Several components helped explain the new and troubling outbreak of ethnic rivalries.
The potential for group identities to generate hostilities was increased by new levels of global interaction.
Some groups have increased their investment in ethnic identity in order to counter outside influences.
As the hold of the classic nation-state declined, a number of ethnic groups developed new opportunities for expression.
Scottish and Welsh governments were given limited powers by the British government.
France and Spain became more tolerant of linguistic minorities.
During the 1990s, a number of European countries saw the rise of new political movements bent on reducing immigration in favor of protecting jobs and cultural identity for the majority national group.
The National Front won up to 10 percent of the votes in France in the mid 1990s.
Austria's national government was hostile to immigrants.
New barriers against immigrants were discussed by leaders in Italy, the Netherlands, and France.
Turks in Germany were the target of repeated violence.
In the 1990s a set of far bloodier conflicts broke out in central Africa, pitting tribal groups, the Hutus and the Tutsis, against each other.
1900-Present outnumbered by resentful Hutus is the newest stage of world history.
Uganda's intervention contributed to the confusion.
Hundreds of thousands were killed and many more were driven from their homes.
There was no decisive outside intervention after the Organization of African States and the United Nations urged peace.
Civil war continued in central Africa despite the fact that bloodshed had ended.
There were battles between government forces and various groups in Sudan, as well as warfare between military gangs in countries like Sierra Leone and Liberia.
Sudanese conflicts resulted in over 2 million killed, and endemic warfare in the Congo killed almost the same number, in which activities by neighboring states as well as internal ethnic struggle intensified the problems.
The conflicts were accompanied by massive displacements of refugees.
Ethnic tensions were leading to acts of genocide that targeted whole populations of civilians, including women and children.
In some instances, violence seemed threatening to major powers, though never without great hesitation.
There were no policies that promised to push back the potential for ethnic conflict.
The United States did not have a clear military competitor because of the decline of Russian power.
As oil revenues increased in the 21st century, its role expanded.
The global military presence was reduced.
The U.S. military commitment remained high.
The nation spent more on defense by 2005 than the next 25 countries combined.
Many people were worried about the level of American power.
China's growing power in the global economy was one of the reasons why it increased its military arsenal.
Periodic collaborations among powers like China, Russia, and Iran did not lead to permanent alignments.
European countries were allied with the United States.
The success of the European China is being held back.
What feelings do you have about the United States?
Expansion to 25 members was a key move.
An ambitious EU constitution that might provide more coordination in foreign affairs was criticized in 2005 by nations concerned about their own independence of action.
The whole project was in doubt after France and Hol voted against it.
The EU was a major economic force, but it was not as strong as the American military.
Between 1991 and 2008 American power was not overthrown.
Americans debated how much they should try to police regional conflicts, with some questioning the idea of being a global enforcer.
The United States pulled out of a military intervention in 1993 to stop civil unrest in the country.
U.S. leaders were able to tell other parts of the world how to organize their societies.
Business and political experts agree that the U.S. model of a free market economy should be widely adopted.
The U.S. leaders were worried about medium-sized powers that might develop nuclear weapons or sponsor terrorism.
Efforts to mobilize the world community against countries like Iran, Iraq, and North Korea had varying degrees of success, suggesting some limits to American influence if not its direct military strength.
Despite international support, Treaties designed to protect the environment or prevent the use of land mines were rejected.
These gestures of independence were criticized in various parts of the world.
Since the 1960s, American interests have been targets of terrorist attacks.
The hijacking of airplanes and other moves expressed hostility to the U.S. policies.