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20.7 Batteries: Using Chemistry to Generate
The oxidation of ethyl alcohol to acetic of ethyl alcohol in the breath is proportional to the amount of acid and water in the bloodstream.
A higher current results in higher alcohol levels.
The fuel-cell breathalyzer works by turning ethyl alcohol into acetic acid.
The electrical current is proportional to the amount of alcohol in the breath.
In the space shuttle program, hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells consume hydrogen to provide electricity and astronauts drink the water that is produced by the reaction.
A more readily available source of hydrogen is needed in order for hydrogen-powered fuel cells to become more widely used.
An electrical current can be produced in a voltaic cell.
One way to get hydrogen from water is through solar-powered electrolysis.
When the sun is shining, a solar-powered electrolytic cell can produce hydrogen from water.
The hydrogen made in this way could be used to power fuel-cell vehicles.
There are many other applications of lysis.
Most metals are found in the Earth's crust.
A nonspontaneous process is needed to convert an oxide to a pure metal.
These metals can be produced using lysis.
The production of sodium is done by the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride.
It is possible to plate metals onto other metals.
A silver electrode is placed in the cell.
An external power source can be used to drive current flow.
Water can be converted into hydrogen and oxygen gas.
Silver can be plated from a solution of silver ion onto metallic objects.
The reaction proceeds in a Zn/Cu voltaic cell.
The specific half-reactions affect the required voltage.
The anode has become the cathode in the electrolytic cell.
The cathode is labeled with a positive charge because it draws electrons.
The charge labels on an electrolytic cell are different from the charge labels on a voltaic cell.
There is a reduction at the cathode.
The cathode has a positive charge.
The negative termi nal of the power source is where the electrons are forced to the cathode.
The cell is capable of producing a positive voltage.
The electrons travel from the anode to the cathode.
There isOxidation at the cathode.
In the electrolysis of a pure molten salt, the anion is straightforward and in other cases more complex.
There are only two species present in the cell.
The highest oxidation state of the sodium ion is the one that needs to be reduced.
To answer this question, we need to know which of the two cations is easier to reduce.
The relative ease with which the metal cations are reduced is reflected in the relative ordering of the electrode potentials.
It is easier to reduce Na+ than K+.
Na+ has a tendency to be reduced at the cathode.
The negative potential of the bromine half-reaction makes it easier to extract electrons.
The bromide ion oxidizes at the anode.
The cation that is easiest to reduce is the one with the more positive potential.
It's difficult to lysis in a solution that has water in it.
The concentrations of H+ and OH- are not standard in pure water.
The potentials for [H+] and [OH-] are shown in blue.
When a battery with a potential of several volts is connected to an electrolysis cell containing pure water, there is no reaction because the concentration of ion in the water is too low.
When an electrolyte such as Na2SO4 is added to the water, it can occur quickly.
In any solution in which water is to be used, it is possible for it to be ionized.
We can easily predict that I- is reduced at the anode and that Na+ is reduced at the cathode.
The ion is oxidation at the anode.
The one that accepts electrons more easily is H potential.
Li+, K+, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Al3+ can't be reduced by electrolysis because water is reduced at a lower voltage.
An additional voltage must be applied to the water.
Predict the half-reaction occurring at the anode and the half-reaction occurring at the cathode for each reaction.
The mixture contains two cations.
The reduction of Al3+ is more positive than the reduction of Mg2+.
One that occurs more easily is the one that actually occurs potential.
The reduction of Al3+ has a more positive potential in the solution.
The reduction of Al3+ takes place at the cathode.
Different oxidation half-reactions are possible at the anode, the oxidation of I- and the oxidation of water.
It is the Reduction that causes the necessary voltage to be raised by about 0.4-0.6 V.
Predict the half-reactions at the anode and the cathode.
The copper is plated onto other metals.
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