief of the armed forces is the person who can make treaties with other nations and appoint ambassadors to nations that are recognized.
The Senate must approve treaties by a two-thirds margin and approve presidential appointments by a majority vote.
The appointment with the senator of the state is the most important part of the judicial process.
Even if there is some minor objection from other senators, this kind of "senatorial courtesy" often guarantees the acceptance of an appointment.
The 1962 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and the 2010 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty are examples of the president working with the Congress.
As commander in chief of the armed forces and chief diplomat, the president has the power to appoint ambassadors and negotiate treaties.
The Senate has the power to approve appointments and must ratify treaties, as well as having the power to declare war, support and maintain an armed force through appropriations.
Specific policy is made through the bureaucratic agencies of the executive branch and the oversight responsibilities of Congress.
The State Department and the Defense Department are both run by civilians and are used by the president for advice.
The Director of the National Intelligence, CIA, FBI, and Homeland Security are some of the people he relies on.
The president and the secretary of defense are both in charge of military affairs.
The agency is in charge of the massive defense budget and three major branches of the military.
The joint chiefs of staff are in charge of direct military command.
It is chaired by a member of the military and made up of representatives from each of the military services.
During the Gulf War, General Colin Powell was a key player giving advice to the President and the Secretary of Defense.
After his book was published, he was urged to run for president because of his leadership during the Gulf War.
The secretary of state is in charge of the diplomatic arm of the executive branch and supervises a department with over 24,000 people.
The department includes many ambassadors who are the country's chief spokesmen abroad, as well as specialists in such areas as Middle East affairs.
A successful foreign policy can be mapped out with the help of the secretary of state.
John Foster Dulles was Eisenhower's secretary of state.
The policy of brinkmanship was endorsed by Dulles in order to contain communism.
The first woman Secretary of State was appointed by Clinton at the start of his second term.
The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act.
The national security advisor was created.
Henry Kissinger was one of the most notable people to head the agency.
The foundation of Nixon's policy to end the Vietnam War was laid by Kissinger.
Condoleezza Rice was a national security advisor to George W. Bush.
She was the first African-American woman to serve as Secretary of State during Bush's second term.